Filosofia

Per què humanitats

(Per Francesc Núñez, professor dels Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats i director del màster en Humanitats)

Que les humanitats estan en crisi és un tòpic que caldria demostrar. També és un donat per descomptat en molts àmbits socials i polítics contemporanis i una percepció social que acaba produint i tenint efectes de veritat. Si és evident que les humanitats estan en crisi, com ho demostra la decreixent matrícula en moltes carreres d’humanitats, és encara més evident que si sóc un jove estudiant que vol tenir un futur professional, no m’enredaré a fer una carrera d’humanitats, per simple raonament. Malgrat les “dades”, la realitat potser no és tan crua com se li suposa (podeu consultar aquest parell d’informes sobre inserció laboral dels graduats: http://www.aqu.cat/doc/doc_25842941_1.pdf  i  http://www.ub.edu/comint/pdi/docs/enquesta_inserciolab2.pdf). Sigui com sigui, la preocupació pel futur de les humanitats, té dimensions universals en la civilització de l’Atlàntic Nord (http://www.humanitiescommission.org/default.aspx).

Desmuntar un tòpic o mostrar com es construeix una percepció social és una de les tasques pròpies i diferencials de les humanitats i de les ciències socials. Ho podríem anomenar fer genealogia, fer el camí invers de la reificació, procés de desemmascarament social, deconstrucció o, simplement, fer una història ben feta. Les bones humanitats són i han de ser interdisciplinàries. No obstant això, en aquest escrit no vull fer aquest procés, sinó explicitar algunes de les idees per les quals crec que les Humanitats són importants en el món contemporani i clau de volta de la vida social, política i personal.  No estic exagerant. A més, aquesta especificitat ens atorga competències professionals que marquen una gran diferència respecte a qui no les tenen.Clau de volta

La idea principal que vull defensar i argumentar és que la formació humanística, és a dir, el coneixement de l’art i la literatura, de la filosofia i la història, la capacitat per a la reflexió crítica, la sensibilitat artística, la perspectiva històrica, etc., ens dota de criteri per fer front als reptes del futur.

Bona part de les accions que hem de fer al llarg del dia, en la vida personal i professional, vénen marcades pels hàbits, les rutines i els protocols que coneixem o que tenim ben arrelats. Està tan interioritzat que ni tan sols ens n’adonem. Fem, i si som ben educats o estem ben formats (tècnicament) fem bé. Però no sempre és tan fàcil decidir què és el que s’ha de fer, què és el que és millor fer en determinada situació personal, difícil i dolorosa, o en una circumstància laboral que resulta problemàtica i nova. A més, el món professional demana ser capaç d’apostar fort en situacions imprevistes i molt complexes per poder tirar endavant d’una forma original i productiva. La formació tècnica, el domini d’una tècnica o d’un art, o la bona educació, no ens forneix dels criteris i de les capacitats per prendre bones decisions, per encarar el futur i orientar (correctament) la nostra acció, és a dir, per fer-ho bé.

És per aquestes ocasions que la formació humanística ens dota de criteri. Tenir criteri vol dir ser capaç de jutjar una situació (llegir-la correctament, tenir la capacitat de saber quins elements la fan significativa, de conèixer i reconèixer el que l’ha provocada, de discernir els elements i relacions socials que hi ha implicades, de saber preveure les seves conseqüències no sempre desitjades o implicades en els desigs dels qui l’estan protagonitzant) i, un cop jutjada, ser capaços d’iniciar accions –de prendre decisions- que puguin reduir la complexitat, que ens permetin assumir amb responsabilitat (és a dir, podent fer front a les conseqüències) el risc implícit i tenir–ne un cert control. El futur, i encara més el futur on hi ha implicades l’acció social i col·lectiva, no és previsible, però si tenim criteri, en el sentit que estem apuntant, ens permet donar direcció (i sentit) a la nostra acció o a les que volem incitar.Criteiro

Per adquirir aquesta capacitat (que no és una sola, sinó la confluència d’un tipus de formació) cal aprendre a mirar, a orientar la mirada, i a tenir perspectiva. En aquest sentit vull parlar de les humanitats com una forma de lucidesa que atorga el fet de conèixer bé una tradició, saber llegir el present i enfocar la mirada cap al futur.

L’humanista, el qui té voluntat de ser-ho, quan agafa un llibre, de literatura o filosofia, quan contempla una obra d’art, o remena uns documents, ho fa amb passió, amb voluntat de veritat, de trobar la “veritat” que desvela o que ens revela. De fet, no és estrany, ni una raresa, que veure una pel·lícula, llegir una novel·la o un poema, endinsar-se en el pensament d’un “clàssic”, ens canviï la vida, o la manera de pensar o una forma de fer. Ens transforma, radicalment o parcialment. Quan ens afrontem a un “text” (en el sentit més ampli del terme) que no és pura informació, un pur dir sense parlar, sinó saviesa, experiència plasmada en signes, ens pot mostrar algun aspecte del món o de nosaltres mateixos que mai no hauríem arribat a copsar o a descobrir amb tanta nitidesa.  És clar que no tothom davant d’un quadre, una novel·la o un aforisme filosòfic, té la mateixa “visió”. De fet,  pot no tenir-ne cap perquè abans que la formació humanística ens proporcioni criteri per mirar cap endavant, cal fornir(se) el criteri per llegir el text amb la mateixa força i passió que la que va posar el seu autor quan els va crear. El text, els logoi, no suren en un oceà impersonal i indefinit, tenen sempre un autor, un creador. Crec que ho he sentit explicar a J. Roiz: quan un pianista, per exemple, interpreta una partitura de Schubert, posem el cas,  no només hi ha un text escrit que cal tocar en el piano. Perquè la música sigui música, perquè ens arribi a emocionar, cal que l’intèrpret sigui intèrpret, que torni a (re)crear la música que els signes de la partitura només fan que conservar. També en la mirada d’una escultura hem de ser escultors. Llegir, o copiar una novel·la o el raonament d’un filòsof, és recrear i aprendre allò que ens està mostrant, quelcom que potser sense la seva ajuda se’ns hagués ocultat o haguéssim trigat molt de temps a arribar a aquell punt. El lector, que interpreta des del propi present, és clar, és un hermeneuta, i la bona interpretació requereix aquesta lectura de veritat, implicant el nostre ésser, o com també solem dir, ho hem de fer en cos i ànima.

Abastar aquest món d’experiència ens forneix de competències (digueu-li saviesa si ho preferiu) per mirar el present i orientar el futur amb criteri. La lucidesa a la qual abans m’he referit, la capacitat d’acotar i reduir la complexitat del món, no té a veure amb tancar portes o limitar possibilitats (que en algun sentit sí que ho fa), sinó en orientar, en el sentit que es delimita un present (se li dóna forma, se l’interpreta, se’ l coneix, se’l valora i jutja) i s’intenta precipitar un futur. Sabem cap a on anar, sabem què ens pot fer bé. Propiciem uns encontres que el que han de fer és augmentar la nostra potència de ser. Ens fan millors, o, com també es diu, ens apoderen. Sí, en algun sentit ens fan poderosos. El poder no emana d’una sola font, sinó de moltes, s’exerceix de moltes maneres i hi ha moltes maneres d’exercir-lo i d’enfrontar-se a ell (com ens han ensenyat grans humanistes –encara que parlaven de la fi de l’home).

En el sentit abans al·ludit, l’humanista és qui té paraula, té veu per dir-la, per fer-la sonar. No és xerrameca, no és text buit. L’humanista és intèrpret, recrea el text, i en la seva representació li dóna nova vida. No estic oferint cap versió romàntica de l’humanista, estic parlant de la mateixa capacitat que en definitiva té una mare o un amic per guarir (per transformar –i també per ferir, és clar-) amb les paraules (i que en el nostre cas, això sí, està cultivada, sistemàticament apresa i ensenyada). Si tenim presents les tres fonts de dolor amb les que s’enfronta l’ésser humà: el cos propi, la natura (indiferent) i els altres (les paraules i accions dels altres) [Maimònides dixit], també hem de destacar que poden ser tres fonts de satisfacció, de plaer i de bellesa. Amb les paraules ferim, podem arruïnar la vida d’una persona, de moltes, però, compte!, també podem guarir, consolar, donar amor, esperança.

Vivim en un món de paraules, de textos i de símbols que delimiten i configuren el paisatge humà. Només els humans tenim món, i només els humans hem d’aprendre els codis (no genètics!) que ens ajuden a orientar-nos en aquest món. Estudiar humanitats és aprendre a conèixer, a interpretar (i a re-crear!) aquests codis. Per atendre bé a un malalt que arriba a la consulta de l’hospital, no n’hi ha prou amb conèixer el protocol (que és condició necessària, clar està, per saber què fer o què no fer); per muntar una exposició (que tingui valor i èxit) no n’hi ha prou amb saber gestionar els actors i processos implicats; per dirigir l’oficina d’un banc, no n’hi ha prou amb saber interpretar els balanços comercials, o generar-los; per dissenyar un edifici o un parc, no n’hi ha prou amb dominar l’autoCAD 3D i el disseny. Qualsevol d’aquestes accions, com les que ha de dur a terme una mare o un pare que vol donar la “millor educació” als seus fills, implica saber llegir el que en dèiem el “signes del temps” i saber iniciar (encarrilar) una acció amb futur (un futur raonablement previsible, imaginable o desitjable).  Cal tenir criteri, en el sentit que vaig apuntant.

Potser, podríem parlar de sentit comú, d’eficiència, de raonabilitat, de visió de futur, d’experiència, de “savoir faire”, de… dotzenes més de qualificatius. Jo prefereixo parlar de saviesa (en el sentit de la sofrosine grega, de la qual parlava Aristòtil, és a dir, la capacitat de discernir i prendre decisions i aconsellar i encertar que té l’home savi, no perquè domini una tècnica, o tingui un munt de coneixements i informació, o molta i molta experiència (sense oblidar que tot això és molt important) sinó perquè té criteri, perquè ha “escoltat” (ha sabut llegir, i mirar, i parlar) els que l’han precedit i els que saben, perquè ha sabut descobrir en ell tot allò que el permet reconèixer com humà, i no li és aliè, i per això sap ser un bon pare, un bon amic, un bon cap, un bon metge, un bon polític, un bon enginyer, un bon físic… en definitiva, un bon o una bona humanista.

Ras i curt: estudiar humanitats ens capacita, ens fa millors en molts aspectes personals, socials i professionals.

(Aquest text ha estat prèviament publicat a: fnunezmosteo.wordpress.com)

60 comments

  1. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  2. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  3. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  4. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  5. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  6. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  7. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  8. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  9. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  10. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  12. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  13. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  15. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  16. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  17. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  18. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  19. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  20. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  21. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  22. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  23. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  30. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  31. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  33. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  34. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  35. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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