Art

Del franquisme als dòlmens: mites fundacionals al voltant de sant Pere de Rodes

Dins de la segona edició del cicle Catalunya, laboratori d’Humanitats organitzat pels Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC, aquest passat dissabte, 24 de maig es va realitzar l’itinerari-seminari sobre el franquisme, amb els 45 inscrits a l’activitat, per la serra de Roses.

castell_Verdera

El primer mini-seminari, en el camí que porta al monestir de sant Pere de Rodes, es va centrar en el tema de com les relacions socials de producció transformen i conformen el paisatge, i en com es pot llegir el paisatge des d’una perspectiva històrica. Ens varem fixar en la gran quantitat de petites feixes de terra aconseguides amb la construcció de parets de pedra seca que omplen els vessants de la serra (amb vinyes i oliveres en altres temps), i això ens va permetre explicar com l’emfiteusi ha estat un dels motors del creixement econòmic català del segle XVIII. Ens varem referir a les guerres dels remences, a la sentència arbitral de Guadalupe (1486) que acabà amb els mals usos, a l’emfiteusi, a la crisi de la fil·loxera…

El segon seminari va tenir lloc després de contemplar l’esplèndid paisatge que es divisava des del castell de Salvador de Verdera, en el punt més alt (670 m.) de la serra de Roses. Primer de tot ens varem referir a alguns problemes inherents als estudis de ciències socials en general: la polisèmia de molts conceptes i les connotacions afegides al llarg de la història, les diverses escoles o perspectives d’interpretació d’una mateix fenomen o procés, la necessitat de consultar una àmplia bibliografia per a convertir l’opinió en argumentació, i tot plegat amanit amb unes gotes de pessimisme (sobre la utilitat del coneixement per a la transformació de la realitat o la construcció de la pròpia subjectivitat seguint Foucault).Aquestes reflexions les varem aplicar a la naturalesa del franquisme a partir de la pregunta de si la dictadura franquista va ser o no un règim feixista. Ens interessaven esbrinar dues qüestions: si s’ha donat o no la revolució burgesa a Espanya –és a dir, si la història d’Espanya del XIX i XX és normal (equiparable a la d’altres països europeus) o no, i com explicar l’obsessió per la “unidad de España” (el problema nacional). I què hi tenia a veure el franquisme en tot plegat. Per això vam haver de parlar del feixisme, de dictadures, de les “famílies” franquistes (falange, carlins, alfonsins, militars, CEDA, eclesiàstics), i ens varem adonar que l’únic que tenien en comú els qui varen donar suport al franquisme era un nacionalisme essencialista i excloent, és a dir, España, existint, doncs, una certa continuïtat entre els qui varen guanyar la guerra i sectors del PP, els únics –juntament amb l’extrema dreta europea– que el 4 de juliol del 2006 no va condemnar el franquisme en el Parlament Europeu.

I el nucli de tota la reflexió va convergir en una pregunta: com un cop d’estat es transforma en un govern legítim? Com el règim, malgrat la violència i la repressió, va aconseguir, durant tant de temps, despertar i fomentar entre la gent la creença en la seva legitimitat? Com va aconseguir convertir el poder (per les armes) en autoritat? I varem formular una hipòtesi: a través d’un entramat simbòlic adreçat a crear un mite fundacional, establint una nova realitat ideal en la qual la totalitat de la vida de la Nova Espanya cobrés sentit subjectiu: la salvació d’España, la redempció d’España, la unitat d’España, assolida i construïda amb la sang “de los caídos”. España esdevenia una unitat moral, una “unidad de destino en lo universal”. La guerra havia estat inevitable i necessària per a salvar España. I aquí trobava l’estat franquista la seva legitimació. Ho deia el Caudillo el 1938: «La guerra d’Espanya no és una cosa artificial. És la coronació d’un procés històric, és la lluita de la Pàtria amb la antipàtria, de la unitat amb la secessió, de la moral amb el crim, l’esperit contra el materialisme  i no té altra solució que el triomf dels principis purs i eterns sobre els bastards i antiespanyols». La història esdevenia mite, i en el mite s’hi creu o no, però no es pot desconstruir racionalment (és com alguns jueus que, en ple segle XXI, creuen que el territori d’Israel els pertany perquè Jahvè el va prometre al seu poble escollit).

De retorn al monestir, hem recorregut les seves dependències, i ens hem centrat en l’església, la cripta i el claustre inferior. Segur que haurà quedat clar l’opus spicatum, la volta d’arestes, l’evolució de la casa des de Mesopotàmia fins a la casa medieval, el paper del monestir com a organitzador del territori…

Després de dinar al restaurant del monestir ens quedava completar la trilogia feudal: cavallers (el castell de Verdera), monjos, (sant Pere de Rodes) i pagesos (el poble de la santa Creu de Rodes), moment que es va aprofitar per comentar el paper de la sagrera en la urbanització dels pobles medievals, la Pau i treva de Déu en el procés de feudalització, és a dir, de l’espoliació de la producció agrària dels pagesos i posterior repartiment entre la noblesa i l’Església, i per a mostrar  com la cronologia –bàsicament centrada en fets protagonitzats per homes– és també un element per a invisibilitzar a les dones.

El darrer seminari ens va dur a caminar pel Barranc de la Coma del l’Infern per tal de visitar els dòlmens de les Vinyes Mortes i el de la Vinya del Rei (el més gran del terme: cinc grans lloses verticals per a la caixa, i una sola llosa de 4,15 m. de llargada per 2,95 m. d’amplada, la coberta). Ens varem preguntar si els dòlmens eren únicament monuments funeraris, i les darreres investigacions ens permeten pensar que la construcció megalítica monumental, i el ritual d’enterrament col·lectiu, desenvolupats entre el Neolític Avançat i el Calcolític –cap a  finals del IV i el III mil·lenni ane–, representen uns valors que podem resumir en el seu caràcter delimitador del territori, com a muntanya artificial produïda pel túmul, fenomen necessari i conseqüència de l’extensió de l’agricultura que comporta l’apropiació de la terra i el sentit del control del territori, de manera que la tomba on hi ha els avantpassats que han treballat aquesta terra permet legitimar la propietat i l’ús de la mateixa als seus descendents, emergint d’aquesta forma una elit social que s’estructura i perpetua amb el temps. El dolmen, doncs, com a sepulcre, com a delimitador i identificador de territori i com a expressió visual de la classe propietària: un gran esforç col·lectiu per a perpetuar la memòria de la propietat i el poder.

Des d’aquí podeu accedir als materials utilitzats per a treballar la naturalesa del franquisme

Bibliografia citada:
Eagleman, David (2013). Incógnito. Las vidas secretas del cerebro. Barcelona. Anagrama. (Col. Argumentos, 449. 3ª ed. 349 pàgs.
Lakoff, George (2008). No pensis en un elefant! : llenguatge i debat polític. Barcelona. Viena ed. (Col. Carta blanca, 13). 1ª impr. 184 pàgs.

Joan Campàs Montaner   Aura digital

50 comments

  1. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  2. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  3. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  4. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  5. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  6. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  7. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  8. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  9. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  10. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  11. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  12. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  13. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  14. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  15. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  16. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  17. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  18. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  19. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  20. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  21. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  22. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  23. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  25. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  26. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  27. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  28. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  29. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  30. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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