General

1. Una visió de conjunt de l’art paleolític

Llegim a la web oficial del Museu d’Altamira: «El arte es un patrimonio exclusivo de nuestra especie, Homo sapiens, portadora de capacidades neurobiológicas que hacen posible la creación simbólica.»[1]

Mirem, ara, la web oficial del Museo de Atapuerca, quan parla del bifaç «Excalibur» d’uns 400.000 anys d’antiguitat, tallat per l’homo heldelbergensis; s’hi llegeix: «Un hacha de mano símbolo de inteligencia, la referencia del comportamiento simbólico más antiguo encontrado o un bifaz de cuarcita»[2].

Dos llocs de referència sobre la prehistòria i dues visions oposades.

La d’Altamira fa començar l’art i el llenguatge amb l’Homo sapiens, i nega  qualsevol valor simbòlic als objectes més antics de 50.000 ane. És el darrer estadi de l’evolució cerebral la que confereix als humans la seva capacitat de simbolització. Aquesta seria la posició d’André Leroi-Gourhan,  Denis Vialou, Emmanuel Anati, Iain Davidson, William Nobble,  Phillip G. Chase, i Harold Lewis Dibble. [3]

La d’Atapuerca està més en la línia d’autors com de Alexander Marshack, Paul Bahn,  Robert G. Bednarik,  i Dietrich Mania[4] que estan a favor d’una evolució artística gradual a través dels centenars de mil·lennis del Paleolític i en tot Àfrica, Europa i Àsia.

Davant d’aquestes dues visions oposades ens hem de plantejar: L’origen de l’art està vinculat a l’aparició de l’home modern? Dit amb d’altres paraules: l’art és una activitat exclusiva de l’homo sapiens? Quins dels objectes exhumats a les excavacions o grafies conservades a les roques mereixen el qualificatiu d’artístic? Quan els humans tenen la capacitat o intencionalitat de produir-los?  Quan, com i per què va sorgir la capacitat simbòlica?Al llarg del curs mirarem de respondre aquestes, i altres, qüestions, i presentarem els pros i contres de les dues perspectives citades. D’entrada, tanmateix, ens cal fer una mirada a les restes arqueològiques del Paleolític per tal d’obtenir una visió de conjunt de la seva producció o col·lecció. S’han seleccionat una sèrie d’artefactes, ordenats cronològicament,  per la problemàtica que presenten i per l’interès que tindran en el discurs que anirem elaborant.

1. Pedres rares de colors

Makapansgat
Còdol de jaspilita de Makapansgat, Sud Àfrica, d’una antiguitat d’uns 3 milions d’anys.

Una de les restes més antigues és aquesta pedra de color brillant trobada en un jaciment al sud d’Àfrica, a Makapansgat. Es tracta d’un còdol de jaspilita, una varietat de jaspi, descobert en un nivell datat de 3 milions de any, segons Raymond Dart. Aquest còdol ha cridat atenció no només pel seu color vermell, sinó també per evocar la seva estranya forma un rostre humà. Un Australopithecus va recórrer una distància de diversos quilòmetres per a portar-la al seu hàbitat.

Els prehistoriadors s’han malfiat molt d’aquestes «pedres-figures». En prehistòria, per tal que una pedra-figura pugui ser considerada com a tal, cal que palesi, d’una manera o d’una altra, una intervenció humana: que hagi estat descoberta en un nivell arqueològic i que es tingui la prova que ha estat objecte d’un transport intencional, o que porti les senyals indiscutibles d’un retoc o d’un esbós de treball humà. És el cas d’aquesta pedra-figura  de Makapansgat.

Volem destacar, ara, el fet de ser de color vermell. En el jaciment de l’acheulià antic de Gaded, datat d’uns 1.500.000 anys, la presència de fragments de basalt erosionats que, quan es freguen, produeixen un pigment vermell, suggereixen que l’Homo erectus va poder ja, en temps remots, utilitzar pigments. Durant centenars de milers d’anys del Paleolític antic, matèries colorants han estat col·lecionades regularment per l’Homo erectus. Amb quina finalitat?

2. Poliedres o esferoides

poliedre_esferoide
Poliedre esferoide, també anomenat “boleadora” de 2.000.000 anys. Bola de Sidi Abderrahman. Acheulià. Musée de l’Homme, Paris.

Al llarg de Paleolític inferior i mitjà,entre els còdols tallats de la acheulià i del mosterià, i al costat d’ascles, choppers (palets), bifaços  i altres varietats d’eines, apareixen boles de pedra enigmàtiques que els prehistoriadors anomenen «poliedres», «subesferoides», «esferoides» o «llaç amb boles –“boleadoras”» (abreujadament: PSSB).

Els poliedres són esferes matusseres, tosques, de cares desbastades (se n’ha tret la part superficial); tenen la mida d’una taronja i poden arribar a pesar 1 kgr.

Aquests objectes, que es troben en el conjunt d’Àfrica i una gran part d’Euràsia, apareixen al voltant de fa 2 milions d’anys a Àfrica, és a dir, diversos centenars de mil·lennis  abans dels bifaços. Es troben sobretot a l’olduvaià de les gorges d’Olduvai, en el conjunt del Magrib, a sud Àfrica i en tot l’acheulià africà. Segueixen les migracions de l’Homo erectus al Proper Orient abans d’1 milió d’anys, a Europa oriental, en el conjunt d’Europa, en particular a França on són contemporànies de la glaciació de Riss… Semblen representar les primeres creacions de forma geomètrica. Però, per a què servien? Amb quina finalitat es realitzava el treball de desbastar la pedra fins a obtenir-me una bola quasi perfecta?

esferoide_Boucherit
Esferoide del jaciment d’Aïn Boucherit, Argèlia, d’uns 2 milions d’anys

Introduïdes per l’Homo  erectus (ja l’Homo habilis sembla haver tallat formes polièdriques aparentment inútils). Alguns investigadors  diuen que estaven destinades a ser llançades contra els animals… però moltes  d’elles pesen més de 10 kg, altres estan fetes d’argila (massa fràgil). «La seva disposició en piles  i la seva associació amb dipòsits d’eines donen la impressió que hem de tractar amb elements de cultes […] fa 2 milions d’anys, els humans tenien la idea de l’esfera i van intentar de fer-la en  objectes físics, a través de treball dur sobre una matèria resistent […] potser descobrirem més endavant  possibles aplicacions per a ells»[5].

3. Còdols, proto-bifaços i bifaços

codol_Melka_Kunture
Còdol treballat, un dels més antics exemples d’indústria lítica. Melka Kunturé, Etiòpia. 1,7 milions d’anys. 77 x 70 x 65 mm.
proto_bifaços
Proto-bifaços d’una antiguitat de 1.750.000 d’anys. Anvers i revers. El quart començant per l’esquerra fa 22,9 x 9 cm.
fendidors
Estris (fendidors, còdols…) d’una antiguitat de 1.750.000, 1.600.000 i 1.250.000 anys respectivament (d’esquerra a dreta)
evolucio_bifaços
Refinament de bifaços al llarg del temps. Anvers i revers. Antiguitat per parelles, d’esquerra a dreta: 1,75 Ma, 1,6 Ma, 1,25 i 0,85 Ma

Els “bifaços” són eines en forma d’ametlla, tallats per dues cares; estan proveïts d’una punta afilada i d’una base en general arrodonida, de vegades sense tallar, el que permet una bona prensió. Aquestes eines, que posseeixen un tall perifèric, poden ser fabricades a partir d’un bloc, d’un còdol, d’un nòdul o d’una gran ascla.

Els primers bifaços deriven dels còdols tallats: extraccions perifèriques al voltant dels còdols produeixen palets discoïdals; extraccions addicionals els transformen gradualment en bifaços. També es pot entreveure l’origen de bifaços en els poliedres.
La seva grandària màxima s’escala entre 30 i 5 cm i el seu pes entre unes desenes i unes centenes de grams. Alguns poden fins i tot superar el quilogram.

Apareixen a l’Acheulià antic d’Àfrica oriental, a Olduvai, fa uns 1,4 milions d’anys. Tanmateix,  algunes formes tosques, anomenades «protobifaços», han estat indicades en les indústries olduvaianes més antigues; segons Bar Yosef, a partir d’uns 1,7 milions d’anys, les poblacions d’Homo erectus produïen indústries de bifaços i indústries d’ascles i còdols tallats que reapareixen en moments i medis diferents. El bifaç és la peça «símbol de l’Acheulià» i ha de ser considerada com una invenció de l’Homo erectus.

Eren sens dubte eines multi-funcions que servien, alhora per tallar, fregar, perforar, colpejar. Generalment eren utilitzats amb la mà. La seva longevitat, la seva universalitat, l’atenció i cura prestades per treballar-les i transformar-les, la quantitat i sovint la qualitat de matèria que exigeixen per a la seva fabricació poden semblar sorprenents si se’ls compara amb la facilitat d’obtenció d’eines més especialitzades i més eficients  (ascles, raspadors, puntes…) la producció de les quals era, al mateix temps, també abundant. Com molts autors ho han afirmat, no respon doncs sens dubte únicament a necessitats materials. Leakey ha considerat l’existència d’un sistema de bescanvi a l’Àfrica oriental amb els bifaços de fina  obsidiana de Kariandusi (Kenya).

Es planteja, doncs, la qüestió: per què fabricar bifaços, la producció dels quals és més complicada i costosa, si les ascles poden fer  el mateix treball amb la mateixa eficàcia? Tenien alguna funció més que la de simples eines útils?

Excalibur
Excalibur, Sima de los Huesos. Bifaç de quarsita de 400.000 anys, tallada per l’homo heilderbergensis. 5,58 cm de longitud màxima, 9,85 cm d’ample i 4,987 cm de gruix. Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos.

Aquest bifaç de quarsita vermella va ser descobert entre la trentena d’esquelets dels pous de la Sima de los Huesos, a Atapuerca. Aquesta peça, feta d’un material escollit, de color particular, és considerada pels seus descobridors com una ofrena dipositada al costat dels morts que van ser llançats a un pou funerari; el context palesa un comportament altament simbòlic dels pre-neandertals, fa uns 400.000 anys.

Existia, doncs, la capacitat simbòlica en l’Homo erectus? Com es podria demostrar? Quin significat es pot atribuir a aquesta insistència en objectes de color vermellós?

4. Les primeres [mal anomenades] Venus

Venus_Berekhat_Ram
Venus de Berekhat Ram. 3,5 cm. descoberta el 1981, a Mas’adah, al peu del mont Hermon. Antiguitat d’entre 250.000 i 280.000 anys

Durant una excavació, el 1981, a l’indret acheulià a l’aire lliure de Berekhat Ram[6], un petit nòdul de tova volcànica de 3,5 cm d’alçada i 2,5 cm d’ample, va ser descobert per Naama Goren-Inbar[7]. La seva ubicació en els nivells datats per mètodes radiomètrics permet estimar la seva edat en uns 250.000 a 280.000 anys. Es tracta d’una pedra-figura retocada per humans per tal d’accentuar la seva semblança natural amb una silueta femenina. Malgrat l’escepticisme d’alguns investigadors, Alexander Marshack que ha efectuat un examen microscòpic de la peça, accepta l’existència d’algunes raspadures en el pit, les espatlles, el coll i els braços.

Hom se sorprèn no només de l’edat extraordinària d’aquesta estatueta, sinó sobretot de la seva estranya similitud amb les venus del paleolític superior, les més antigues de les quals daten de 25.000 a 28.000 anys.

Com explicar aquesta similitud general? Es tracta d’una simple convergència? Per què figures/estàtues de dones i no d’homes?

Un segon estudi al microscopi realitzat per Francesco d’Errico i  April Nowell[8] conclou que «les modificacions observades, especialment per sota del “cap”, no poden haver estat fetes de forma natural en aquest tipus de material»[9]. Segons D’Errico, els «braços»  també han estat «realitzats amb una eina», i la base ha estat «acuradament» erosionada de manera que l’estatueta podria «posar-se dreta». Una vegada més, la posició és molt diferent de la de Mithen que  nega el valor d’una simple pedra que com a màxim s’havia treballat durant «cinc minuts»[10] per  l’Homo erectus

Tan_Tan
Tan-Tan proto-figura, c. 400.000 anys. 6 cm.

Aquesta proto-figura podria se una de les primeres evidències de l’aplicació de pigment, color ocre (òxid de manganès i òxid de ferro). Descoberta el 1999 per l’equip d’excavacions de l’arqueòleg alemany Lutz Fieldler, a 15 metres de profunditat, en un sediment fluvial del riu Draa, prop de la localitat de Tan-Tan (al nord de Tarfaya, El Marroc). El seu estudi, encara en curs, haurà de confirmar si la pedra ha estat retocada.

5. Les cúpules

cupules_Daraki_Chattan
Cúpules de la cova de Daraki-Chattan, a la vall del Chambal (a l’oest del Madhya Pradesh, Índia). 200.000 anys.

La cova de Daraki-Chattan, a la vall del Chambal (a l’oest del Madhya Pradesh, Índia) ha estat objecte d’un estudi aprofundit realitzat per un equip d’investigadors indis i australians; aquest estudi aporta dades científiques noves sobre l’existència d’una «producció simbòlica» rupestre al final del Paleolític inferior. Les dues parets d’aquesta petita cavitat, oberta en una quarsita molt dura d’època primària, estan cobertes de cúpules. Fa uns anys, Giriraj Kumar n’havia comptat més de 500 i havia mostrat que la seva distribució semblava en general anàrquica, a excepció d’alguns alineaments i d’una organització local en semi cercle. Aquest autor havia recollit del terra algunes eines de quarsita atribuïbles a l’acheulià, el que és força freqüent en aquesta regió de l’Índia. En les excavacions fetes durant el 2004-2005, al peu de les parets on hi ha les cúpules, s’han trobat diverses plaques que porten cúpules, procedents de l’exfoliació de les parets, i s’han descobert vestigis de traçats parietals formats per solcs profunds en els nivells acheulians superior que contenien un utillatge característic d’ascles, nuclis, choppers, bifaços i fins i tot percussors que havien servit per a fer les cúpules parietals i els solcs. Aquests treballs, acompanyats de mesures d’edat dels sediments aporten, sembla, la prova que, de moment, Daraki-Chattan és sens dubte la cova més antiga adornada del món descoberta fins ara. Segons la indústria associada, dataria del final del Paleolític inferior, al voltant dels 200.000 anys.

Aquesta troballa confirma l’existència molt antiga de capacitat simbòlica. Les cúpules sovintegen en els abrics rocosos de l’Índia, però la seva datació és delicada, ja que només pot ser establerta  mitjançant una relació indiscutible amb un nivell arqueològic.

6. Marques i pigments vermells

Ocre_Klasies_River
Ocre mòlt amb feixos d’incisions lineals i paral·leles en una de les cares. Cova de Klasies River a la província del Cap Oriental de Sud-àfrica. 100.000 anys d’antiguitat

Ocre_Klasies_River2

Es tracta d’un còdol acolorit que porta una seqüència d’incisions lineals i pot ser considerat com el gravat més antic del món, amb una antiguitat de  100.000 anys. Associat amb restes humanes, indica que la peça va ser gravada per l’Homo sapiens

A Sud-àfrica, l’ocre vermell ha estat assenyalat al nivell acheulià de la cova de  Wonderwerk, i datat de 900.000 ane[11]. Més tard, ocre vermell va ser trobat en llocs acheulians de 300 000  anys d’antiguitat  a l’Àfrica, l’Índia i França (Terra Amata, 380.000 ane amb 75 residus i la llar on l’ocre vermell era produït per combustió). Descobriments recents inclouen les  excavacions a Twin Rivers, Zàmbia, on Larry Barham van trobar 176 fragments de materials acolorits  de 5 colors diferents, en capes d’entre 260.000 i 400.000 ane, i altres 132 datats del  200.000 ane[12]. Aquest descobriment demostra la continuïtat en l’ús de l’ocre vermell per l’Homo erectus i  els primers Homo sapiens arcaics.

A la República Txeca, a Berçov (150.000 ane, Mosterià) es va descobrir un important  quantitat de pols disseminada d’ocre vermell, i una pedra d’esmolar utilitzada per a produir aquesta pols[13]. A  Hongria, a Tata (100.000 ane) es va trobar una placa d’ivori polit coberta amb ocre vermell en una cara.

ivori_Tata
Placa d’ivori de Tata

Fou descoberta en els llocs on vivien els neandertals. L’anàlisi microscòpica mostra que el Neanderthal que va crear aquesta placa, va  bisellar acuradament la vora. Les restes d’ocre vermell a les esquerdes de la superfície revelen que s’hi va aplicar color.

Blombos_ocre
Art mobiliari de la cova Blombos, Sud-Àfrica. Bifaços, bloc d’ocre gravat i atzagaies d’una antiguitat de 75.000 anys.

L’ús del colorant esdevé sistemàtic en el conjunt de l’àrea poblada pels neandertals, des de l’Orient Pròxim (Israel, Llban) fins el sud-oest europeu, i en particular, el sud-oest de França (en els jaciments de Périgord).

A Sud-àfrica, el pigment vermell és àmpliament utilitzat en aquesta època. Nombroses coves – hàbitats d’aquest país (coves de Bambata, de Pomongwo, de Klasies River  Mouth o de Blombos) han lliurat blocs d’ocre gravats i milers de fragments d’ocre, tots ells utilitzats… A Namíbia, s’han trobat mines d’hematita (mineral de ferro que dóna un ocre vermell), que daten d’uns 100.000 a 40.000 anys. En la majoria d’aquests jaciments, foren «”Protosapiens» és a dir, els precursors dels homes de Cromanyó els qui utilitzaren aquests colorants.

«L’aparició d’ornaments corporals fets per l’home és un pas important en l’evolució dels éssers humans, ja que té una funció simbòlica i social: representa al grup o a  l’individu, que es distingeix dels altres;  està fet per ser vist i identificat per tothom;  per tant és una forma de comunicació que implica una societat estructurada»[14].  Expressa un saber-fer tècnic i confirma l’entrada del món animal en tant que proveïdor de primera matèria (os, petxina, cornamenta de cèrvid) en el món dels signes.

Quneitra
Placa de sílex amb arcs concèntrics de Quneitra (Israel), datada de 54.000 ane

A Quneitra s’ha trobat una pedra de sílex adornada amb trets organitzats; se l’associa al mosterià datat d’uns 53.900 anys (± 5.900 anys) període durant el qual els  Neandertals i els sapiens han cohabitat a la regió i han adoptat la mateixa cultura, la mosteriana. Aquesta peça està constituïda per una plaqueta de 7,2 cm que porta incisions concèntriques en semi cercle, disposades a intervals regulars.

7. Ornaments i penjolls

A Europa, la producció dels primers adorns, en quantitats molt petites, comença pels volts de 45.000 anys. Són els darrers  neandertals (mosterians tardans i xatelperronians) que els fabriquen després, sobretot, els immigrants Cro-Magnons portadors de la civilització aurinyaciana.

A Sud-àfrica, les descobertes de Blombos confirmen l’existència de comportaments simbòlics i socials ben abans  de l’aparició del sapiens.

Blombos2
Petxines perforades de la cova de Blombos, Sud-Àfrica, de 75.000 anys. Grans de collar de petxines de Nassarius kraussianus. a) Obertura realitzada amb l’ajut d’una eina d’os; b) cara plana produïda per desgast, probablement pel fregament amb altres perles o amb un lligam; c) restes d’ocre; d) aspecte general dels grans del collar.
ous_estruç
Fragments decorats d’ous d’estruç de Diepkloof, de 60.000 ane
petxines_cova_Aviones
Petxines perforades de la Cova de los Aviones: 1) Acanthocardia tuberculata, 2-3) Glycymeris insubrica. 50.000 anys

8. La pintura rupestre a Austràlia

ocells_Arnhem
Ocells sense ales. Les pintures rupestres més antigues. Cap el 50.000 ane. Terra d’Arnhem, Austràlia.

A Austràlia[15], els primers immigrants que arriben d’Indonèsia varen ocupar la totalitat d’un continent buit on abundaven els recursos naturals. Durant uns quinze mil anys, aquests primers pobladors semblen només haver practicat un art elemental –sens dubte la pintura corporal– posat de manifest pels vestigis de colorants trobats durant les excavacions. Després, fa uns 45.000 o 50.000 anys, començà la progressiva rarefacció de la «megafauna» (composta per grans herbívors i aus com els cangurs, uombats, emús… ), que fornia fins llavors una caça abundant i fàcil. Aquesta reducció de la fauna, que acaba per desembocar en l’extinció d’algunes espècies, estava vinculada a una sobreexplotació per la caça, associada a un augment de la sequera que es va produir als finals del Plistocè; va sumir als primers caçadors-recol.lectors en una situació de crisi econòmica, que segons alguns investigadors australians, va poder contribuir al desenvolupament del gran art del continent: hauria pogut provocar sobretot la instauració o el reforçament dels rituals que afavoreixen la fertilitat de les espècies, comportant això la realització de representacions rupestres.

És interessant observar la cronologia, atès que l’arribada de l’Homo sapiens a Europa occidental va ser fa uns 40.000 anys i les pintures parietals més antigues d’aquest continent tenen una antiguitat d’uns 25.000 anys. Ens caldrà, doncs, explicar per què a Austràlia ja trobem pintures d’una antiguitat de 50.000 anys i què s’esdevingué a Europa des de l’arribada de l’Homo sapiens fins a l’aparició de les primeres pintures parietals.

9. El bloc de cúpules de La Ferrassie

cupules_Ferrassie
Bloc de cúpules de La Ferrassie que recobria un enterrament en fossa.

Un gran bloc de pedra calcària recobria la sisena sepultura mosteriana de l’abric de La Ferrassie, a Dordonya, excavat el 1921 per Louis Capitan i Denis Peyrony. Aquest enterrament en fossa contenia les restes d’un nen neandertal de tres anys. Els autors de la recerca, en aixecar el bloc i donar-li la volta,  se’n adonaren que a la cara inferior hi havia una vintena de cúpules que només podien ser el resultat d’un treball humà.  I arribaren a la conclusió que, en el mosterià, els humans traçaven cúpules com les que ja hem vist a l’Índia, i que aquests forats, per la seva execució i sobretot per la seva distribució, semblen haver tingut un caràcter de senyal  simbòlic i/o ritual.

Aquesta descoberta ofereix l’evidència més sòlida d’una expressió simbòlica anterior al Paleolític superior i situaria l’origen de l’art rupestre europeu a finals del paleolític mitjà, fa uns 40.000 anys. Les condicions de la descoberta no autoritzen cap dubte sobre la posició estratigràfica del bloc i de les seves cúpules i sobre la seva atribució al mosterià. El bloc es conserva al Museu Nacional de Prehistòria de Les Eyzies.

10. Instruments musicals

flauta_Geissenklosterle
Flauta paleolítica feta amb cúbit de cigne, de l’aurinyacià, d’uns 36.000 anys d’antiguitat, del jaciment de Geissenklösterle (Suàbia, Alemanya).
flauta_Hohle_Fels
Flauta d’os de voltor amb cinc forats, trobada el 2009 a la cova Hohle Fels a l’oest d’Ulm (Alemanya) i datada de fa uns 35.000 anys.
flauta_Isturitz
Flauta d’Isturitz. Aurinyacià, entre 40.000 i 26.000 anys. Musée d’Archéologie Nationale de Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

L’evolució dels experiments d’imatges mèdiques han demostrat recentment que  les zones del cervell implicades en el tractament de la música i el llenguatge són majoritàriament les mateixes zones, en una mesura que no s’esperava[16]. Per tant, és probable que la música i el llenguatge s’hagin desenvolupat i evolucionat junts.

La comunicació visual, corporal i oral dels nostres avantpassats llunyans ha d’haver estat  almenys tan complexa com la dels ximpanzés actuals, i les interaccions entre la mare i el nen  han d’haver jugat un paper important en la socialització[17]. Els humans contemporanis i les mares ximpanzé  tots dos tenen una forma molt peculiar de comunicar-se amb els seus nadons: elles miren la seva  cara  durant molt temps i envien «sons melodiosos», que per als humans són exagerades  formes de paraules (aquesta comunicació materna es coneix com «motherese»). Per a Dissanayake, aquest  relació tenia un paper en l’aparició del llenguatge … Segons Dean Falk, la  capacitat per associar un nom amb una cara és el començament del llenguatge[18].

David Frayer i Chris Nicolay, amb l’estudi dels esquelets, han arribat a la conclusió[19] que la  capacitat anatòmica per articular paraules i produir sons humans de tipus modern ja era  presents fa 1.500.000 anys amb el primer Homo erectus. Altres estudis mostren que la  lateralització del cervell també era ja important en aquest moment; l’hemisferi esquerre s’especialitza en la descodificació dels sons i l’hemisferi dret  en prosòdia[20]: Així, el llenguatge ja estaria en una etapa avançada fa 1.500.000 anys.

Aquests artefactes estan fets amb ossos llargs d’aus, pel fet de ser buits. La funcionalitat de les flautes[21] és evident i demostren la presència d’una tradició musical ben establerta en el moment en què els humans moderns van colonitzar Europa[22]. S’ha constatat un prototipus procedent d’un jaciment eslovè (Divje Babe[23]), que data d’uns 43.000 anys, amb la possibilitat que pertanyés a un grup de neandertals; si es confirmés, obriria importants conseqüències sobre l’origen de la música, per una espècie humana diferent de la nostra.

Podríem, doncs, pensar que el llenguatge i la música haurien començat a desenvolupar-se fa 2.5  o  3 milions d’anys entre l’Australopithecus Africanus?[24]. Falk considera «poc probable que un llarg  temps podria haver passat entre l’aparició dels patrons neuronals necessaris per al  desenvolupament del llenguatge i la música, i l’aparició d’aquestes dues facultats. Els  circuits neuronals implicats són de fet altament especialitzats: Difícilment podem imaginar que  van ser seleccionats  sense ser ràpidament activats.»[25]

11. Les figures femenines

Les representacions femenines es prodiguen més que les masculines en l’art del Plistocè, en diversos suports, modalitats, tècniques i dissenys.

cavall_vulva
La cova Ségognole 3 al bosc de Fontainebleau.[26]
Les figures parcials estan reduïdes als elements vulvars, de vegades naturalistes i altres molt esquematitzats; en síntesi, es resolen amb un triangle de base superior, circumferència o tres quarts, i un traç rectilini vertical a l’interior. Els exemples clàssics corresponen amb els gravats sobre blocs de l’Aurinyacià de La Ferrasie, Blanchard…

Pel que fa als retrats femenins esdevé complicat trobar obres que permetin definir-les com a retrats. La Venus de Brassempouy en seria l’excepció. Tot i la simplicitat de formes del rostre, la seva construcció i el pentinat elaborat porten a pensar que potser es va voler dotar a l’escultura de determinats caràcters identificatius d’una persona particular. Un altre possible retrat femení seria el cap esculpit en ivori de Dolní-Vêstonice, que presenta un desequilibri en el tractament de la lateralitat facial, atès que part de la boca i un ull semblen mal acabats, com desdibuixats respecte l’altre sector del rostre, més proporcionat i detallat, i que curiosament fou trobada en una sepultura propera al cadàver d’una dona d’uns 40 anys que mostrava deformacions patològiques a la cara i a la mandíbula.

Les figures humanes femenines pròpiament dites conformen el conjunt de les mal anomenades Venus. Són figuretes exemptes (excepte les de Pataud i Laussel que són baix relleus) fetes en diverses substàncies (pedra, ivori, ceràmica) durant el Gravetià. Se solen agrupar en tres zones, occidentals, orientals o russes i siberianes, en funció de les seves morfologies i distribució geogràfica. Les occidentals (i gran part de les russes) representen dones nues i sense cara, en les anatomies de les quals es marquen uns pits voluminosos, així com els malucs, cames només insinuades i braços –quan n’hi ha– posats damunt dels pits o per sota.

Les figuretes més occidentals pràcticament no indiquen la cabellera i el cabell és curt, en contra de la melena llarga de les figures siberianes. Els elements del rostre estan absents en les primeres i quasi sempre patents en les segones. Els pits i malucs són prominents en les europees i plans a les altres. També en la part inferior del cos es contraposen: pelvis més ampla que el tors versus pelvis igual d’ampla que el tors; desequilibri natges-malucs versus desequilibri malucs-natges; cames articulades –genolls– versus cames sense articulació; extremitats separades i sense perforació versus extremitats juntes. Les figuretes siberianes de Malta i Buret solen estar vestides.

Cap el 35.000 ane assistim a un ràpid creixement de l’art. «Entrem llavors en un període estimulant de grans canvis, de  dinamisme cultural i demogràfic […] Una enorme creixement demogràfic comença amb l’Aurinyacià»[27].Regions específiques de produccions artístiques llavors apareixen al Cantàbric, a Aquitània, al Jura i al nord  del Roine, i a les valls de Don i Oka a Rússia. En mostrem alguns exemplars.

home_dona_lleo
«L’home/dona Lleó». Cova Hohlenstein-Stadel de Suàbia. 32.000 anys. 29,6 x 5,6 x 5,9 cm.
venus_Hohe_Fels
«Venus de Hohle Fels». Schelklingen (Alemanya). 40.000-35.000 anys. 6 x 3,5 x 3 cm. Cultura Aurinyaciana
vulves
Vulves gravades en un bloc trobat a l’abric de La Ferrassie, Savignac-de-Miremont, Dordogne. Aurinyacià. 32.000 – 25.000 anys
venus_Chauvet
Venus de la cova Chauvet, 28.000 ane. Carbó de fusta sobre pedra calcària. 800 mm d’altura. Vallon-Pont-d’Arc

L’exploració de la cova Chauvet, descoberta al desembre de 1994 a Vallon-Pont-d’Arc[28], ha revelat la part  inferior d’un cos de dona pintat sobre la roca[29] . Aquesta cova decorada és la més antiga que es coneix, i algunes de  les seves pintures han estat datades entre el 28.000 i el 30.000 ane, és a dir, aproximadament uns 15.000 anys abans de Lascaux i Altamira. És una de les troballes prehistòriques més sorprenents de les últimes dècades, no només per la riquesa de les seves representacions pintades o gravades, per la fermesa dels seus traços, per l’originalitat de les seves composicions i el caràcter extraordinàriament realista de les seves figures d’animals, mamuts i lleons, frisos de cavalls o de rinoceronts, sinó també perquè ofereix, per als temps més antics de l’art humà i al costat de temes habituals del bestiari, diverses imatges realistes o esquemàtiques que evoquen les formes femenines –imatges que trobarem, repetides de manera constant, al llarg de Paleolític Superior.

La «Venus» està pintada sobre un «penjant de calcària, veritable con petri»[30] d’aspecte fàl·lic. La part mitjana del cos està representada de forma realista, amb una
insistència molt concreta sobre el sexe, un ample triangle totalment cobert de pigment negre en el que la línia superior és corba, i on la fesa, gravada a la roca, està marcada per una incisió fina i profunda d’uns 4 cm. A prop, tres figures, situades també a l’altura dels ulls, representen triangles púbics que són com l’estilització del primer: la representació metonímica (la part pel tot, el sexe per la dona) és aquí simultània a la representació més completa.

venus_Brassempouy
Venus de Brassempouy, 28.000 ane. Ivori de mamut. 36,5 mm. Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
venus_Mauern
Venus de Mauern. 27.000 ane

venus_Mauern2

venus_Mompazier
Venus of Monpazier, 30.000-20.000 ane. Limonita, quars i argila. 56 x 16 x 14 mm. Cultura gravetiana

En una dona embarassada la vulva no s’obre fins el moment del part, quan comença a distendre’s sota l’efecte de la pressió exercida per la presentació fins al perineu. En aquestes vulves desmesuradament obertes, desproporcionades respecte l’estatura probable del subjecte, i quan hi ha també una gran panxa, s’hi veu una exageració convencional destinada a transmetre la idea del part. L’evidència en contra és l’absència de la vulva oberta en les figuretes de panxa plana. Sembla, doncs, que existeix un llenguatge fisiològic del cos, natural o convencional, que permet reconèixer sobretot l’estat (de dona, de dida, d’embarassada) o l’acció (de còpula, de part). Hi ha un llenguatge paral·lel de la cara, permès pel joc dels músculs facials o dels ulls, i que es pot veure en algunes figures. Les expressions facials són una part important del llenguatge gestual.

Tots els comentaristes han observat en l’art paleolític l’abundància d’imatges sexuals i d’objectes realistes –vulves o fal·lus en erecció, cossos de dones amb grans pits i amb caràcters sexuals marcats i fins i tot, segons alguns, escenes de part. Cal llegir en aquesta abundància d’imatges l’expressió sense embuts de desitjos i
pràctiques sexuals, és a dir, l’equivalent prehistòric de nostra pornografia actual? Cal descobrir, com planteja l’abat Breuil[31], l’expressió de creences màgiques i
de rituals de fecunditat? Cal veure-hi, com Georges Bataille[32], l’afirmació d’una consciència específicament humana –consciència del sexe i de la mort– que es representa en els símbols i en les imatges de l’art?

Si l’art paleolític ofereix unes imatges que semblen  evocar la sexualitat, la seva interpretació és sovint delicada.  Ja la seva mateixa lectura és un espai privilegiat per a les projeccions dels nostres propis quadres mentals sobre  les cultures dels homes del passat. No es pot sinó estar  impressionat per la profusió de lectures i comentaris dedicats  a aquest tema. Antropòlegs i arqueòlegs, metges  i psicoanalistes, lingüistes i historiadors de l’art, filòsofs  i aficionats s’han lliurat a unes especulacions que deixen
veure la fascinació que aquestes imatges han pogut exercir  des de fa més d’un segle sobre les nostres sensibilitats  «civilitzades».

venus_Lausell
Venus de Lausell, 25.000/20.000 ane. Baix relleu sobre calcària, traces de mangra. 440 mm. Abric Laussel, Haute-Garonne. Musée d’Auitaine, Burdeus.

venus_Willendorf

venus_Willendorf2

venus_pataud
Venus de l’abric Pataud, 21.000 ane. Baix relleu sobre calcària. 58 mm. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordonya. Musée de l’Homme, París.
vulvas_Tito_Bustillo
Cova de Tito Bustillo. Sala de les vulves. Cap el 20.000 ane
tres_gracies
Les Tres Gràcies de l’abric del Roc-aux Sorciers a Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne. 15.000 ane. Baix relleu sobre calcària.

12. Cavalls i mans en negatiu

cavalls_Pech_merle
Cavalls puntejats i mans en negatiu, 24.000 ane. Cova de Pech-Merle. 24.600 ane.

En aquest fris dels Cavalls clapejats de Pech-Merle que data del 24.000 ane, en el qual l’estudi de les superposicions tècniques, la restitució de les imatges i l’emplaçament dels motius ajudaren a dictaminar que el conjunt es va completar en quatre fases:

  • 1ª. En primer lloc es va pintar el cavall de la dreta i després l’altre
  • 2ª. A continuació un individu va deixar sis vegades l’empremta negativa de la seva mà
  • 3ª. Seguidament, es varen realitzar els 212 punts negres, tant de l’interior dels cavalls com de la perifèria
  • 4ª. I es va concloure amb tots els dibuixos que conformen el panell (29 punts vermells, 7 dits replegats, i signe circular, 1 gran peix)

Tots els dissenys van ser pintats amb tècniques aerogràfiques, a excepció d’alguns elements vermells com el pisciforme i el signe oval.

En la reproducció experimental del panell es van invertir un total de 180 gr de pols de carbó de fusta polvoritzada per mòlta per als negres i 50 gr d’hematites per a les figures vermelles. La tècnica aerogràfica va consistir a projectar el pigment a través dels llavis un cop introduïts a la boca.

Per tal de completar la primera fase, el perfilat dels cavalls, era pertinent tenir un esbós a la paret amb la finalitat d’orientar el dibuix del traçat dels animals, atès que en llençar la pintura a una distància d’uns 20 cm del suport impediria la visió de conjunt. Es comença pel cap del cavall de la dreta, la crinera i el coll, de manera que amb les mans es va reservant la zona de la paret que no es vol tacar mentre s’escup el pigment, això es nota especialment en la línia d’especejament que separa el coll, on es pot veure perfectament l’empremta de l’últim dit. Per tal de contornejar el llom se segueix bufant i la mà actua de plantilla. A les potes del darrere es va practicar el mateix procediment, només que ara les dues mans estan disposades cap enfora i a mesura que es va baixant en l’execució de l’extremitat es van apropant per progressivament delinear la seva silueta; la cua es va construir de forma anàloga, amb el joc de mans desplaçant-se en paral·lel. El sistema comporta que tant la cua com les potes obtinguin un aspecte angulós.

Les empremtes de mans negatives i dits es varen aconseguir també projectant el colorant amb la boca, sent possible a més imprimir una mà esquerra o dreta amb una mateixa mà només girant el palmell. Per als punts es va utilitzar una plantilla de cuir amb una perforació circular al centre i per als motius lineals vermells un «pinzell» fabricat amb una branca.

En tot el conjunt es van invertir un total de 32 hores, calculant-se uns 5 o 6 dies de treball a unes 6 hores diàries. El cost temporal de cada motiu va ser el següent: 10 h per als dos cavalls, 4 h les sis mans, 14 h els 212 punts, 1,30 h els dits replegats i 2,30 h per a la resta de figures vermelles.

Pel que fa a la il·luminació calien dos punts de llum resolts amb làmpades, una fixa d’ambient i l’altra mòbil propera a l’executant dels traços, de manera que s’infereix la presència en la cova de, pel cap baix, dues persones durant tota l’operació artística, una de les quals podia ser una dona o un jove, com es dedueix de les empremtes dels dits.

mans_negatiu
Aerografia i estergit. Mans de Pech-Merle, Cabrerets. 25.000

Les pintures prehistòriques varen ser fetes per homes o per dones? L’estudi de les diverses traces de mans trobades al costat de les pintures rupestres, provaria que els artistes eren més aviat dones que homes.

Prenem les empremtes de mans en negatiu de la cova de Pech Merle, a Cabrerets. Datades de fa uns 25.000 anys, aquestes representacions de mans envolten una figura ben coneguda d’un cavall decorat de punts. Mesurant les dimensions d’aquests dibuixos, realitzats amb plantilles d’estergir –l’artista bufava la pintura que tenia a la mà per tal d’impregnar la pedra– i comparant les proporcions amb la d’homes i dones europeus actuals, hom dedueix que la majoria d’empremtes de mans de Pech Merle són de dones. Si comparem aquestes mans amb les d’altres coves datades d’un període similar, entre 20.000 i 30.000 anys, com les de Gargas (Hautes-Pyrénées), Maltravieso (Extremadura) i El Castillo (Cantàbria), trobarem que també són femenines.

El valor simbòlic de les mans està més que testificat per la seva presència en els imaginaris de totes les cultures i en tots els temps. Tanmateix, el codi de comunicació en el qual s’insereix, ens és desconegut. Però la seva capacitat comunicativa és evident, fins i tot com a signe de pertinença o de propi reconeixement de l’existència individual. Les mans es configuren com a element simbòlic de gran força expressiva i d’això dóna bona mostra l’ús de les mateixes des del Paleolític Superior fins a l’actualitat i en llocs tan allunyats geogràficament com Austràlia, Argentina o Indonèsia. Els estudis més recents apunten a l’ús d’aquestes mans-símbols com a codi de comunicació, tenint en compte paral·lels etnoarqueològics, com els caçadors boiximans. Aquest grup empra un codi de comunicació basat en postures de mans i replegament de dits que els permet comunicar-se sense foragitar la presa durant la cacera.

basto_gorge_Enfer
Bastó perforat en forma de doble fal·lus. Gorge d’Enfer. 9,5 cm. 13.000 ane. Cultura magdaleniana
persecucio_amorosa
La persecució amorosa. Isturitz. 12.000 ane. Os gravat. 105 mm. Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Imatge del desig amorós –un home que allarga la mà cap el cos d’una dona? De fet, es tracta d’un fris amb dues figures de dones idèntiques, que porten els mateixos ornaments.

Consideració final

Aquest ràpid panorama de l’evidència arqueològica penso que era necessari:

  • per a modificar la idea que se sol tenir de l'”art del Paleolític”, observant, si més no, objectes o representacions que no solen sortir en els llibres de text
  • per adonar-se’n de les dificultats d’interpretació de les restes arqueològiques
  • per veure la necessitat d’intentar definir “objecte artístic”
  • per a subratllar aquelles qüestions que estaran presents al llarg del curs: per què tanta insistència en el color ocre vermellós? Quin paper juga la sexualitat humana en el desenvolupament cultural dels humans? Com es pot anar configurant un pensament simbòlic? Quina relació es pot establir entre l’aparició del llenguatge, la música, l’art moble i l’art parietal? Com els canvis evolutius (bipedisme, encefalització, cicle menstrual, socialització…) es produeixen, probablement, en paral·lel i interactuen amb la capacitat simbòlica per al llenguatge i l’art?

Formulades les preguntes, podem començar la recerca de les possibles respostes.


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[2] Museo de la Evolución Humana. Exposición permanente. Top 10. [Data de consulta: 26 de setembre del 2014]. <En línia a:  http://www.museoevolucionhumana.com/~museoevo/es/museo/exposicion-permanente/>

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[6] Alexander Marshack: «The Berekhat Ram figurine: a late Acheulian carving from the Middle East». Antiquity, June 1997 v71 n272 p327. En línia a http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/pal_1145-3370_2000_num_12_1_1605

[7] Goren-Inbar, N. I  i Peltz, S. (1995), «Additional remarks on the Berekhat Ram figurine». Rock Art research, nº 12, 1995.

[8] D’Errico Francesco i Nowell, April: «A New Look at the Berekhat Ram Figurine: Implications for the Origins of

Symbolism» Cambridge Arcaeological Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 01, abril del 2000, pàgs. 123-167. En línia a http://in-africa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/dErrico-Nowell-2000-CAJ-Berekhat-Ram-figurine.pdf

[9] D’Errico, Francesco: «Sur les traces de l’Homo symbolicus», La Recherche. Hors Serie nº 4, 2000

[10] Mithen, Steven: «Symbolism and the supernatural»,pàgs. 147-169  a . I. M. Dunbar, C. Knight and C. Power (eds) (1999). The evolution of culture: An interdisciplinary View. Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press.

[11] Flood, Josephine (1997). Rock Art of the Dreamtime: Images of Ancient Australia. Sydney. Angus & Robertson. 384 pàgs.

[12] Barham, L.S Systematic pigment use in the Middle Pleistocene of central Africa. Current Anthropology, Volume 43, Number 1, February  2002, pàgs. 181-190. En línia a http://in-africa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Barham-2002-CA-pigment-M-Ple-SC-Africa.pdf

[13] Alexander Marshack: «On Paleolithic ochre and the early uses of color and symbol», current Anthropology, 1981. 22: 188-191. Veure també, Erella Hovers, Shimon Ilani, Ofer Bar‐Yosef, and Bernard Vandermeersch: «An Early Case of Color Symbolism: Ochre Use by Modern Humans in Qafzeh Cave». Current Anthropology, Vol. 44, No. 4 (August/October 2003), pp. 491-522. En línia a http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/375869.

[14] Lorblanchet, Michel (1999). La naissance de l’art, genèse de l’art prehistorique. Errance. Paris. Pàg. 208

[15] O’Connor Sue, «Carpenter’s gap rockshelter I: 40 000 of Aboriginal occupation», Australian Archaeology, vol. 40, 1995, pp. 58-59. En línia a https://www.library.uq.edu.au/ojs/index.php/aa/article/view/1118/1114

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[17] Dissanayake, E., «Antecedents of the temporal art in early mother-infant interaction», The origins of Music, 2000

[18] Dean Falk, «L’Australopitheque gracile était-il musicien», La Recherche, 2000

[19] Frayer, D.W., i Nicolay, C., «Fossil evidence for the origin of speech sounds», The origins of Music, 2000.

[20] Falk, D., Science, 221, 1072, 1983; Toth, N., Journal of Human evolution, 14, 607, 1985

[21] Victor H. Mair: Prehistoric European and east Asian flutes, en línia a http://instphi.org/Festschrift15_Mair.pdf

[22] Nicholas J. Conard, Maria Malina & Susanne C. Münzel: «New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany». Nature 460, 737-740 (6 August 2009). Published online 24 June 2009.

[23] Divje Babe flute, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divje_Babe_flute. Veure, també, Who Made the Neanderthal Flute? Story of the Debate. En línia a http://www.greenwych.ca/divje-b.htm

[24] Dean Falk, «L’Australopitheque gracile était-il musicien», La Recherche, 2000.

[25] Dean Falk, «L’Australopitheque gracile était-il musicien», La Recherche, 2000, pàg. 81.

[26] Duncan Caldwell: A Paleolithic Bison in the Massif de Fontainebleau?, 2005. En línia a http://www.duncancaldwell.com/Site/Fontainebleau_Bison.html

[27] Lorblanchet, Michel (1999). La naissance de l’art, genèse de l’art préhistorique. París. Errance. pàg. 253

[28] Jean-Marie Chauvet, Éliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire (1995). La grotte Chauvet à Vallon-Pont-d’Arc. París. Éd. du Seuil. 116 pàgs.

[29] Jean Clottes i altres (2010). La Grotte Chauvet, L’Art des origines. París. Seuil. Pàgs. 167-170.

[30] Yanik le Guillou, «Découvertes, la Vénus du Pont d’Arc», International Newsletter on Rock Art, núm. 29, 2001, pàg. 1

[31] Henri Breuil, Fernand Windels (1952).  Quatre cents siècles d’art parietal. Les cavernes ornées de l’âge du renne. Centre d’études et de documentation préhistoriques. 423 pàgs.

[32] Georges Bataille (1955). Lascaux ou la naissance de l’art. Genève, Editions D’art Albert Skira

Joan Campàs    Aura digital
Curs: Orígens de l’Art i evolució humana: l’homo significans
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del curs en format .pdf

1. Una visió de conjunt de l’art paleolític
2. El paleolític: cronologia i referències etnoarqueològiques
3. Evolució tecnològica en el Paleolític. Referències etnoarqueològiques de l’hàbitat
4. La construcció del coneixement de l’art del Paleolític
5. El paradigma d’Henri Breuil i la seva crisi
6. L’estructuralisme de Leroi-Gourhan i Annette Laming-Emperaire
7. Del xamanisme a l’art com expressió de l’organització social

8. El procés evolutiu: Darwin i la selecció natural
9. Darwin i la selecció sexual. El cicle menstrual
10. La selecció sexual: la competència espermàtica
11. La selecció sexual: l’orgasme femení
12. Sobre els orígens de l’art: les coalicions de dones pintades
13. Una perspectiva ecològica de l’evolució humana
14. Els primers hominoides
15. Els homínids: els preaustralopitecins
16. Els hominins: els australopitecins
17. Paranthropus
18. Els primers Homo: Homo habilis
19. El poblament d’Euràsia: l’homo ergaster/erectus
20. Homo antecessor, rhodesiensis, heidelbergensis i floresiensis
21. L’Homo neanderthalensis
22. L’Homo sapiens
23. Sobre el concepte d’art
24. Les primeres expressions artístiques
25.  Sobre els orígens de l’art del Plistocè
26. L’art rupestre del Plistocè
27. Temes i distribució de l’art parietal

28. L’art moble del Plistocè
29. Temes de l’art mobiliari
30. Art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior. Interpretacions
31. Sobre els orígens del llenguatge

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  376. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  377. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  378. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  380. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  381. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  382. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  383. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  384. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  385. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  386. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  387. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  388. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  389. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  390. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  391. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  393. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  394. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  395. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  396. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  397. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  398. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  399. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  400. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.