Història

Els fets del 6 d’octubre

Els fets del 6 d’octullibrebre de 1934 són un d’aquells esdeveniments històrics incòmodes. Entre d’altres raons, perquè malgrat els anys passats, no estem davant d’una simple disquisició entre historiadors i erudits, sinó davant d’un mite encara avui present en el debat polític, ideològic i institucional. L’aparició del llibre del jove historiador Manel López Esteve (Lleida, 1981), Els fets del 6 d’octubre de 1934 (Editorial Base, Barcelona, 2013) ens permet acostar-nos d’una forma rigorosa a uns esdeveniments molt més polièdrics del què sempre se’ns havia dit.

Fins ara, aquelles jornades havien estat interpretades de forma bastant esbiaixada. D’una banda, les esquerres, els republicans i tots aquells que es consideraven (i consideren) hereus de la Segona República espanyola hi passaven de puntetes. De l’altra, el revisionisme neofranquista edificava sobre ells la justificació del posterior aixecament i guerra civil de 1936.

Pels primers, es convertia en una mena de recurs retòric amb què rebaixar o advertir contra certes derives polítiques i una exemplificació d’aquella famosa frase del president Josep Tarradellas que en política es pot fer tot, excepte el ridícul. De la primera conclusió en feia la seva tesi principal les memòries recentment recuperades d’Amadeu Hurtado; la segona sempre s’il·lustra amb la cinematogràfica fugida del conseller de Governació i líder dels Escamots d’ERC, Josep Dencàs, per les clavegueres del Palau de la Generalitat.

hurtadoPels revisionistes, el 6 d’octubre els permetia treure la pols als vells mites franquistes i triomfar a les llistes de llibres més venuts. Alhora, el seu empelt amb una part de l’opinió pública espanyola que combrega amb l’al·lèrgia a la diferència, la descentralització o el nacionalisme (el dels altres, lògicament), els ha atorgat una segona vida. Un biaix per res exclusiu de 13TV o del grup Intereconomía, sinó que en diversos graus pot resseguir-se en molts diferents ambients.

Però, què sabem exactament sobre allò succeït ara fa gairebé 80 anys?

Perquè entre el silenci vergonyant d’uns i la lectura interessada dels altres, la recerca empírica és bastant galdosa. El relat simplificat ens parla d’una oposició frontal per part de les esquerres republicanes a acceptar la inclusió de membres de la CEDA (la coalició de dretes liderada per José María Gil Robles, declaradament accidentalista respecte de la concreció de l’Estat i amb algun deix para-feixista en algunes de les seves manifestacions) en el Govern republicà. Una oposició que es concretaria en una vaga general (fracassada), en una revolta institucional a Catalunya (ràpidament controlada i que comportaria la suspensió de les institucions pròpies ) i una insurrecció armada a Astúries (reprimida a sang i foc per les tropes del general Francisco Franco). Tot plegat, per uns un error i per d’altres l’evidència del perill roig.

astúriesL’historiador Manel López fuig des del principi d’aquest maniqueisme interpretatiu. Per començar, fa un doble moviment de focus. Amb el primer s’allunya de l’estricte marc temporal i geogràfic per donar un cop d’ull a allò que succeïa a l’entorn europeu. Això li permet desmuntar la suposada especificitat espanyola i situar-la dins un context d’efervescència político-ideològica, on violència i extremismes no eren estranys. I és que, per desgràcia, sovint rere el tòpic Spain is different s’amaga la ignorància i la desídia.

La mirada enfora ens ajuda també a fugir del presentisme conceptual i de les lectures teleològiques. Com ens recordava lord Dahrendorf poc abans de morir, resulta molt senzill judicar des de la comoditat dels nostres sofàs i amb la certesa sobre quin serà el resultat final. En canvi, ens costa entendre com la por, racional o irracional, esdevé més sovint del què pensem un argument decisiu en la pressa de decisions.

gil-robles-mis-poderes

Cartell electoral de la CEDA per les eleccions de febrer de 1936, Plaça del Sol, Madrid.

De la mateixa manera que, d’aquí a unes dècades, es farà difícil d’entendre les histèries (menors, però histèries, al cap i a la fi) desencadenades pel suposat col·lapse informàtic en arribar l’any 2000 o l’amenaça de pandèmia a causa de la grip A, també ara ens costa posar-nos en la pell de les generacions passades. Tot i que ara pugui semblar-nos gratuïta, la por a la Revolució francesa, a la Comuna de París o a la Revolució russa van constituir elements de pànic real per les classes benestants. Per tant, com estranyar-nos de què davant de la Marxa sobre Roma de Benito Mussolini, de l’ascensió a les cancelleries austríaca i alemanya de Engelbert Dollfuss i Adolf Hitler respectivament, dels moviments d’extrema dreta a centroeuropa, entre d’altres, molts demòcrates, republicans, antifeixistes, anarquistes i/o comunistes no veiessin tot plegat com un preavís?

A aquesta por s’hi sumaven uns partits, un sistema polític i una societat que estaven lluny dels estàndards democràtics, malgrat les seves limitacions, avui habituals. I, sobretot, ens cal recordar que, a diferència de nosaltres, ni sabien ni podien saber el resultat final de les seves decisions, ja que no disposaven de tots els elements. En d’altres paraules, els protagonistes actuaven a partir d’allò que percebien i amb unes expectatives sovint ben diferents d’allò que finalment va passar.

Més endavant, el treball de Manel López acosta el focus fins els pobles i ciutats de Catalunya. Sense oblidar-se de la vessant més institucional i barcelonina del 6 d’octubre, l’historiador pentina desenes d’arxius locals i comarcals, de capçaleres de premsa i revistes, i de fonts diverses. D’aquesta manera, ens acosta un relat que s’allunya de la caricatura transmesa, per uns i altres, d’aquelles jornades.

presóEvidentment, els resultats no canvien: el fracàs, la suspensió de les institucions i el seu posterior ús com argument electoral pels comicis de febrer de 1936 són fets inqüestionables. Però, la correcta contextualització en què tenen lloc, la descripció ajustada dels diferents processos que conflueixen en l’intent insurreccional i una visió més global d’allò succeït ens permet entendre molt millor què va passar.

En resum, estem davant d’un llibre desacomplexat, que no dubta en qüestionar el relat oficial, que no es deixa seduir pel simplisme interpretatiu i que enriqueix la nostra comprensió del propi passat. Un treball que sotscava els complexes d’uns i les falsedats dels altres i que, sobretot, fa un cop d’atenció a qui ha oblidat que fer història significa abans de res pensar històricament.

66 comments

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  2. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  3. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  8. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  9. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  10. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  11. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  12. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  13. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  14. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  15. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  16. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  17. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  18. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  19. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  20. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  21. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  22. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  23. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  24. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  25. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  27. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  28. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  29. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  30. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  31. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  32. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  33. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  35. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  38. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  39. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  40. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  41. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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