Antropologia

Entrevista a Elisenda Ardèvol: “Las nuevas tecnologías digitales forman parte de nuestro proceso de producción cultural”

La Maestría de Antropología Visual de la Escuela de Posgrado de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) organizó la semana pasada el seminario “Diversidad cultural y nuevas tecnologías”, en el cual especialistas de Iberoamérica presentaron casos de estudio y definieron una agenda de investigación sobre antropología visual y de los medios, con miras a la conformación de una red de intercambio científico y docente orientada al estudio de la diversidad cultural. Conversamos con la doctora Elisenda Ardèvol acerca del uso de la imagen y las nuevas tecnologías en la antropología de hoy.

ANTES LA ORALIDAD BASTABA PARA PRESERVAR LA HISTORIA, COSTUMBRES Y TRADICIÓN DE LOS PUEBLOS. LUEGO, LA ESCRITURA TOMÓ MAYOR PREPONDERANCIA EN ESTA ACCIÓN Y HOY ESTAMOS EN LA ERA DE LAS IMÁGENES…

La imagen ha pasado a ser un elemento de comunicación cotidiano y prioritario en muchos sentidos. Prácticamente todo el mundo tiene acceso a la cámara fotográfica a través del móvil, ya no solo es un instrumento de tecnología de los fotógrafos o de los científicos sociales. Lo visual está inmerso en nuestra propia producción cultural y como tal es un objeto de estudio de la antropología porque nos comunicamos a través de las imágenes, con diversas utilidades. Y por otra parte, es también una técnica de investigación de la antropología.

¿HAY UNA METODOLOGÍA ELABORADA PARA EMPLEAR LA FOTOGRAFÍA, EL CINE O EL VIDEO DENTRO DEL ESTUDIO ANTROPOLÓGICO O SE ADECUA DE ACUERDO A LOS REQUERIMIENTOS DE CADA INVESTIGACIÓN?

La cámara debería acompañar al antropólogo al trabajo de campo, de la misma manera que lleva un lápiz y un papel. La forma de tomar datos, de observar la realidad con el registro visual es un método de trabajo esencial en el campo de la antropología y debería ser ya una práctica cotidiana presente en todos los procesos de investigación, de una forma tan habitual como la escritura.

SI BIEN ES CIERTO QUE LA SUBJETIVIDAD ES UN FACTOR INSEPARABLE CUANDO SE OPERAN EQUIPOS AUDIOVISUALES, ¿SE PUEDE CONTROLAR SU INFLUENCIA?

La subjetividad no es mala y menos si está trabajada y fundamentada, si parte de un análisis antropológico. La cámara antropológica debe ser una cámara de autor, una cámara que no busque captar la realidad objetiva que está allí afuera, sino una cámara implicada, con problemas teóricos y cuestiones epistemológicas que el autor debe expresar. La subjetividad del antropólogo debe estar activa en la producción de imagen y de conocimiento tal como lo hace a través del texto.

EN EL MUNDO MULTIMEDIÁTICO E INTERACTIVO EN EL QUE VIVIMOS, ¿CÓMO SE ESTÁN INCORPORANDO INTERNET, LAS REDES SOCIALES Y LAS NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN A ESTE ESTUDIO?

En cualquier campo en el que nos centremos, las tecnologías juegan un papel que no podemos determinar a priori. Cuando se empezó a estudiar la influencia de las nuevas tecnologías en nuestras sociedades, se partió de una diferencia “radical” entre el mundo virtual y el mundo real, había una dicotomía entre el online y el offline. Se creía que las relaciones virtuales no eran tan auténticas ni fundamentadas como las mediadas. Estudios etnográficos demostraron que esa dicotomía no siempre funciona ni era percibida como tal por la gente, sino que los espacios sociales que la gente crea permea los mundos donde se interactúa.

Las nuevas tecnologías digitales forman parte de nuestro proceso de producción cultural. Por lo tanto, el antropólogo de hoy no puede mantenerse al margen y seguir estudiando las realidades culturales como si estos artefactos no existieran. De una u otra manera, prácticamente la comunicación digital forma parte de todas nuestras sociedades y hay que integrarla en nuestros objetos de estudio.

¿LOS PROGRAMAS DE TELEVISIÓN Y LAS PELÍCULAS TAMBIÉN PODRÍAN SER CONSIDERADOS COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICOS? ¿DESDE LA FICCIÓN, CONTRIBUYEN A LA DESCRIPCIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LA REALIDAD HUMANA?

Sí, claro. Son datos de nuestra cultura, están indicando muchas cosas de nosotros mismos. Es un campo poco trabajado el análisis antropológico de la ficción. Pero ¿cómo afrontar estos objetos de estudio? Una manera fácil sería desde una perspectiva semiótica o textual: ver cómo se reproducen en las series de ficción las relaciones de clase o de género, cómo se propone un modelo de sociedad futura, qué temores reflejan, etc. El reto de una antropología de los medios sería no quedarse solo en el análisis textual o de la representación sino también de las prácticas, cómo se articulan estas ficciones en el mundo que vivimos.

¿EL GRADO DE DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL QUE SE PRESENTA EN LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN ES INVERSAMENTE PROPORCIONAL A LOS PREJUICIOS Y AL RACISMO DE LA SOCIEDAD A LA QUE PERTENECE?

Sí. Los estereotipos cumplen la función social de legalizar y justificar determinadas estructuras sociales que llevamos incorporados en nuestras prácticas cotidianas de manera tan habitual que no nos damos cuenta de que caemos en ellos. Los grandes medios de comunicación responden a políticas de representación de las diferencias culturales en términos étnicos, pero no me gustaría criminalizarlos y decir que son culpables de esto.

En ese sentido, nuestra labor como antropólogos es doble: primero, analizar cuáles son los mecanismos que estructuran estas relaciones sociales sin responsabilizar a los consumidores ni a las empresas ni a los publicistas. Y por otro lado, ejercer de críticos culturales, trabajar de forma participativa junto con los profesionales que laboran en los medios para ver cómo se manejan esos estereotipos y reflexionar al respecto.

¿QUÉ PODRÍAMOS ESPERAR A FUTURO DE LA ANTROPOLOGÍA VISUAL?

La antropología visual es un campo de estudio muy complejo que se inserta en la antropología social y cultural en su conjunto. Se propone como una especialización interdisciplinaria cuyo campo de acción debe replantearse en tanto que el objeto visual está cambiando de forma (ya no es solo un objeto de papel, sino que circula en múltiples formatos).

Uno de sus retos es ver cómo emergen nuevas prácticas con lo visual en nuestras sociedades; por ejemplo, el intercambio de fotografías en Facebook que ya no es solo cumple un rol de representación o de memoria, sino que tiene una función conectiva y fáctica de mantener un lazo social. Por otra parte, debe conectarse también con lo que es la antropología de los medios, entendiendo no solo a los medios de comunicación de masas, a las grandes corporaciones, sino también la producción de imágenes realizadas por la gente. No se puede desligar la antropología visual de la antropología de los medios ni de la antropología digital.

¿CUÁL ES LA PROPUESTA DEL PROYECTO VISUALIDADES COMPARTIDAS, PRESENTADO A LA AGENCIA ESPAÑOLA DE COOPERACIÓN PARA EL DESARROLLO (AECID)?

Es un espacio de reflexión sobre lo visual y lo digital en el que estamos participando cuatro universidades: la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, la Universidad de Buenos Aires y la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Como observador está presente FLACSO Ecuador y la idea es ir ampliando la red también a Ecuador, Chile y Brasil. Estamos reunidos aquí en Perú para preparar una acción que coordine a distintas universidades de Iberoamérica en una red investigativa y en una red docente para ayudarnos mutuamente en promocionar cursos y materiales audiovisuales, generar sinergias compartidas y potenciar una antropología visual y de los medios.

51 comments

  1. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  2. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  3. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  4. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  5. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  6. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  7. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  9. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  10. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  11. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  12. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  13. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  14. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  15. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  16. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  17. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  19. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  20. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  21. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  22. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  23. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  24. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  25. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  26. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  27. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  28. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  29. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  30. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  32. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  33. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  34. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  35. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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