Art

Théodore Géricault: El rai de la Medusa

Revolucions burgeses i crisi del neoclassicisme 

En el segon decenni del segle XIX comença la  crisi del Neoclassicisme, art oficial de l’Imperi. Géricault se separa bruscament del classicisme de David. No és l’únic; també Ingres s’allunya d’ell, encara que en direcció oposada. Ingres s’identifica amb Rafael o Poussin i camina per la via de l’idealisme clàssic-cristià oberta par Canova; Géricault s’identifica amb Miquel Àngel i Caravaggio, viu intensament la desesperada experiència de Goya, obre audaçment la vena del realisme que, a través de Daumier i Courbet arribarà, amb Manet, a les portes de l’Impressionisme.

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Théodore Géricault: El rai de la Medusa, 1819. Oli sobre tela. 490,2 x 716,3 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

Géricault, de retorn a París, primer es va sentir atret per la notícia llegida als diaris de l’assassinat a províncies d’un oficial liberal, un tal Fualdès, que aportava  detalls de conspiració secreta, transvestisme i assassinat ritual. Les seves meditacions  sobre el tema no passaren d’un seguit de dibuixos, fins que va trobar un tema on el  sofriment horrible es compensava amb una significació pública molt més clara: el  naufragi el 1816, davant la costa occidental d’Àfrica, de la fragata  Medusa.

La història dels supervivents del desastre no hauria semblat un vehicle apropiat per a les noves ambicions de grandesa clàssica que alimentava Géricault. Un comandament incompetent havia fet que naufragués el buc insígnia d’una petita flota. El capità del vaixell era un aristòcrata que havia tornat  de l’exili que havia menystingut els consells dels experts oficials navals a les seves ordres. Reservats per als privilegiats els insuficients bots salvavides, amb pals i vergues es va construir un rai damunt la precària plataforma oberta del qual es varen amuntegar uns cent cinquanta mariners i  soldats; sense espai per res més que estar dempeus, l’estructura estava tan sobrecarregada que l’aigua arribava a la cintura.

Pel que fa als oficials dels bots (on també hi havia l’impacient governador del Senegal) s’adonaren que remolcar el rai retardava el seu avanç fins quasi parar-lo, i varen tallar les cordes i abandonaren als seus ocupants a la seva sort. Els nàufrags varen haver d’afrontar una tempesta i un espantós episodi de desesperació i deliri en el qual un grup de soldats, amb la intenció de destruir el rai i suïcidar-se col·lectivament, varen atacar violentament als oficials. Aquests mataren i feriren a un bon nombre dels amotinats. Com a conseqüència de la lluita i de les caigudes, accidentals o voluntàries, a les ones, al cap de sis dies el nombre de supervivents no arribava a trenta. Aviat començaren a menjar la carn dels cadàvers que hi havia al rai. Un grup dels més durs i lúcids, entre els quals s’incloïa el cirurgià del vaixell, Savigny, incrementaren aquest horror amb l’organització d’homicidis deliberats dels més propers a la mort per tal d’extreure el màxim partit de les poques provisions. Amb aquests mitjans, quinze varen sobreviure una altra setmana. Quasi en el darrer moment possible va albirar accidentalment el rai un vaixell de salvament, que va dur als supervivents a l’antiga capital francesa de Senegal. Allí en varen morir cinc més; només deu arribaren a França.

Els detalls de la història només es varen conèixer quan membres del govern, contraris al ministre de Marina i en concret a la seva política d’excloure del servei als experts oficials imperials, filtraren a la premsa un informe confidencial escrit per Savigny per tal d’explicar la seva conducta. L’ofesa administració naval va concentrar la seva venjança en el portador de la notícia, el qual es va defensar amb la publicació d’un llibre sobre el desastre escrit en col·laboració amb Corréard, un altre supervivent. La seva causa va trobar suport en el cercle de Vernet, que també estava contra la Restauració. El tractament del tema per part de Géricault va combinar l’atracció pels esdeveniments en ells mateixos i el compromís a favor de les explicacions de les seves accions donades per Savigny i Corréard.

Per tal de defensar-se de les acusacions, el governador del Senegal i les autoritats navals s’aferraren als fets inexorables del canibalisme i de la responsabilitat personal de Savigny en la decisió de recórrer a l’assassinat com a mitjà de supervivència. Géricault va interessar-se a fons per tots els detalls de la terrible experiència dels nàufrags; es deia que havia anat als hospitals a veure personalment als homes moribunds i que havia fet esbossos dels seus rostres i membres amputats. Va dur a terme estudis de composició dels dos episodis de màxim horror, la mutilació dels amotinats i el posterior canibalisme. Però al final les exigències de la seva ambició artística −igualar la grandesa de la pintura d’història de David− varen coincidir amb la vindicació moral dels supervivents del rai. Els nàufrags són redimits d’aquests fets pel sofriment i són salvats pels seus propis poders. Va escollir el moment que per primer cop s’albira el vaixell de rescat i el grup es galvanitza en una darrera acció col·lectiva per tal d’atreure la seva atenció.

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Théodore Géricault: Desesperació i canibalisme al rai de la Medusa, 1818. Llapis negre, tinta marró, realçat amb aiguada blanca sobre paper beix. 28 x 38 cm. Col·lecció privada.

No es pot deixar de reconèixer que el quadre (1819) comunica el seu tema com idea més que com a reportatge versemblant. Si hagués estat fidel als fets, els cossos haurien aparegut prims i desfigurats per la insolació, amb les ferides obertes. En canvi, Géricault va aprofitar l’oportunitat per exhibir tot l’impressionant domini del nu masculí que havia adquirit des que va marxar a Roma. Va afegir figures, incloses les de tres negres, per necessitats de la composició. El jove inconscient al qui mig abraça un protector de mitjana edat és un efeb atenès digne de Girodet, Broc o Guérin. El quadre acabat és un complex híbrid del que és més tradicional (l’ordenament de les figures nues en una piràmide centralitzada) i el que és inesperat (la seva construcció sobre un mar embravit amb un grup de víctimes contemporànies i semi-anònimes). Però en aquesta grandiosa narració amb múltiples figures no va deixar d’insistir en la mateixa problemàtica de l’heroi aïllat que havia preocupat a Géricault en els seus primers quadres públics.

Aquesta és la història: el juny de 1816, el vaixell Medusa, fragata de quaranta-quatre canons, deixa l’illa d’Aix sota les ordres del comte de Chaumareix, un emigrat que ja no navegava des de feia anys. A bord, el governador Schmaltz, enviat per Lluís XVIII per reconquerir el Senegal, restituït a França per Anglaterra després del tractat de Viena de 1815.

Mal dirigida, encalla el 2 de juliol sobre el banc d’Arguin al nord del cap Blanc a l’oceà Atlàntic. El comandant abandona a la seva sort cent cinquanta dels quatre-cents homes de la tripulació. Sense rems, proveïts de galetes i de vi com a únics aliments, damunt d’un rai improvisat (20 m x 7 m), remolcat pels bots salvavides, sota la responsabilitat del guàrdia marina Coudin. Les amarres foren tallades pels propis oficials. Els nàufrags moren ofegats o, ebris i presos de desesperació i de bogeria, es maten entre ells i es mengen els cadàvers. L’horror creix cada dia. Quan el bergantí Argus ve a socórrer-los, només deu homes podran ser reanimats. El comte de Chaumareix compareix davant el Consell de guerra a París. L’opinió liberal no perdona al govern complaent del rei d’haver-lo contractat de nou. Dos supervivents, el cirurgià Savigny i l’enginyer Corréard, publiquen una relació amb la crònica dels fets. França s’horroritza. El 1817, mentre que la llei del silenci s’anava estenent, Géricault troba els supervivents, acusats per la premsa reialista d’antropofàgia. Decideix defensar la seva causa.

El quadre ha estat tractat llargament i apassionadament en un gran taller de Neuilly. A l’hospital Beaujon, Géricault estudia les cares dels agonitzants, els cadàvers i els cossos amputats, buscant la veritat del sofriment i la força de l’expressió. Somia amb un gran tema, adient a la fogositat èpica de Miquel Àngel. Fa posar models entre els quals Joseph, el Negre de moda, amics, un d’ells malalt, i Delacroix. El fuster supervivent li fa una petita rèplica del rai. Per al mar i el cel, va a l’Havre.

Géricault pinta amb inspiració, amb pinzellades atapeïdes i amb pocs mitjans l’episodi final, la victòria de la vida sobre la mort. Una harmonia severa de tons sords i un joc de llum subtil creen una atmosfera tempestuosa. Sobre el rai posat en perspectiva, els cossos componen una gran piràmide el cim de la qual el forma un negre que agita la seva camisa. Les grans línies del quadre convergeixen cap a aquest punt: moviments, actituds, mar. A l’ombra de la vela esquinçada, prop del pal, Corréard ensenya a Savigny un punt ínfim a l’horitzó: el bergantí salvador. Un grup s’incorpora, un altre s’aixeca; uns estan morts, altres agonitzen. Géricault alterna cossos vistos sencers i a mitges, nus o coberts, caps aixecats o abaixats −un està fins i tot immergit, sota la tela−, tors d’esquena i tors de cara −el de Delacroix.

L’agitada escena continua sent acadèmica: nus clàssics, plàstica i relleus vigorosos, contorns precisos. La preocupació per la realitat històrica i pel detall vertader deixa lloc a la síntesi i al color suggestiu. Les carns tenen el color verdós i pàl·lid de la mort. L’asfalt utilitzat per enfosquir els tons amenaça avui amb menjar-se tot els colors. Els liberals oposats a la monarquia hi varen veure un sentit polític, el símbol de la deriva del poble francès governat per un rei reaccionari.

L’obra més famosa de Géricault és, doncs, un quadre d’història contemporània construït sobre un fet real que havia estremit l’opinió pública; el pintor es fa intèrpret del sentiment popular.

Després de molts quadres que celebraven l’epopeia napoleònica, aquest li dóna la volta a la pròpia concepció de la historia; ja no hi ha heroisme ni glòria, sinó desesperació i mort, ja no hi ha triomf sinó desastre. No hi ha cap intenció al·legòrica sinó intuïció que un episodi assumeix un significat que va més enllà del fet: tota la realitat es revela atroç.

El quadre històric-clàssic tenia les seves lleis; pocs protagonistes ordenadament disposats sobre l’escenari, cadascun amb la seva pròpia passió clarament expressada en el gest, resolta en una acció. El model seria El jurament dels Horacis de David (però l’obra de David advoca pel servei a l’Estat, la de Géricault recrimina a l’Estat per abandonar als seus servidors: l’uniforme tirat d’un soldat francès, a la dreta del rai, és una metàfora de l’enfonsament polític i militar de França ). En canvi, en el quadre de Géricault hi ha una multitud, un conjunt de cossos que no fan cap acció, sinó que sofreixen una mateixa angoixa. Hi ha un crescendo que parteix de zero, dels morts del primer pla; després, dels moribunds ja indiferents a tot, es passa als reanimats per una insensata esperança. Hi ha dues forces contràries, la marea humana dels nàufrags i l’onada i el vent. Damunt del pla inestable i oscil·lant del rai, tota la composició està sacsejada per aquests dos impulsos contraris: l’esperança i la desesperació, la vida i la mort. Les figures són encara aquelles figures heroiques de la clàssica pintura històrica: el noi mort és bell (tot i la nota realista dels seus peus embolcallats en draps blancs), el pare que el sosté adopta la postura solemne d’un déu clàssic; els altres morts semblen gegants fulminats per Zeus. Aquesta humanitat, que resulta atropellada per un destí advers, és una humanitat grandiosa, històrica, ideal; per això és més tràgica la seva derrota.

La crítica ha parlat d’una síntesi minuciosa de citacions literàries i artístiques del passat, o d’un manifest realista contra l’idealisme neoclàssic. S’hi ha vist igualment una obra simbòlica sobre el sentit de la vida, la resistència ferotge de la voluntat humana a les forces elementals de la naturalesa. Géricault s’ha defensat de totes aquestes interpretacions, no retenint més que l’al·legoria de l’horror i l’acte valent i humanitari d’un ciutadà, davant els sofriments humans. La tria d’aquest tema d’història obre la via al romanticisme. Delacroix s’hi inspirarà.

La seva indecisió, de catastròfiques conseqüències, sobre la ubicació del quadre en el Saló de 1819 fou una manifestació directa de la seva ambigua personalitat: li semblava que els organitzadors l’havien penjat en un punt massa baix de la paret, i va decidir penjar-lo més amunt. Però quan el va veure en aquella posició va reconèixer que havia comès un gran error. Ell sentia que la posició elevada era l’adequada per a una imponent composició històrica (sabem que el seu decòrum requeria una certa distància de l’espectador, de manera que el conjunt resultés llegible i la importància dels detalls convenientment reduïda). Els cossos del Rai estan pintats amb tota la imponent generalitat exigida per la tradició, però Géricault i els seus amics tenien raó en el fet que el quadre perdia força com més s’allunyava de l’espectador. Les decisions compositives estaven en funció de posar a les figures en presència de l’espectador fins a produir la il·lusió que els cossos desbordaven l’espai pictòric. Sense la presència immediata d’alguns detalls, el contacte amb el drama es perdia.

Un d’aquests detalls és la mà estesa del jove inconscient a la part inferior esquerra. Com totes les figures del quadre, és d’una dimensió doble del natural; per molt que un s’apropi al quadre, això té l’efecte de fer-la semblar el doble de prop del que es podria esperar. La paradoxa del Rai és que les seves colossals dimensions, alhora creen i demanen una intimitat d’enfocament normalment reservada a la pintura de cavallet. La cadena de cossos entremesclats, unides les races d’Europa i Àfrica, esdevé l’equivalent d’un únic cos en estat de transformació; la seva acceleració interna parteix del grup de figures moribundes a l’esquerra, puja en l’alerta revifada en el centre i culmina en l’extàtica vitalitat de les frenètiques senyals que es fan en el pinacle del grup.

Quan el Rai es va donar a conèixer, l’escàndol ja havia tingut les seves conseqüències: el capità havia estat deposat i el governador i el ministre destituïts. Una nova llei va obrir les files militars als qui havien servit sota l’Imperi. Géricault va creure que aquest final seria recompensat amb la compra de la seva obra per part d’alguna institució. Però no va ser així; és cert que fou molt valorat i va rebre una medalla, però a França no hi havia destí privat possible per una obra d’aquestes característiques i la seva decepció va ser molt forta.

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Horace Vernet: La Barrière de Clichy, 1820. Oli sobre tela. 97 ,5 x 130,5 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

Cèlebre pels seus quadres militars, Vernet descriu aquí la defensa de París, el 30 de març de 1814. En el centre, el mariscal Moncey dóna les seves ordres a l’orfebre Claude Odiot, coronel de la guàrdia nacional, per a qui ha estat pintada l’obra. Els detalls realistes, com els dos ferits del primer pla, en van assegurar l’èxit popular.

L’estudi de Vernet esdevingué un centre social per a joves ex oficials i artistes desafectes, avorrits i contraris a la Restauració. Allí va trobar Géricault el seu ambient natural, però estava mancat de la seva despreocupació pels temes artístics. Ara era potser l’únic de la seva generació interessat a recuperar els valors formals amb el sentit moral que havien tingut durant la República.

 

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Eugène Delacroix: Dante i Virgili als inferns, dit també La Barca de Dante, 1822. Oli sobre tela. 188 x 241 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

La seva primera aparició al Saló va deixar clar que no absorbiria la seva cultura italiana pels conductes institucionals normals. Si Géricault havia posposat la seva peregrinació a Itàlia, Delacroix hi renunciaria (en canvi, viatjaria al nord d’Àfrica seguint l’expansió colonial francesa). Sense la formació tradicional, com enfrontar-se a les exigències intel·lectuals i tècniques de la pintura d’història? En aquest quadre apunta una solució: el conreu del gust literari més avançat, que en aquest període estava elevant certes tradicions poètiques alternatives per damunt del llegat del classicisme francès: Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe i Byron per damunt de Racine i Voltaire. Durant els anys vint del segle XIX, Delacroix il·lustraria a tots aquests escriptors estrangers.

Però en la seva recerca de mitjans per fer un quadre de fonts literàries va retornar al Rai  de Géricault, que segons ell, concentrava i filtrava tota la tradició precedent de la pintura d’història. Tot i que Dante descriu el pas per un fangar tranquil i amb boira, Delacroix va preferir mostrar la barca amenaçada per un mar turbulent. El que fa és aprofitar l’Infern per a recordar la previsible equació del sofriment i els pecats dels supervivents del Rai amb els càstigs de l’infern. Les ànimes condemnades que s’agafen a la barca recorden immediatament els cossos del rai. Sobre aquesta plataforma de cossos, Delacroix ha construït una piràmide compositiva coronada pel gest del poeta que assenyala un distant horitzó.

La manca d’un segur domini del dibuix es compensa posant l’accent en la textura i multiplicant els incidents i efectes en la superfície. Delacroix no deixarà aquest estadi i, a partir d’ell, forjarà un idioma pictòric coherent i capaç d’organitzar les més complexes estructures narratives, Per tal d’arribar a entendre aquest art, que és considerat com l’essència del romanticisme, és important veure la manera com la pràctica de Delacroix representa la conseqüència lògica d’un desenvolupament l’origen del qual es remunta a la darrera dècada del segle XVIII. Gérard i Guérin varen establir el model de l’èxit precoç al Saló quan l’Acadèmia de Roma es va tancar per la guerra i les exposicions revolucionàries varen abolir les antigues restriccions a l’admissió d’obres. La seva capacitat per aprofitar aquesta oportunitat, dignificada per la noció davidiana de l’artista com exemple auto-creat de virtut, varen ajudar a separar la carrera artística de les antigues associacions artesanals. I això va fer que la pintura semblés una aventura atractiva i factible per a un afeccionat quasi aristocràtic com el jove Géricault. I un cop limitat a la seva mínima expressió el paper exercit en el seu desenvolupament per les rutines normals de formació i socialització, el següent pas era moure’s permanentment fora de l’opressiva disciplina encarnada pels procediments del Premi de Roma, amb el seu control de les etapes de progrés, la humiliant submissió a múltiples judicis i els anys de conformitat servil.

Géricault no va trigar a reconèixer que el preu que calia pagar per aquesta abstinència era considerable, però Delacroix estava disposat a assumir-lo. L’artista tenia poques rutines apreses en les quals confiar, i el fons de coneixements secrets, en altre temps tan pacientment absorbit durant anys d’exercitació artística entre els monuments d’Itàlia, també s’havia reduït. Fins llavors cap pintor amb ambicions podia passar per alt les tradicionals exigències de gran erudició i elevació de pensament, però ara aquestes qualitats depenien dels recursos intel·lectuals inevitablement limitats, dels qual cada individu pogués disposar. I l’enorme pressió per obtenir resultats immediats redundava en la necessitat de rapidesa i economia en l’execució. Les credencials d’aquest nou model d’artista no les garantia cap institució: havia de provar-se i demostrar-se en cada exposició al públic. Cada quadre amb aspiracions més gran era un exercici especulatiu on s’imposava captar l’atenció del públic mitjançant una eficaç combinació del que és familiar i el que és sorprenentment nou.

La barca de Dante reunia tots aquests requisits en una tela de dimensions relativament modestes. Per al Saló de 1824 va intentar treure partit a aquest èxit públic amb un quadre a escala monumental.

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Eugène Delacroix: Les matances de Quios, 1824. Oli sobre tela. 417,2 x 354 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

El tema prové dels recents esdeveniments en la guerra grega de la independència dels turcs otomans, que havia  començat el 1821 i duraria més d’una dècada. Es tractava de la famosa batalla en la qual va participar el poeta anglès Byron, que moriria a Missolonghi aquest mateix any. La causa grega va constituir també un punt de reunió pels liberals desafectes a França, irritats amb el règim repressiu de Carles X. Obligat el govern a secundar la política de la Santa Aliança a favor dels turcs, els liberals aprofitaren per presentar-se com a defensors dels valors essencials d’Occident enfront del brutal despotisme oriental.

Uns dos anys abans, la població de l’illa de Quíos (llegendari lloc del naixement d’Homer i un centre d’estudis hel·lènics) havia estat sotmesa a una brutal campanya de terror, els seus pobles destruïts i els seus habitants assassinats o convertits en esclaus.

Les matances de Quíos, tanmateix, va deixar clares les dificultats que implicava intentar construir alguna cosa sobre la base d’El rai de la Medusa sense enfrontar-se a la tasca d’un llarg procés d’immersió en el tema i d’assaig i error per a trobar la composició definitiva. El grup principal es troba barroerament disposat en el format vertical (més de tres metres d’altura) perquè Delacroix només fou capaç de trobar una manera de tractar l’enorme zona superior omplint sumàriament l‘espai. El quadre no té un focus d’acció efectiva, amb el que reparteix l’atenció entre diversos fragments, els quals no són molt evocadors dels excessos concrets dels turcs. Un guerrer a cavall s’enduu captiva una dona nua i es disposa a matar l’home que mira de defensar-la, però el seu port altiu, el seu esplèndid vestit i la facilitat amb la qual domina al fogós cavall fascinen més que repel·leixen.

Les confusions del quadre són les mateixes confusions del sentiment filo hel·lènic a la França de l’època. Les estereotipades imatges de les quals Delacroix es va servir sovintejaven en les reaccions periodístiques i literàries a les massacres. La polèmica a favor dels grecs, juntament amb la moda inspirada per les indumentàries típiques de la Mediterrània oriental, sovint derivava en tributs d’admiració a la bellesa dels cossos i vestits turcs. Delacroix no en sabia prou sobre les persones i la causa que estaven celebrant. Com tants liberals frustrats, la batalla que no eren capaços de donar en el seu país la varen substituir per la identificació imaginària amb una remota resistència colonial. Per tant, el quadre no podia aportar la coherència de la que estava mancada la seva incerta motivació política.

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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: El vot de Lluís XIII, 1824. Oli sobre tela. 421 x 264,5 cm. Catedral de Montauban.

L’any del revés públic de Delacroix amb Les matances de Quios fou també d’èxit en el Saló per a Ingres al seu retorn de la llarga temporada que va passar a Itàlia com a expatriat. Durant els quatre anys anteriors havia treballat en un gran quadre encarregat per a la catedral de la seva ciutat natal de Montauban. El tema combinava un motiu devocional normal, la Marededéu i el Nen, amb un fragment de l’historicisme ultra reialista, el vot de Lluís XIII (que dóna al quadre el seu títol).

El monarca del segle XVII es mostra en la posició normalment ocupada per un sant adorant. El vot en qüestió va consistir en la consagració del regne a la Marededéu en demanda d’auxili diví per a derrotar les forces dels protestants francesos.

Per als seus primers espectadors fou un quadre bàsicament conservador, baluard de la resistència contra l’ascens del romanticisme, una celebració de totes les ortodòxies,  la monarquia, el catolicisme, la família, la nació, i tot organitzat seguint el mestratge de Rafael: la idea d’una escena dual, amb el món natural a baix i la revelació divina a dalt, és la de la Transfiguració; la marededéu és una creació bessona de la Madonna Sixtina; els putti provenen de la Madonna di Foligno i de la Marededéu del Baldaquí, de la qual Ingres en treu també els seus àngels. No hi ha quasi cap detall en el quadre d’Ingres que no evoqui al seu gran precursor. Com s’esdevé amb l’odalisca, Ingres irealitza a la Marededéu mitjançant l’abstracció. La configuració elegida de les celles, el nas i la boca és molt precària; el més lleuger desplaçament en qualsevol dels  elements necessitaria ajustaments i compensacions. La Marededéu del vot està pintada com si Ingres estigués seguint el mandat de Leonardo: “sel pittore vol vedere bellezze, che lo innamorino, egli n’è signore di generarle” (si el pintor desitja veure belleses que l’enamorin, ell és amo de generar-les).

Tot el quadre porta fins a l’extrem l’enfocament historicista d’Ingres, executat amb la precisió típica de la seva professionalitat. Des del 1820 havia passat la major part del temps a Florència i el motiu religiós central és una indissimulada barreja de diverses versions d’aquest tema fetes per Rafael. Com a resultat, el quadre és una inestable concatenació de parts i graus de ficció. La Marededéu i el Nen són aparentment o una visió o una presència divina no vista, però l’efecte és el de l’adoració d’una coneguda obra d’art. Les cortines entreobertes signifiquen un desvetllament terrenal o els límits d’un escenari teatral. Invertint l’antiga relació entre el mecenes reial i l’artista, el dret diví es mostra cercant la seva confirmació en la benedicció del geni d’un artista.

El quadre va rebre una molt bona acollida oficial. Hi ha un quadre de François-Joseph Heim en el qual apareix Carles X repartint els premis al Saló de 1824: el vot d’Ingres es troba ubicat directament damunt de la figura del rei. Com Gérard ja havia entès, amb la seva Entrada d’Enric IV, que les formes externes de la dinastia borbònica restaurada amb el suport de les potències estrangeres no podien ser altres que l’exhibició teatral de passats moments de glòria. Els artistes que amb més entusiasme varen mirar de respondre a les necessitats del règim acabaren produint el més pregon desemmascaradament del seu caràcter superficial i artificial. L’instint d’Ingres havia fallat amb Napoleó, que creia haver creat una nova síntesi de les formes antigues i modernes de poder estatal, però va encertar de ple amb la Restauració. El seu següent pas fou una monumental al·legoria per al nou museu reial, l’Apoteosi d’Homer, famós per la fossilització que en ell es produeix d’una rígida genealogia cultural que, passant pel classicisme francès dels temps de Lluís XIV, l’Alt Renaixement i l’Atenes de Pèricles, remunta els seus orígens a la mateixa cultura grega arcaica.

Heim_Salo_1824

François-Joseph Heim: Sa Majesté Charles X distribue des récompenses aux artistes, à la fin du Salon de 1824, 1825-27. Oli sobre tela. 256 x 173 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

Els comentaristes de l’època, seguint un costum de l’estètica revolucionària, intentaren inserir les eleccions estilístiques dels artistes en un marc de significació moral i política. Aquesta construcció ha persistit fins els nostres dies com oposició entre el conservadorisme regressiu de la manera d’Ingres i el caràcter alliberador del colorisme gestual de Delacroix. Però no era tan fàcil convertir a aquest en partidari de l’ordre social vigent. Un dels grans èxits oficials del Saló de 1827 fou el Naixement d’Enric IV d’Eugène Devéria (1805-1865), on la pompa reial és representada amb pinzellades manifestament obertes, colors de gamma alta i profusa invenció en els detalls. Aquesta obra va dur a terme la infantilització del poder reial que Ingres havia iniciat el 1817 amb Enric IV jugant amb els seus fills, un petit quadre de gabinet executat a la delicada manera d’una miniatura flamenca.

Deveria_EnricIV

Eugène Devéria: El naixement d’Enric IV, 1827. Oli sobre tela. 484 x 392 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

L’èxit de Devéria, que li va reportar una pluja de premis i encàrrecs, va fer d’ell durant un temps el líder indiscutible de l’escola “romàntica”. Això va confirmar a molts republicans en la seva opinió que la tècnica ràpida i gestual, i l’accent en el color més que en la línia, representaven una covard i antipatriòtica acceptació dels estils anglesos, en concret el de Thomas Lawrence (1769 – 1830). El romanticisme per a ells era l’estil distintiu de l’odiada Santa Aliança i una traïció als assoliments dels pintors francesos durant la República i l’Imperi, que havien emulat les conquestes dels exèrcits francesos i provocat la imitació admirativa dels artistes de tota Europa. A aquesta posició li mancava, però, una personalitat artística que li donés forma. Ingres era una viva refutació de la necessària connexió entre republicanisme i classicisme. Fins i tot el mateix David, exiliat a Brussel·les des del 1815, es va dedicar a retrats i exercicis esotèrics sobre la mitologia grega. Gran part de la frustració d’aquesta facció va aflorar en les reaccions emocionals a la mort de Girodet el 1824. Una gran processó es va formar pel funeral, i Gros va improvisar, vora la tomba, una disculpa per haver abandonat el veritable camí de la correcció en el dibuix a favor de les superficials gratificacions que reportava el color i l’execució imprecisa.

Joan Campàs     Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Viatge virtual al Louvre

1. Una visita al museu del Louvre
2. Ieoh Ming Pei: La piràmide del Louvre
3. Leonardo da Vinci: La Gioconda

4. L’hermafrodita adormit del Louvre
5. La funció de l’androgínia a través de les pintures del Louvre
6. Jacques-Louis David: El jurament dels Horacis
7. Jean-Germain Drouais: L’atleta agonitzant
8. David: Els líctors retornant a Brutus els cossos dels seus fills
9. Jean-Germain Drouais: Màrius presoner a Minturnes
10. Girodet: El somni d’Endimió
11. David i la mort revolucionària: Lepeletier, Marat, Bara
12. Imatges de la reacció thermidoriana: les Sabines de David

13. Imatges del Consolat: Madame Récamier de David i Els ambaixadors d’Agamèmnon d’Ingres
14. El classicisme sota Napoleó: Gros, Girodet, Prud’hon, Ingres, David
15. Cap el romanticisme: Ingres, Gros, Prud’hon, Girodet, Guérin, Géricault, David
17. Eugène Delacroix: La llibertat guiant el poble 

Dossier: Del Rococó al Romanticisme a través del Louvre. Materials de treball

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  105. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  137. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  139. I have been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

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  143. I simply wanted to say thanks again. I’m not certain the things I would’ve carried out in the absence of these points provided by you regarding such field. It was before a real daunting difficulty in my view, nevertheless considering the very skilled style you treated the issue took me to jump with fulfillment. Extremely grateful for the advice and then expect you comprehend what a great job that you’re putting in training the rest all through your site. Most likely you’ve never met all of us.

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  147. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  148. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  149. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  150. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  151. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  152. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  153. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  154. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  155. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  172. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such great info being shared freely out there.

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  177. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  178. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  179. I simply want to tell you that I am just all new to blogs and honestly enjoyed you’re blog. Very likely I’m likely to bookmark your site . You definitely come with very good article content. Cheers for sharing your blog.

  180. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  181. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  182. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

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