Art

David i la mort revolucionària: Lepeletier, Marat, Bara

Lepeletier

Els darrers moments de Michel Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau. Gravat d’Anatole Desvoge a partir del quadre –actualment destruït- de Jacques-Louis David, 1793.

 

David_Marat

Jacques-Louis David: Mort de Marat, 1793. Oli sobre tela. 160,7 x 124,8. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussel·les

 

DavidBara

Jacques-Louis David (Paris, 1748-Brussel·les, 1825): La Mort de Bara, 1793. Oli sobre tela. 119 x 165,5 cm. Avignon, Musée Calvet.

A principis del 1793, després de l’execució del rei, un soldat monàrquic havia assassinat a un diputat, Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau, que havia votat la condemna a mort. Per pintar una commemoració del màrtir polític es va fer un encàrrec a David, el qual va produir una imatge bastant convencional de l’heroi clàssic al llit de mort que recordava el seu Hèctor caigut de 1783 (i va delegar la major part del treball en Gérard).

David_Andromaca

Jacques-Louis David: Andròmaca plorant la mort d’Hèctor, 1783. Oli sobre tela. 275 x 203 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

Devosge

Anatole Devosge segons Jacques-Louis David, La mort de Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1793. Llapis sobre paper. 46,7 x 40 cm. Musée de Beaux-Arts, Dijon.

Els darrers moments de Michel Lepeletier (també anomenat La mort de Lepeletier Sant-Fargeau o Lepeletier al seu llit de mort) és una pintura de Jacques-Louis David de 1793, que representa al diputat Louis-Michel Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau al seu llit de mort.

Fou un homenatge del pintor al diputat assassinat per haver votar la mort de Lluís XVI. El quadre constitueix amb La mort de Marat un díptic que es va instal·lar a la sala de sessions de la Convenció Nacional. Va ser retirat el 1795 i confiat a l’artista que va mantenir-lo amb ell fins a la seva mort a Brussel·les; llavors la pintura va ser venuda per la seva família a la filla de Lepeletier, la reialista Suzanne Lepeletier de Mortefontaine, per 100.000 francs. Després d’aquesta venda el quadre va desaparèixer. La hipòtesi més probable és que va ser destruït per la seva filla, que volia eliminar el passat revolucionari del seu pare, destruint el quadre i els gravats que se’n van fer[1]. El quadre és conegut per un dibuix d’Anatole Desvosge i un tiratge del gravat de Tardieu que es va lliurar parcialment de la destrucció dibuix destrucció parcial escapat. Aquest quadre constitueix amb Marat assassinat i la Mort del jove Bara una sèrie dedicada per l’artista als màrtirs de la revolució.

El 20 de gener de 1793, a la vigília de l’execució de Lluís XVI, el reialista Philippe Marie Nicolas de Pârís tenia la intenció de matar a Philippe Égalité al qui considerava un traïdor. El va esperar al Palau Reial, però atès que a qui considerava un regicidi no va aparèixer, Pâris s’adreça a la casa de menjars Février on hi dinava un altre regicida, el diputat Lepeletier, i el mata[2].

Lepeletier és considerat el primer màrtir de la revolució. El mateix David, proposat per Bertrand Barrere, va dissenyar l’escenografia dels seus funerals[3], els quals segons Jules Michelet «…varen tenir un caràcter de religió».[4] El 29 de març 1793 David va presentar a la Convenció el quadre: el diputat jeu mig nu al seu llit, amb un munt de coixins, una espasa suspesa damunt d’ell (la de Pâris) i la sang degotant sobre el cadàver, i la ferida  a primer terme. L’arma porta una flor del lis per tal de mostrar d’on va venir el cop. Porta, a la part inferior, la dedicatòria: «David a Lepeletier».

«És clarament un acte de propaganda en el que s’exalta l’heroisme republicà. Obra rebuda amb entusiasme, fou exposada a la sala de Sessions, la seva difusió fou autoritzada a través de gravats i tapissos i David va rebre la suma de 11.000 lliures que va donar a les vídues i orfes de la pàtria».[5]

En el seu llibre Història de la Ciutat i del Comtat de San Fargeau6 (1856) Aristide Dey[6] dóna una descripció del quadre desaparegut, segons el testimoni d’un artista datat del 1825: «El quadre podria tenir 2 metres d’alçada i 1 metre i mig d’amplada. El fons d’un gris clar que s’enfosquia a mesura que s’acostava a la part inferior del quadre, representava una paret llisa i plana sense cap accident. Un bast catre amb un sol matalàs de quadres blancs i blaus travessava horitzontalment tota la tela, cap a la meitat de la seva altura. Sobre aquest matalàs, i en la mateixa direcció, jeia el cos de Lepeletier Saint Fargeau, el cap a la dreta, els peus i una part de les cames es perdien a l’esquerra. Sobre la part inferior del cos s’hi estirava un mantell fosc, de manera que alguns plecs queien a terra. El cap pàl·lid i tranquil, sense cap suport, estava mig reclinat; es mostrava de perfil i acompanyat de cabells desordenats que duien encara vestigis de pols; el front alt, el nas aguilenc, la boca i la barbeta fortament acusats, el conjunt noble i de gran caràcter. La camisa ensangonada, i oberta sobre el pit, deixava veure la ferida oberta; la mà dreta vista en escorç portava cap a la ferida i el braç esquerra quedava penjant fora del llit. Una llum brillant que venia des de dalt, il·luminava la cara i el pit; la resta del cos ja amagat pel mantell es perdia dins d’una gran semi ombra. Al mig i al fons hi havia penjada en un clau una espasa sagnant de forma molt vulgar, i una corona de roure. Sota de la mà penjant, hi havia un paper en el qual estava escrit el darrer vot de Lepeletier; en un dels angles del quadre, en lletres grans, el nom de L DAVID  amb l’any 1793! En resum, l’efecte d’aquesta pintura era una mica artificial, melodramàtica. Un sentia que l’artista havia fet un esforç per arribar a l’emoció que sentia de forma tan natural i un primer assaig per al seu admirable estudi Marat expirant.»

L’estiu de 1793 va tenir lloc un altre assassinat més incendiari. L’escriptor i diputat extremadament populista Jean-Paul Marat fou atacat en el seu bany per una fanàtica contrarevolucionària anomenada Charlotte Corday. Marat era l’heroi dels sans-culottesorganitzats, el moviment d’artesans i obrers. Calia un gran tribut simbòlic i novament es va fer l’encàrrec a David. Era un moment delicat; el terror estava a punt de començar i es radicalitzaven les demandes del moviment popular.

David_Marat

David va reflectir aquesta situació a la seva pintura. A la Mort de Marat, el màrtir és el sant “Amic del Poble”. Els papers en el vèrtex del seu bast escriptori mostren que havia estat ocupat a ordenar el lliurament de certa quantitat de diner a la vídua d’un soldat quan el va sorprendre l’assassina (la falsa carta de la qual sol·licitant audiència ell encara té a la mà). La seva nuesa podria interpretar-se com un indici alhora metafòric i real d’estatura heroica, atès que complia amb els seus deures malgrat els dolors causats per una horrible malaltia de la pell que només podia alleugerir submergint-se en banys medicinals. Mentre que la passió del subjecte per la igualtat i la fraternitat és evident, ell està més enllà de tota acció i la imatge pretén consolar al seu espectador molt més que incitar-lo a la còlera venjativa.

La posa de Marat, els instruments de la violència, les inscripcions, la llisa fusta de la caixa posada en vertical, l’ordre compositiu insistentment perpendicular, tot fa pensar en el sacrifici de Crist sense deixar l’àmbit objectiu de la història secular. Trobem alguns manlleus de l’obra Pietà de Girodet, com ara el vestigi del contorn del cap i les espatlles de la Marededéu fins unir-se amb la línia del sarcòfag; en una sorprenent transposició, això s’ha convertit quasi exactament en la línia del cap i el cos de Marat tal com emergeix per damunt de la banyera: la divisió clau en la composició, entre una zona inferior plena d’incidents i una zona superior de calma ombrívola i meditativa.

Ens trobem davant d’un “retrat històric” que pertany a la ideologia en imatges de la burgesia francesa revolucionària: Jean Paul Marat mort a la banyera després d’haver rebut la punyalada de Charlotte Corday. David es proposa com un deure la lúcida, despietada fidelitat als fets. Presenta a Marat mort. No comenta, presenta el fet, addueix el testimoni mut i inamovible de les coses. La tina on estava submergit per a suavitzar el dolor i en la que redactava els seus missatges al poble, parla de la virtut del tribú que domina el sofriment en compliment del deure. Una caixa de fusta mal envernissada, que fa de taula, parla de la pobresa, de la integritat del polític. Damunt la caixa una mena de xec que, tot i que és pobre, envia a una dona que té el marit a la guerra i no té pa pels seus fills, parla de la generositat de l’home. En primer terme, el ganivet i la ploma, l’arma de l’assassina i l’arma del tribú. Per a la comparació disposa, a dalt, les dues pàgines escrites, l’ordre de donar el xec a la ciutadana necessitada (la bondat de la víctima) i la falsa súplica de l’emissària de la reacció (la traïció de la bondat).

No hi ha cap idealització formal: el costat de la caixa-taula, que fixa el pla límit del quadre, és un eix sobre el que es veuen els nervis de la fusta, els grops, els forats dels claus; als fulls es llegeixen les paraules escrites, la data. La definició del lloc, tan detallista en el primer pla, desapareix a la part més alta: més de la meitat del quadre està buida, és un fons abstracte, sense cap signe de vida. De la presència tangible de les coses es passa a la desolada absència, de la realitat al no-res. El caire de la tina, cobert a mitges per una tela verda i a mitges per un llençol blanc, és la línia que separa ambdues regions, la de les coses i la del no-res. L’espai està definit per la sòbria i quasi esquemàtica contraposició d’horitzontals i verticals. En aquesta exigua zona intermèdia mor Marat, David no descriu la violència de l’assassinat, ni el sofriment, ni la frisança de la mort, sinó el pas de l’ésser al no-res.

David_Marat_composicio

En el quadre hi ha una decidida contraposició d’ombra i llum, però no hi ha la font lluminosa que ho justifiqui com natural. Hi ha llum en lloc de vida i ombra en lloc de mort. La fermesa i la fredor de la contraposició llum-ombra dóna al quadre una entonació uniforme, lívida i apagada, els extrems del qual són el llençol blanc i la tela fosca. En aquesta entonació baixa, destaquen fredament les poques taques de sang, que assenyalen la culminació d’aquesta tragèdia sense veus i sense gests. La filosofia de David és la moral del revolucionari, de qui, sabent-se ja condemnat creu poder condemnar sense infringir la llei moral.

David_Marat_composicio2

En el quadre de Marat condensa l’experiència i la moral de l’època en la que viu. Marat és també un “ajusticiat”, i la injustícia de la que és víctima esborra les condemnes que havia pronunciat, l’absol de tota sospita d’injustícia. Com expressa David aquesta lògica fèrria fins l’absurd? A l’espai del quadre, mitjançant horitzontals i verticals, pla frontal (la caixa) i profunditat il·limitada, en perpendicular. A la figura, cal notar la relació entre el nas, que segueix l’horitzontal del caire de la banyera, i les cel les, que segueixen les verticals de la caixa i el braç, i també la caiguda del cap damunt el braç. I justament en el punt de convergència d’aquest lúcid esquema compositiu, la boca de Marat, en la que la darrera contracció agònica s’entumeix i configura l’enigmàtic somriure del filòsof que veu realitzar-se el que sabia que era el seu propi destí .

DavidBara

Jacques-Louis David: Mort de Bara, 1793. Oli sobre tela. 119 x 165,5 cm. Musée Alvet, Avignon.

Pel tercer dels seus retrats de màrtirs revolucionaris, la Mort de Bara (1793), David va tornar al cànon clàssic per imaginar una víctima infantil de la Contrarevolució com un efeb immaculat, d’una bellesa fantàstica, sofrint però sense ferides visibles, somniant més que morint, proper, però no immers en el fragor del combat. La mirada de l’artista, amb la qual se’ns invita a identificar-nos, sembla tenir escandalosament poc a veure amb la virtut cívica o l’heroisme guerrer. La sensualitat del cos sembla anar més enllà de la juvenil bellesa apropiada a la seva edat i innocència, i els comentaristes han coincidit a remarcar que entre les preocupacions públiques i les privades el quadre peca d’un desequilibri favorable a les segones.

Però la seva resposta ha d’entendre’s en el context en el qual es va produir l’encàrrec de 1793. El Jove Joseph Bara, en realitat mort en ambigües circumstàncies, fou un màrtir inventat. Com anava David a passar de la celebració de víctimes adultes -Lepelletier i Marat-, importants figures històriques personalment conegudes per l’artista, a la representació d’un noi desconegut? Com anava a ennoblir el que en el millor dels casos no havia estat més que un acte de fanfarroneria trivialment desgraciat? Com anava a trobar una nova forma per als abstractes estereotips de la innocència ultratjada i el sacrifici de la joventut amb els quals es va veure obligat a treballar, segons el delirant dictamen de Robespierre que “només els francesos tenen herois de tretze anys”?

Un cop més, davant d’un encàrrec exigent i anticonvencional, es va fixar en l’obra dels seus alumnes, sobretot en els estudis acadèmics del nu tal com l’havien transformat Drouais i Girodet. I a l’estiu de 1793 va poder contemplar l’Endimió de Girodet al Saló de París.

Certs aspectes del quadre tenen una força innegable: el nerviós esfumat, simultàniament aplicat al cos i al seu entorn, continuava la recerca de David sobre la màxima llibertat gestual en els retrats de madame Chalgrin i madame Pastoret durant el període revolucionari. Aquí li va permetre, mitjançant una tècnica porosa, apropiar-se de la unitat atmosfèrica entre figura i fons de Girodet. Però quan va arribar a la supressió dels genitals -imperativa segons l’encàrrec de representar la innocència ultratjada-, el resultat fou menys feliç. La il·luminació general i la llum groguenca varen privar a David del recurs de Girodet a l’ombra velada; la seva solució va consistir a prendre el cos del noi i doblegar-lo en dos, per tal de simultàniament representar el seu sofriment i amagar el seu sexe. El cos es retorça antinaturalment per la meitat, sotmès a una violenta discontinuïtat que assenyala la violació del cos, la ferida de baioneta que el va matar. Aquest recurs, unit a l’abdomen en ombra, recorda l’abrupta dislocació interna a l’Atleta de Drouais, que David va sobreposar a la imaginària integritat de l’Endimió. La imatge resulta tan estranya degut en bona mesura a la fusió d’aquests dos cossos en un.

És possible que David hagi compartit, pel cap baix inconscientment, la fascinació homosexual de Winckelmann pel cos masculí nu. Seguint el comentari d’Alex Potts, Bara era, com l’efeb de Winckelmann, un heroi desproveït de les particularitats i imperfeccions de l’home adult. Aquest buit, o aquesta “innocència”, el converteixen en el vector perfecte d’un ideal absolut. La imatge d’un noi jove és molt més eficaç per eludir les preguntes sobre la seva identitat social que la d’un home viril. Podem definir-lo com desproveït d’història, directament nascut del sí de la naturalesa. Tanmateix, la idealitat del Bara de David és ideològicament molt particular. És el Bara forjat per la imaginació radical de la classe mitjana enfrontada amb les pressions populistes i revisionistes. És també el Bara virtuós de Robespierre que mor cridant: “Visca la República!”. Davant d’aquest adolescent tan prepúber que resulta ambigu, que no té en absolut aspecte de morir, ni tan sols de sofrir, es pot observar com alguns elements deixen suposar que l’heroi està vivint una experiència eròtica que produeix un trop bastant poc viril del desig. El transport emocional d’aquest cos de noi l’apropa de fet, quasi com el seu ressò masculí, a l’Èxtasi de santa Teresa de Bernini. En voler moderar una imatge de l’heroi masculí el més commovedora possible, el pintor no només feminitza (en part) el cos, sinó també la seva càrrega emocional. Aquesta imatge del que és indeterminat, pel que fa al sexe i a la mort, s’insereix en un tros d’espai que ni la bandera de l’esquerra ni la nota que porta Bara a la mà aconsegueixen historiar.

Aquesta pintura ens pot transportar a un temps en el qual la Revolució era jove, indeterminada, objecte del desig i no aquest caos de tensions i de morts que Bara com David vivien a finals del 1793 i principis de 1794.

El quadre  de La mort de Bara mostra a Joseph Bara, mort a l’edat de catorze anys a les files de l’exèrcit revolucionari durant la guerra de la Vendée. En optar pel tipus d’adolescent encara impúber, David reprèn el bell ideal winckelmannià – com li va fer conèixer l’”enviament de Roma” del seu alumne Girodet. La indeterminació sexual, així com la posa del model, reflecteix també la influència de l’Hermafrodita Borghese. Però en aquest quadre, l’hermafroditisme es canvia, en el sentit més literal, en absència de sexe, atès que els òrgans genitals del jove estan ocults per la posició de les cames estretes una contra l’altra.

La llum groga blavosa que creava l’ambient nocturn d’Endimió de Girodet dóna pas aquí a una brillant claredat marró daurada, a partir de la qual el quadre quasi monocrom s’elabora seguint una factura  en la qual les grans pinzellades són visibles. Jean Starobinski interpreta aquesta  «intensa radiació acolorida», com una forma d’heroïtzació: «La Glòria, és aquest càlid resplendor que crea la pintura»[7] I és un desconegut que és aureolat en aquesta ocasió, almenys si es compara aquesta figura amb les de Louis-Michel Lepeletier i Jean-Paul Marat retratats per David, després del seu assassinat, com a màrtirs de la Revolució per a la sala de reunions de la Convenció. Un certificat de naixement i un informe sobre els esdeveniments que van envoltar la seva mort són els únics documents que donen testimoni de l’existència de Joseph Bara. També el personatge pot transformar-se amb més facilitat en mite, en el sentit de Roland Barthes: alliberat de la seva història personal, esdevé la representació de la virtut revolucionària. Ja la carta en què Desmarres, general de l’exèrcit revolucionari en la guerra de la Vendée,  avisa a la Convenció de la mort del jove recluta està escrita en l’estil d’una història heroica de la Revolució. Amb un coratge inusual per la seva edat, Bara, caigut en una emboscada parada per l’enemic, va preferir morir, diu Desmarres, abans que rendir-se als vandeens i donar-los els cavalls dels quals n’era responsable. A més del seu valor, el general destaca la virtut del jove, que mantenia a la seva mare i els germans i germanes, mitjançant l’enviament del seu salari d’allistat voluntari. Després d’acordar una renda a la família del jove heroi, Robespierre reprèn aquesta història en el seu discurs del 8 nivós (28 desembre del 1793) per a fer-ne un model de comportament exemplar en la lluita contra els enemics interiors de la Revolució. Proposa atorgar els honors del Panteó a Bara i a un segon heroi adolescent, Viala, encarregant a David que”posés la seva atenció a l’embelliment de la festa nacional.” Finalment fixada el 10 Thermidor de l’any II (28 de juliol del 1794), la cerimònia no tindrà lloc. El 9 Thermidor, el govern revolucionari va ser enderrocat, Robespierre i altres jacobins van ser detinguts, David fou empresonat el 15. En aquestes circumstàncies, no és possible determinar la funció exacta del quadre, però ningú pot negar que cal considerar-lo com a part de la gran festa nacional que havia estat prevista.

Davi_Bara

En el seu discurs davant la Convenció, Robespierre fa morir Bara al crit de «Visca la República»  condensant així la narració de Desmarres en la frase «llibertat o mort». Abans fins i tot de ser representat en un quadre, Bara és l’encarnació de la virtut republicana. David s’apodera d’aquest caràcter abstracte de l’heroi per a representar-lo com a nu ideal. És precisament en referir-se a l’Antiguitat que la nuesa pot guanyar una dimensió utòpica, en tant que signe d’un cos sense defecte, i tenir valor d’integritat natural i moral. David concentra el seu quadre en el nu i, a diferència de la major part de les representacions d’un home jove, renuncia a pintar el context o la situació. La dimensió narrativa es redueix a un genet que fuig al galop a l’extrem esquerre del quadre i que gairebé no es reconeix per com n’és d’esquemàtic. El fons del quadre monocrom només suggereix un paisatge, el lloc queda desconegut. El mateix nu només es defineix precisament a través d’un tros de paper que encara te a la mà i per l’escarapel·la que pressiona contra el pit, essent aquesta insígnia una expressió  molt sumària de les seves conviccions republicanes.

Bara simbolitza la «unió dels patriotes contra la Guerra Civil», en un moment en què aquesta unitat ja no és més que una ficció davant la realitat de les tensions polítiques internes. El govern revolucionari s’esforça a protegir-se de la dreta i de l’esquerra i a apaivagar el moviment popular dels sans-culottes. Com a encarnació de la unitat, Bara, que David representa amb els trets d’un noi jove androgin i vulnerable, és la parella (pendant[8]) i l’oposat d’Hèrcules, en el qual triomfa la virilitat. Hèrcules reemplaça per algun temps, sota la Revolució jacobina, l’al·legoria femenina de la Llibertat en tant que símbol de la República i del poble francès. Però també es veuen aparèixer, arran dels debats al voltant de la simbolització de l’Estat, formes híbrides estranyament andrògines. Trobem gravats en els quals una Llibertat guerrera de sexe femení porta el vestit i els atributs d’Hèrcules. A la Festa de la unitat i de la indivisibilitat de la República francesa, escenificada per David a l’agost del 1793, una gegantina estàtua d’Hèrcules representava el poble francès, el qual, armat amb una maça, abat l’«Hidra del federalisme». Uns mesos més tard, la Convenció va decidir triar una figura d’Hèrcules per adornar el segell oficial de la República. Aquest símbol defineix el poder del poble com una força decididament masculina i el fet que hagi estat introduïda en al mateix moment en què s’excloïa a les dones de l’esfera de l’acció política, no és per atzar. Com ho formula Lynn Hunt, els diputats de l’Any II  confirmen a través de la figura d’Hèrcules el seu «autoretrat en grup de germans que han destituït al seu pare-rei». Els revolucionaris, que van efectivament cometre un assassinat simbòlic del pare mitjançant l’execució del rei, són poc desitjosos de trobar noves figures paternes. Ells veuen en Hèrcules a un germà ple de força i privilegien herois susceptibles, a semblança de Bara, d’encarnar la imatge interioritzada que es fan de si mateixos de «joves herois romàntics». Entre les personalitats històriques menys anònimes que els herois estilitzats Bara i Viala, és sens dubte de forma capital el jacobí Saint-Just –elegit a la  Convenció, a l’edat de vint-cinc anys– qui es beneficia de l’«aurèola de joventut», altament desitjable. Però precisament a l’època en què Saint-Just participa activament en el Terror, fins al punt que André Malraux el podrà anomenar l’«arcàngel de la guillotina», Bara passa a encarnar l’heroi irreprotxable, l’anonimat i joventut del qual garantien la innocència política. Ell és un noi jove del poble, però no se li dedica cap culte popular, com a Marat, venerat com un màrtir segons  un republicanisme farcit de tradicions cristianes. Si David, a Marat à son dernier soupir (La mort de Marat), dóna forma a una «darrera crida a la unitat revolucionària» mitjançant la combinació de realisme, d’una banda, amb elements de la iconografia cristiana, d’altra banda, amb les «formes  inspirades a l’Antiguitat de l’estil estàtic neoclàssic», mostra a Bara, l’heroi celebrat pel govern jacobí, sota la figura d’un nu inspirat en l’Antiguitat. És el que pot estar més a prop de la temptativa de Winckelmann de “representar la bellesa de l’ideal grec com a encarnació de la llibertat política”.

El quadre insisteix en l’autenticitat de la persona i el seu sofriment, posant l’accent en la presència sensual del nu. El Bara s’apropa en això a La Llibertat o la Mort de Regnault: Bara i el geni de França pintat per Regnault esdevenen l’encarnació efectiva d’un heroi ideal. En el quadre de David, la càrrega de bellesa corporal es reforça i s’acompanya d’una feminització –de la mateixa manera que a l’Endimió de Girodet, la figura passa per una sexualització en adoptar una posa i formes corporals amb connotació femenina. Les cames de Bara estan disposades de tal manera una darrera l’altra, que fan sobresortir el maluc, el seu ventre s’arrodoneix i augmenta en el moviment per aixecar el bust, el seus cabells li cauen en rínxols al llarg del coll . “En aquesta prova de donar forma a una imatge de l’ideal alhora heroi i màrtir que seria tan commovedora i bella com possible, calia que les formes del cos i la càrrega emocional  de la qual aquestes formes es doten siguin en part feminitzades”[9].

RegnaultLlibertatMort

Jean-Baptiste Regnault: La Liberté ou la Mort, 1794. Oli sobre tela. 60 x 49,3 cm. Hamburg, Kunsthalle.

El nu de Bara reuneix al mateix temps el que, en Regnault, s’expressa a través de dues figures. Kathrin Hoffmann-Curtius constata que és sota l’aparença d’una seductora dona jove vestida de blanc que la Llibertat és promesa a l’heroi masculí com a recompensa de la seva mort heroica[10]. No obstant això, omet veure que la figura eròtica pròpiament dita del quadre és el nu masculí. Com geni de França, té una funció al·legòrica, però també és més que una simple al·legoria, atès que encarna un subjecte masculí ideal. En comparació, no és per casualitat que el personatge femení de la Llibertat sigui esquemàtic; ella no és el model d’identificació d’un subjecte femení, sinó només la seva representació abstracta. El que en Regnault està representat per un geni masculí i una al·legoria femenina es confon en el Bara de David en una sola figura, la del jove soldat que és, en conjunt, heroi i  promesa. En la seva indeterminació sexual, pot ser, alternativament, per a un espectador masculí, objecte de desig heterosexual i figura d’identificació, jo ideal heroic i masculí. Per tant es deixa definir com un objecte de desig jacobí de virtut. Però aquest bell cos només guanya l’estatut d’ideal de virtut sofrint la prova d’una ferida mortal. L’expressió de dolor pren un aspecte emfàtic, perquè s’escenifica en la seva dimensió física. El rostre de Bara, amb la seva boca oberta i els ulls tancats, pot suggerir al mateix temps el dolor, el plaer i la síncope imminent. Sembla com un ressò de la Santa Teresa de Bernini, en la qual l’èxtasi religiós adopta les característiques d’una experiència eròtica. Tanmateix, hom no sabria veure-hi només un element addicional de feminització: aquest aspecte contribueix en efecte a propagar la idea que morir com un heroi és una bella mort, una mort desitjable.

Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini: L’èxtasi de Santa Teresa, 1647-1651. Marbre. Església de Sata Maria de la Victòria, Roma.

El quadre de David va néixer en una situació política molt tensa. El govern jacobí, del qual David en formava part en la seva qualitat de membre del Comitè de Seguretat General, s’esforçava des de la tardor del 1793 a mantenir el moviment popular sota control. Per aquesta raó, imposà, entre altres mesures, restriccions a les activitats públiques de les dones, pel fet que una gran part dels inscrits polítics es reclutaven entre els elements femenins de les classes populars. Després de la prohibició de tots els clubs de dones, a l’octubre del 1793, van subsistir encara algunes societats que acceptaven a les dones i a les quals es va donar de vegades el nom de “societats d’hermafrodites”. Però a París, les societats populars no trigaren a ser dissoltes quasi totalment, cedint el lloc als clubs dels jacobins, que estaven exclusivament reservats a homes. Aquests canvis posen fi al compromís polític de gran importància de les dones en els primers anys de la Revolució, compromís que va conèixer una breu reactivació durant Thermidor.

Si les dones també van quedar privades del dret al vot, van ser, per contra, capaces de fer un bon ús del dret de petició i conquerir diferents maneres de fer sentir la seva veu i participar en el debat polític. Van fundar  grups polítics, com el Club dels ciutadans republicans revolucionaris, que es va convertir en una important tribuna del moviment dels sans-culottes de París durant l’estiu del 1793. Pel seu compromís polític, les dones van trencar les barreres que els havien estat imposades per la construcció d’una naturalesa sexual femenina. Algunes dones van reivindicar el dret a portar armes per defensar-se i defensar la República. Vestides com els homes, les dones van lluitar en les files de l’exèrcit revolucionari. Així Théroigne Méricourt va adquirir la seva fama sota el títol d’”Amazona de la Llibertat”. En els primers anys de la Revolució (i abans), els vestits d’homes i dones no subratllaven les seves diferències sexuals: a partir del 1794 es dóna pas a una moda que mostra més clarament la diferència de sexes. És fàcilment observable comparant el quadre de Dumont del 1731 amb el de Goya del 1800.

Dumont

Jacques Dumont: Madame Mercier, 1731. Oli sobre tela. París, Musée du Louvre.

Goya

Francisco Goya: La família de Carles IV, 1800-1801. Oli sobre tela. 280 × 336 cm. Madrid. Museo del Prado.

Fins l’estiu del 1793, l’ideal de ciutadania republicana que els jacobins consideraven exemplar es basava encara, entre altres, en les qualitats públiques. Però quan els clubs de dones van ser prohibits, els diputats reprengueren arguments que ja havien estat utilitzats abans de la Revolució per a defensar la idea d’una suposada diferència natural entre els sexes, idea que els va permetre establir que la dona estava destinada als treballs domèstics. Els deures republicans de la dona es reduïen a la maternitat, a l’educació i al sacrifici, pel qual es justificava que les ciutadanes només tinguessin dret a una representació política indirecta. Aquest fort rebuig demostra, com el mite de les fúries sanguinàries que va aparèixer després de la caiguda del govern jacobí, les pors  que desencadenava la massiva presència de les dones en l’espai públic.

Recordem el discurs  que Pierre.Gaspard Chaumette, procurador de la comuna de París i líder del partit hébertista, adreçà a les republicanes l’endemà de l’execució d’Olympe de Gouges el 3 novembre del 1793, invertint l’ideal acariciat en el Renaixement de la “virago”[11], la dona-home que seria la igual de l’home en termes d’intel·ligència i virtut:

“Recordeu la desvergonyida Olympe de Gouges que fou la primera a crear  societats de dones, abandonà les feines de la llar, va voler parlar de política i va cometre crims. […] I vosaltres voldríeu imitar-la?  No! Vosaltres sentireu que no sereu veritablement interessants  i dignes d’estima fins que sereu allò que la naturalesa ha volgut que fóssiu.”[12]

En el discurs sobre les cerimònies previstes en honor de Bara que pronuncia a la Convenció l’11 de juliol del 1794,  David també assigna tasques clarament separades a un i altre sexe: a les dones la maternitat i el dol, als homes el combat per la pàtria. La imatge de l’androgin Bara no està concebuda per a contrariar o objectar a aquesta partició dels sexes i a la distribució de les competències que en resulta. Això apareix amb claredat en els textos en els quals David –i això podria d’altra banda semblar francament paradoxal quan ens situem davant del quadre– critica insistentment la societat cortesana i els seus refinaments efeminats, demanant als seus oients comparar “els nostres joves republicans amb aquests vils (…), aquests Sibarites efeminats l’ànima corrompuda dels quals no es fa ni tan sols una idea de la virtut”. En el seu discurs, David fa referència amb gran detall a les virtuts patriòtiques respectives  de cadascun dels membres d’una família republicana, ajustant-se al model familiar jacobí inspirat en Rousseau , que manté que un bon membre d’una família és també un bon ciutadà.

Com Robespierre abans que ell, David en el seu discurs va subratllar l’amor filial de Bara. Ideal de virtut jacobí, l’adolescent reunia amor filial i amor a la pàtria, el respecte pels deures envers la família  i envers la República, que David havia representat, en les seves dues pintures prerevolucionàries dels Horacis i del Brutus, com un conflicte irreconciliable posant en escena l’oposició dels sexes. El quadre de Bara presenta al contrari –amb l’adolescent que sosté fermament a la mà l’escarapel·la  i una carta a la seva mare– com una reconciliació utòpica d’aquests dos elements oposats i relacionats entre si. Considerada en el context de les cerimònies previstes, l’obra no s’inscriu en el marc d’un espectacle en què les funcions de cada sexe són clarament diferenciades. La festa és, per dir-ho així, una exhibició dels sexes oficialment orquestrada. La posada en escena dels grups socials repartits segons l’edat i el sexe en els seus rols familiars i patriòtics és un element essencial de les cerimònies organitzades sota la dictadura jacobina. Aquests esdeveniments tenen com a objectiu principal reforçar la unitat fictícia del poble i la família representa al seu si un model d’ordre social que no vulnera els principis d’igualtat, ja que es basa en una diferència considerada natural.

La figura andrògina de Bara imposa com a tabú la separació i el conflicte polític entre els sexes. En aquest quadre les diferències implícites de classe i de sexe s’esborren. En aquest sentit, la identitat sexual indeterminada, prepúber, del personatge representa una reacció a l’exclusió de les dones de la política. Bara és una figura impossible que representa el subjecte revolucionari ideal alhora com a home i com a dona. La figura de Bara representa l’intent d’encarnar un home innocent i un heroi ferit en un nu alhora ideal i dotat d’una presència sensual. El resultat d’aquesta barreja contradictòria i irreconciliable és una figura violentada.

En el quadre de David, Bara es sostreu al temps per la indeterminació de la decoració i la naturalesa ideal del nu. La caracterització de la persona roman a més bastant vague. El nu i el seu entorn són fets, en aquesta pintura monocroma, de la mateixa matèria. Sobre un fons de paisatge abstracte, el cos es destaca només per una lleugera inflexió de la pinzellada i, en alguns llocs, la figura no es distingeix del tot de l’espai que l’envolta. Estès al terra, el tors, rere el qual el braç esquerre desapareix curiosament, està ribetejat amb una vora de color fosc, que es pot interpretar com una ombra, sobretot a l’espatlla, però que podria també ser un forat en el qual el jove ha posat el seu braç. L’agonitzant sembla a punt de fondre’s amb la “Mare Naturalesa”, que pren aquí l’aparença d’una matèria quasi informe. És per aquesta corporeïtat sostreta a tot context històric, propera a la natura, que el Bara de David s’associa  a l’element femení.

La pintura d’història de David, que reacciona, per la seva interpretació d’un esdeveniment contemporani, a una situació política efectiva, planteja de manera  particularment insistent la qüestió de la relació entre historicitat i ideal en l’apropiació de l’Antiguitat.  Segons Winckelmann, aquesta problemàtica s’articulava a través de la figura del jove: l’eclosió de la seva bellesa només es realitza el temps d’un moment fugitiu o d’un instant aturat. Si l’Endimió de Girodet conserva la seva bellesa, és per estar en el suspens d’un somni etern. L’adolescent Bara és agafat en l’instant en què mor; heroi, duu a terme en mori un ideal patriòtic. Mentre que en Girodet, la dimensió temporal s’esvaeix en l’impecable perfecció del nu i de les veladures, les traces del procés de pintura segueixen sent visibles en les pinzellades del Bara de David, expressant una idea de fugacitat i d’instantaneïtat.  Per la seva idealització i la seva desindividualització, aquesta figura és sostreta a la temporalitat, mentre que la factura pictòrica és pròpia de traduir el caràcter momentani de l’esdeveniment. En un moment àlgid de la situació política, aquest quadre enuncia ja, a la vigília de Thermidor, la crisi que afectarà els esbossos de definició d’una identitat masculina elaborats sota la  Revolució.

Joan Campàs     Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC


[1] Simon Lee (2002). David. Paris. Phaidon. Pàg. 160.

[2] Régis Michel et Marie-Catherine Sahut (1988).  David, l’art et le politique. Paris. Gallimard. Col. « Découvertes ». Pàg. 78

[3] Ibídem, pàg. 80.

[4] Jules Michelet, Histoire de la Révolution Française, Tome IV, chapitre Les Funérailles de Lepelletier,, réédition 2001, Elibron classics, citat per Michel-Sahut, pàg. 80.

[5] Ibídem, pàg. 81.

[6] Aristide Déy (1856). Histoire de la ville et du comté de Saint-Fargeau. Perriquet et Rouillé. Pàg. 402.

[7] Jean Starobinski (1979). 1789. Les emblèmes de la raison. Paris. Flammarion.  pàgs. 79-80.

[8] Pendant: dos o més objectes (normalmente dues pintures o escultures) fetes per a ser percebudes com un conjunt.

[9] Potts (1994). Obr., cit. Pàgs. 235-236.

[10] Kathrin Hoffmann-Curtius (1991), «Opfermodelle am Altar des Vaterlandes seit der Französischen Revolution», a Kohn-Waechter, Gudrun (dir.) (1991). Schrift der Flammen. Opfermythen und Weiblichkeitsentwürfe im 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin. Orlanda Frauenverlag.  pàgs. 63-65.

[11] Virago: terme utilitzat per a descriure a una dona que, en el físic i en especial en la forma de pensar i d’actuar, té trets d’home. El terme deriva del llatí vir (“home”). La paraula tenia connotacions positives en  el context mitològic en el qual es descriuen dones heroiques.

[12] Aquest discurs fou publicat a Le Courrier républicain del 19 de novembre del 1793.

Viatge virtual al Louvre

1. Una visita al museu del Louvre
2. Ieoh Ming Pei: La piràmide del Louvre
3. Leonardo da Vinci: La Gioconda

4. L’hermafrodita adormit del Louvre
5. La funció de l’androgínia a través de les pintures del Louvre
6. Jacques-Louis David: El jurament dels Horacis
7. Jean-Germain Drouais: L’atleta agonitzant
8. David: Els líctors retornant a Brutus els cossos dels seus fills
9. Jean-Germain Drouais: Màrius presoner a Minturnes
10. Girodet: El somni d’Endimió
12. Imatges de la reacció thermidoriana: les Sabines de David
13. Imatges del Consolat: Madame Récamier de David i Els ambaixadors d’Agamèmnon d’Ingres

14. El classicisme sota Napoleó: Gros, Girodet, Prud’hon, Ingres, David
15. Cap el romanticisme: Ingres, Gros, Prud’hon, Girodet, Guérin, Géricault, David
16.Théodore Géricault: El rai de la Medusa
17. Eugène Delacroix: La llibertat guiant el poble

Dossier: Del Rococó al Romanticisme a través del Louvre. Materials de treball

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  46. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  47. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  51. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  52. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  53. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  54. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  55. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  56. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  57. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  90. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  91. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  92. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  93. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  206. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  208. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  209. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  210. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  211. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  212. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  213. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  214. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  234. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  235. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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