Humanitats

Esport i Cultura a Catalunya

By Barça_campió_1903.pdf: Vulcanoderivative work: H4stings (Barça_campió_1903.pdf) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

En el nostre univers cultural hi ha temes que són indiscutits, que tothom considera bàsics i imprescindibles, que conformen l’espinada del tronc del coneixement. En definitiva, temes que no cal presentar, que són obvis. Per contrast, hi ha qüestions o fets socials que al primer cop d’ull semblen més intranscendents, fins i tot en alguns casos algú pot considerar-los banals. No cal dir que en el nostre entorn cultural l’esport ha estat considerat molt sovint en aquest segon bloc, tot i que tingui una presència impressionant a la nostra societat.

 

USAP_Tolon

By Matieu Castel (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Afortunadament, cada cop més aquestes prevencions van perdent la seva prevalença, i es fa evident que l’anàlisi de l’esport és fonamental per a conèixer les pautes de comportament d’una societat, en aquest cas la catalana. L’esport forma part de la nostra estructura social i cultural, vehicula identitats de tot tipus, canalitza emocions i sentiments, esdevé part del sistema educatiu, genera un sistema comunicatiu propi, ens projecta internacionalment, és peça bàsica en els programes de promoció de la salut, ha generat polítiques públiques específiques, i esdevé fins i tot un sector econòmic no gens menyspreable. En definitiva, tenint en compte que s’hi relacionen tantes variables, l’evolució de l’esport ens permet una anàlisi àmplia i complexa de la societat.

 

Presentació de l’assignatura a càrrec de Carles Santacana

 

Conseqüència del que hem dit fins aquí, l’assignatura Esport i cultura a Catalunya, del Màster d’Estudis Catalans, vol estudiar quina ha estat la interacció entre esport i cultura, i entre esport i societat a Catalunya en els darrers 125 anys. Interessa posar de relleu que l’esport es va introduir a la Catalunya de finals del segle XIX com una aposta per la modernitat, com una forma concreta d’aproximar-se a Europa, com una afirmació de cosmopolitisme. És per això que va arrelar ràpidament el somni olímpic des de la dècada de 1910, tot i que tardaria tant a fer-se realitat. Volem fer un recorregut en què l’esport s’explica íntimament vinculat al devenir social, des de les diferències entre esports amb connotacions elitistes i d’altres considerats populars, fins a les formes d’articulació dels pioners de l’esport, veritables apòstols d’una bona nova. No és casualitat que el creixement de l’esport català es produís en paral·lel al sorgiment d’una societat de masses, on l’espectacle era un element central, moment en què alguns esports van assolir un enorme seguiment popular i feien sobresortir mites esportius com Josep Samitier, Josep Gironès i Marià Cañardó. La força d’atracció de l’esport el convertia també en ferment i canalització d’identitats col·lectives, molt especialment en relació al catalanisme ja en la dècada de 1920. Des d’aleshores l’esport va adquirir una enorme potència simbòlica, com es constatà en els anys de la República, i també amb un discurs radicalment contrari durant la dictadura franquista. Convertit ja en un dels principals eixos del lleure popular i de l’expansió dels mitjans de comunicació, l’esport ha esdevingut un element fonamental de la vertebració social, i mostra també de les noves tendències socials, des de les pràctiques introduïdes per la nova immigració (el criquet dels paquistanesos, per exemple), les activitats recreatives (curses populars, …), l’esportivització de la cultura popular (el fenomen dels castells) o l’espectacularitat de l’esport extrem.

 

L’assignatura Esport i cultura a catalunya, en el marc del Màster d’Estudis Catalans,s’organitza en quatre unitats, que segueixen una estructura cronològica, i dos estudis de cas. En la primera unitat s’estudia el procés d’importació de l’esport per part de la societat catalana (1870-1914), posant l’accent en la pràctica desaparició dels jocs tradicionals, la identificació dels pioners i el discurs regenerador que els impulsava. En la segona unitat, dedicada al període 1914-1939, s’analitza preferentment el pas a la dimensió d’espectacle públic, amb tot el que se’n deriva, des del professionalisme a la nova tipologia dels mitjans de comunicació esportius i la construcció d’identitats en relació a clubs i esportistes. Alhora, les primeres concepcions de política pública esportiva. La tercera unitat analitza com va incidir la dictadura franquista en la involució de l’esport català: regressió associativa i de la pràctica en els sectors populars i les dones, utilització política, control social, així com també la voluntat de seccionar els vasos comunicants entre esport i cultura. Finalment, la quarta unitat s’ocupa de l’evolució cap als temps recents, amb un esport molt diversificat, múltiples usos, els èxits internacionals i la consolidació tant en els àmbits educatiu, com del lleure i l’espectacle. Per últim, es podrà contrastar el coneixement adquirit a partir de dos estudis de cas, el Futbol Club Barcelona com a institució esportiva i els Jocs olímpics de 1992 com a exemple de la incidència d’un esdeveniment esportiu en el conjunt de la societat, des dels aspectes econòmics i infraestructurals fins a la identitat i imatge de la ciutat de Barcelona.

Aquesta assignatura, que s’ofereix a partir del març de 2015, també es pot cursar lliurement a l’@teneu.

Carles Santacana Torres és consultor d’Esport i cultura a Catalunya

38 comments

  1. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  2. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  3. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  4. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  5. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  6. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  7. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  8. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  9. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  10. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  11. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  12. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  13. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  14. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  15. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  16. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  17. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  18. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  19. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  20. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  21. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  22. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  23. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  24. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  25. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  26. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  27. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  28. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  29. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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