Història

Nazismo y clase obrera (1933-1993) de Sergio Bologna. Madrid: Akal, 1999.

Durant més de mig segle, la qüestió alemanya ha estat un dels grans temes de la historiografia actual, el ventall de recerques en aquest àmbit han versat des de l’ampli i sostingut debat sobre la “via especial” o Sonderweg fins a la tesi de la culpa col·lectiva del poble alemany.

31pPcVKeEsL._SL500_AA300_Les anàlisis sobre el nacionalsocialisme segueixen sense esgotar-se i el llibre de Sergio Bologna, Nazismo y classe obrera, ens serveix aquí per il·luminar no només la pertinència dels nous enfocaments historiogràfics que suposen textos com aquest, sinó també, comprendre què context -com bé relata l’autor en un extens pròleg- va permetre l’emergència de tal gir en l’adopció de noves perspectives sobre els anys previs i posteriors a l’ascens d’Hitler al poder. De la mateixa manera, aquesta obra és tot un al·legat a la pertinència d’una historiografia encarregada de desenterrar algunes experiències revolucionàries de l’època que, aombrades per la història oficial, despatxaven els models establerts d’interpretació socialdemòcrates o comunistes que van ser vigents fins a 1989.
En un interessant pròleg, Bologna relata la seva experiència investigadora com a historiador. Exiliat de forma voluntària a terres germanes per prosseguir amb els seus treballs sobre la classe obrera durant el Tercer Reich -sobre la formació dels Arbeiterräte o consells obrers- i en uns anys en els quals Alemanya occidental, al contrari d’Itàlia, va ampliar l’esfera de la democràcia i de l’Estat social.

L’autor assenyala com, després de la Segona Guerra Mundial, es va començar a teixir el relat institucional sobre la història alemanya del segle XX. D’una banda, el discurs acadèmic va seguir centrat en disciplines tals com la història política, la història dels partits i el pensament polític. Per l’altre, i fins als anys 60, la qüestió alemanya seguia ancorada en les visions antitètiques sostingudes pels dos blocs, RDA i Alemanya Occidental. Per exemple, d’aquestes dos perspectives sempre basades en acusacions vàries entre si,  un dels més freqüents enfrontaments versava sobre quin dels dos règims havia heretat les formes totalitàries del Tercer Reich després de la Segona Guerra Mundial. Finalment, el debat historiogràfic que es desprenia d’aquest bipolarisme epistemològic reduïa la qüestió alemanya, fos el que fos el tema específic a treballar, a condemnar la “anarquia” i els radicalismes del desordre perpetrat durant la República de Weimar. Es conformava així una visió consensuada sobre la criminalització en bloc de la societat que va veure emergir el nacionalsocialisme. Aquestes apreciacions, com bé assenyala Bologna, es van concretar tant des de la socialdemocràcia occidental com des de l’estalinisme d’un Lukács purgat ja dels seus excessos juvenils. De tal manera, tot es resumia a condemnar la dissolució de la raó propugnada per la cultura de Weimar.
El que Bologna relata a continuació s’articula no només com a justificació de la seva mirada sobre la resistència obrera a l’ascens dels nazis, sinó com un interessant repàs a com aquest tema va servir i serveix com a baluard crític contra els debats institucionals sobre la culpabilitat “genètica” dels alemanys. En definitiva, l’exercici de memòria històrica dut a terme per l’autor italià emergeix com una forma d’antagonisme vers l’auge del revisionisme històric sorgit després de la caiguda del mur de Berlín.
De fet, el mateix autor havia col·laborat i fundat en algunes de les plataformes que durien a terme el debat històric sobre el obrerisme alemany. Bologna va col·laborar en multitud de revistes que funcionaven  com a laboratoris d’invesntigació històrica: Quaderni Rossi,  Quaderni Piacentini, va fundar Classe Operaia -germen de la corrent autonomista italiana- en uns anys en els quals els moviments estudiantils, sobretot a Alemanya, havien obert la veda a un intens debat teòric, possibilitant la generació d’una nova consciència col·lectiva de la història. En aquell marc es van donar multitud d’innovacions epistemològiques en camps susceptibles de fer-ho  com el de la història social, la història econòmica, la història de la indústria i de la vida quotidiana… L’objectiu d’aquests debats va ser el de fer un “ús públic” de la història i establir un necessari compromís civil del historiador. En tot cas, aquesta tasca crítica, establint nexes entre la consciència del passat i la vida del present, pretenia la reflexió sobre una sèrie de problemàtiques esdevingudes a Itàlia i Alemanya arrel dels canvis estructurals implementats a partir dels anys vuitanta.
En aquest context doncs, i en un intent per superar les perspectives comunistes/socialdemòcrates sobre el període de Weimar i  Tercer Reich, diverses plataformes, entre elles la revista dirigida per Bologna a Itàlia, Primo Maggio i diversos centres socials, van recollir tot un seguit de recerques al marge de l’acadèmia[1]. Com a necessitat política aquests projectes emergien com antagonisme a l’onada de revisionisme històric encapçalat per Ernst Nolte o Rainer Zitelmann. En aquest sentit, les recerques de Primo Maggio incorporaven aquells girs epistemològics emergits durant els anys del moviment estudiantil. Entre d’altres la tasca era recuperar la memòria sobre projectes autogestionaris; l’experiència de les terceres vies; rebutjant la comercialització de l’Holocaust com a article de moda i que Bolgona qualifica d’un “antifeixisme institucional” que despatxa iniciatives de profund rigor historiogràfic dedicades a recuperar les experiències de cultures alternatives de democràcia radical.
Després de la introducció del pròleg, i ja el que és la conferència de Bologna a Milà (1993) sobre nazisme i classe obrera, se’ns proposa un repàs a les recerques que van generar noves contradiccions en l’anomenat camp de la qüestió alemanya.

Específicament, Bologna se centra en el problema de les relacions entre moviment obrer i l’ascens del nazisme. El recorregut s’emprèn des d’un estat de la qüestió que recupera treballs com el de Timothy Mason –Arbeiterklasse und Volksgemeinschaft(1975)- sobre el moviment obrer a partir de documentació inèdita. De fet, el de Mason constitueix una de les crítiques pioneres als relats que han sostingut la resistència passiva o no resistència de la classe treballadora durant l’Alemanya nazi. A més se citen tot un seguit de corrents historiogràfics sobre el tema que van des del treball de Fritz Ficher sobre el continuisme de les institucions i les elits alemanyes des de l’època guillermina fins al període nazi; passant per l’embranzida donada a la història social per Jürgen Kocka i Hans-Ulbrich Wehler i que van impulsar altres perspectives sobre el comportament de la classe treballadora; fins a arribar a articulacions més complexes sobre aquest comportament des de les aproximacions d’Alf Lüdke i Lutz  Niethammer, autors que van treballar des de la història de la vida quotidiana. Aquests últims, al costat de d’altres corrents adscrits al moviment de “els historiadors de base” (Bürgerinitiativen, Alltagshitoriker, Sozialhistoriker…), van permetre superar la definició de classe treballadora com a mera adscripció al partit i al sindicat, oferint una visió menys esquemàtica que analitzava certs comportaments quotidians com a comportaments polítics. És a dir, substituint la idea de classe per la de cultura i ampliant la qüestió del moviment obrer. Aquesta perspectiva metodològica va permetre altres judicis sobre l’actitud del poble alemany que han rebutjat el relat hegemònic de la culpa i de la negació de la resistència activa. Totes aquestes recerques han posat en relleu qüestions abans omeses com la gran fragmentació i estratificació del moviment obrer alemany, la distància entre partit i bases, els nivells de despossessió dels diversos estrats dins del grup de desocupats… Tota una multitud de factors a considerar en l’anàlisi de les relacions entre proletariat i nazisme.
Més enllà del marc teòric, Bologna prossegueix amb la seva recerca sobre l’estructuració de la força de treball alemanya durant el final de la República. Analitza les diverses reformes aplicades per les polítiques industrials que van donar lloc a un major control polític de la força de treball. Afegint complexitat a la pròpia idea de moviment obrer, Bologna no deixa de considerar l’augment de treballadors autònoms; el desmembrament dels quadres sindicals; la gran fracció dels desocupats (30% de la població), especialment, el paper de l’assistència social respecte als aturats de llarg recorregut, no només en el procés de jerarquització i les fractures del moviment obrer sinó també com a sistema de control que va degenerar en l’ulterior sistema eugenèsic durant el període nazi, gràcies al paper de fitxatge i selecció d’aquesta institució. En aquest sentit, Bolgona recorda que la llei de 1924 que regulava l’assistència als pobres també estipulava l’obligació al treball forçós  va ser heretada pel règim nazi. Tenint en compte la polièdrica visió de l’assumpte, l’autor s’endinsa en algunes accions i lluites dutes a terme a Berlín davant l’avanç de les escaires nazis (la “guerra civil encoberta”) o enumera les condicions sota les quals es van deslligar els cicles de vagues i insubordinacions durant períodes d’iniciatives de política industrial; la militarització i control de la Gestapo a les fàbriques; les formes de retribució basades en el rendiment (donant lloc a una explotació intensiva de la força de treball); la dissolució de la indústria tèxtil i drassanes (i per tant, d’indústries amb major tradició combativa); la generació d’elits de treballadors especialitzats beneficiaris de generoses polítiques socials, etc. D’aquesta manera, Bolgona posa en dubte la història revisionista que afirma les bonances de la modernització duta a terme pel règim (increment de la producció i llocs de treball, del nivell de vida de la classe treballadora) destapant així la riquesa d’esdeveniments que subjeuen sota el concepte de moviment obrer, portant a colofó tota aquella recerca històrica basada en la recuperació de la cultura política alemanya.

L’interessant aquí és que Bologna no només fa al·lusió a la cultura dels anys trenta, sinó que desvetlla la seva connexió amb alguns dels debats i propostes aflorades al llarg dels anys 60 i 70 per una nova generació que “volia més”. A dia d’avui, ens sembla imprescindible, donar espai a obres que, a través de la recuperació de la memòria històrica soterrada per discursos i actituds immobilistes, sentin les bases per a una nova consciència col·lectiva. En definitiva, un règim discursiu que desplacen qualsevol tipus de dissensió, que omet les alternatives, les accions de resistència i els processos històrics que les circumden, va de la mà -i aquí podem fer una posada al dia de tal conjuntura, enllaçant el text de Bologna amb el present més immediat- d’institucions que fan oïdes sordes a les propostes de base per a una democràcia avançada.


[1]              Per més informació sobre les tesis i recerques d’aquestes plataformes dedicades a la història militant, a la seva emergència, tradició i escoles, sobre tot, incidint en el paper de les fonts orals, es pot consultar l’article d’Alessandro Portelli: “Raíces de una paradoja, historia oral italiana” a Historia, antropología y fuentes orales, nº 17 (pp. 111-138).

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  123. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  124. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  125. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  126. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  127. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  128. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  129. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  130. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  131. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  132. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  133. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  134. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  135. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  136. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  137. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  138. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  139. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  140. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  141. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  142. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  143. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  144. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  145. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  146. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  147. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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