Història

7. Del xamanisme a l’art com expressió de l’organització social

1. Neuropsicologia i xamanisme 

Darrerament ha sorgit una nova actitud respecte a les motivacions de l’art parietal, es tracta del mètode etno-neuropsicològic que està sustentat, un cop més, en l’etnografia comparada, amb els riscs que això pot portar com s’ha pogut comprovar quan al·ludíem al totemisme i a la màgia propiciatòria de la cacera.

Partint dels estudis neuropsicològics, s’accepta que el sistema nerviós humà, dels humans que avui perviuen en el planeta, és a dir, de l’espècie Homo sapiens, és idèntic en tots els individus que conformen la població mundial, de manera que tant els homes i dones de l’Aurinyacià com nosaltres som iguals en aquest aspecte; en virtut d’això, compartirem el funcionament del sistema nerviós en estats alterats de consciència; a més, els tipus d’al·lucinacions experimentades en aquestes condicions són uniformes, en un primer moment, independentment dels factors culturals. Els agents externs que indueixen els estats alterats de consciència poden resumir-se en la ingestió de drogues psicotròpiques, hiperventilació, fatiga, migranya, esquizofrènia, concentració intensa, disminució sensorial, sons i moviments rítmics persistents, etc.

estats_alterats_consciencia

1) Exemple de seqüència dels estats alterats de consciència d’un europeu actual. 2) Elements plistocens assimilats als tres estats alterats de consciència.

De totes les al·lucinacions sensorials caldrà fixar-se en les visuals, les quals, segons experiments controlats al laboratori, passen per tres estadis principals encara que no necessàriament intercomunicats:

  • I Estadi: estadi inicial del trànsit, on el subjecte sofreix una sèrie de fenòmens inòptics, produïts dins del sistema òptic, al marge d’estímuls lluminosos externs. Comença a percebre pulsacions lluminoses (fosfens), una cosa similar al terme popular de «veure les estrelles», formes geomètriques simples que s’allarguen i canvien com punts, ziga-zagues, reixetes, corbes, línies paral·leles… que amb els ulls oberts poden «projectar-se a les parets i sostres».
  • II Estadi: en un nivell més profund del trànsit, es provoca la interpretació, o la racionalització de les percepcions geomètriques, assimilant els fosfens o aquestes imatges geomètriques simples a objectes coneguts, prenent així la seva forma. Depenent dels factors culturals i de l’ambient en el qual es desenvolupa l’experiència, la identificació d’una forma simple a un objecte amb volum serà diferent, per exemple, les ziga-zagues poden convertir-se en serps, un cercle adquireix el cos d’un bol o una pilota, etc.
  • III Estadi: en el nivell més profund del trànsit, els elements de la fase primera persisteixen però passen a ser perifèrics, les formes assoleixen ara volums al·lucinacions icòniques) d’animals, persones i monstres derivant a éssers particulars en funció del sistema cultural i de la ment de l’individu. Els dos tipus de visions (geomètriques i icòniques) es combinen, es fragmenten i giren, i la barreja de diverses imatges icòniques pot engendrar éssers zooantropomórficos (p. ex., cos humà i cap d’animal); moltes experiències narren un episodi de trànsit en l’estat més profund a través d’un «túnel rotatiu» que els engoleix com un remolí, al final del qual troben les al·lucinacions icòniques. En aquest estat senten que no estan subjectes a les lleis físiques, podent volar o transformar-se en animals.

D’altra banda, tenim el fenomen del xamanisme. Les pràctiques xamàniques han estat descrites en bastants llocs (Amèrica, Sibèria, sud de l’Àfrica), si bé l’èxtasi místic és una experiència molt habitual al món sencer des de sempre. Bàsicament consisteix en què el xaman en estat alterat de consciència actua de mitjancer entre el món real i el sobrenatural, o el món dels esperits, dirigeix la cerimònia, entra en trànsit amb ajuda de música insistent i reiterativa (generalment d’un tambor) i moviments de dansa rítmics, drogues o per patir patologies mentals (esquizofrènia, epilèpsia, migranyes); el xaman penetra així al món dels esperits dels animals i aconsegueix un cert poder o autoritat en el grup: pot profetitzar, curar els malalts, controlar als animals, influir en el temps atmosfèric, etc.

Clottes_Bhopal

Jean Clottes davant d’una paret pintada i gravada d’un abric de Bhopal, a l’ïndia central.

L’aprenentatge xamànic és molt variat segons les cultures. Comunament, un jove que pretengui accedir a aquests coneixements és apartat de la societat (a una cova, desert…), sense aliments i amb la finalitat de meditar; aquesta situació comportar l’automortificació física, però, al final, la fatiga, la fam, la solitud i la concentració mental desemboquen en el trànsit espiritual, on probablement (depenent de la cultura) se li apareixerà l’esperit d’un animal adquirint d’aquesta manera el poder sobrenatural. El pas a l’estat profund de trànsit, el remolí, és assimilat a un túnel o cova que posa en comunicació els dos mons. El cosmos xamànic se subdivideix així en tres mons superposats: l’inferior o subterrani associat a la mort, l’intermedi o real i quotidià, i el superior o espiritual.

Aquesta perspectiva ha començat a ser desenvolupat per Lewis-Williams[1] en l’art rupestre dels San al sud d’Àfrica, saltant després de continent i de temps en extrapolar la qüestió a l’art parietal paleolític europeu. Passem a resumir les idees principals del llibre de Jean Clottes i David Lewis-Williams.

El primer capítol estudia el xamanisme com a fenomen, vinculat a la  vida de les diferents societats humanes, històriques o no. I els diferents estats de consciència alterada, l’origen dels quals es remunta a l’aparició dels humans moderns i les seves primeres manifestacions de comportament simbòlic. Els autors defineixen el xamanisme com: una de les formes amb què els homes, a través del temps, han induït, manipulat i explotat els estats profunds de la consciència alterada.

A continuació ens presenten les tres etapes del trànsit que travessa qualsevol ésser humà en entrar en estat de trànsit, com ja han quedat anteriorment definides. Els xamans degueren controlar aquests estats de consciència alterada, sent condició indispensable perquè un individu de la tribu en una societat prehistòrica, aconseguís l’estatus de xaman. Al llarg de les esmentades etapes, el xaman podria posar en pràctica un vol a un altre món més elevat, o un descens a les profunditats de la terra. El cosmos xamànic es presenta dividit en tres nivells: el de la vida quotidiana, un món superior i un altre inferior; el xaman tindria l’habilitat de visitar cada un d’ells.

San_Pintura_Rupestre

Pintura rupestre dels San d’Eland, Kamberg.

L’última part d’aquest capítol està dedicat a l’art dels san, tribu del Kalahari, les manifestacions artístiques dels quals realitzades per xamans han estat comparades amb l’art paleolític. Els xamans dels «homes-arbusts» o San confeccionen art rupestre durant les seves pràctiques. Els temes pictòrics dels San inclouen ziga-zagues, punts, quadrats reticulats… (I estat) i bresques d’abella (II estat), també animals realistes, monstres, antropo-zoomorfes i multitud d’escenes amb els xamans actuant (IlI estat). El viatge del xaman, en passar al món dels esperits, implica, de vegades, connectar amb el món subterrani, i per això que moltes de les figures rupestres estiguin relacionades amb fissures de la roca.

En el capítol dedicat a l’art de les coves i xamanisme –la part clau del llibre– s’hi explica la teoria que defensen els autors, és a dir, el xamanisme com a causa de l’art
paleolític. Per a això parteixen de la premissa d’activitats xamàniques entre les comunitats de caçadors-recol·lectors durant la Prehistòria, i consideren que les coves, i no només les seves imatges, estaven carregades de sentit propi, en concret determinats espais dins d’elles serien utilitzats pels xamans en els seus rituals. Segons això, les coves eren els llocs de trànsit que conduïen al món subterrani o estrat inferior del cosmos xamànic, les persones que per elles caminaven es trobaven envoltades per aquest món del més enllà, de manera que tot –parets, voltes i sòls– significava alguna cosa.

Després de la realització de ritus i activitats en el quals els xamans entrarien en trànsit, aquests pintarien a les parets de les coves les imatges i visions que apareixen en les tres etapes del mateix, això suposa que les formes geomètriques i signes van ser realitzats enmig de l’estadi 1 d’un xaman, mentre que les més elaborades serien realitzades a posteriori, palpant i buscant en les parets de les coves les formes d’animals que posteriorment pintarien. No obstant això, els autors reconeixen l’evidència que aquesta teoria no és aplicable a totes les manifestacions artístiques del paleolític.

Jean Clottes i David Lewis-Williams, en l’exposició de la seva teoria xamànica, parteixen de la premissa de l’existència de certes formes de xamanisme en totes les tribus i pobles de diferents parts del món, l’origen del qual es remuntaria al paleolític. Aquesta premissa la fonamenten en el propi sistema nerviós humà, capaç de generar estats de consciència alterada i al·lucinacions, i en la ubiqüitat del xamanisme entre les comunitats de caçadors-recol·lectors.

Pels autors, les coves paleolítiques eren llocs especials a través dels quals l’home contactaria amb el món dels esperits. Tant parets, sostres i sòls gaudien d’un significat propi, com si fossin unes fines membranes que els separaven de les criatures i dels esdeveniments del món inferior. Les imatges aquí representades reforçarien el cosmos xamànic. Això explicaria per què s’utilitzaven els relleus naturals de les coves per a la
realització de les imatges. Potser que uns dits que van explorar la paret hi descobrissin un relleu, i l’esperit de l’artista hi va reconèixer un animal, a més, el relleu permet la creació de jocs de llums, ombres i colors, de tal manera que en desplaçar la làmpada el xaman podria controlar la pròpia imatge.

Les imatges del bestiari paleolític coincideixen amb les al·lucinacions del tercer estadi del trànsit. Es tracta d’imatges sense context i amb dimensions diferents, que suren sobre els murs i els sostres que les envolten. No representaven animals reals, caçats per alimentar-se i situats en un paisatge concret, sinó que eren visions que s’anaven a buscar al món subterrani dels esperits i amb la mediació dels xamans. Els xamans després de les seves activitats recrearen les seves visions i les van fixar sobre la paret, considerada com la membrana que aquestes havien de traspassar per a materialitzar-se. Aquesta materialització va poder tenir lloc en el transcurs d’un estat de consciència alterada, quan el xaman s’esforçava per tocar i concretar les imatges que suraven davant seu sobre les parets. Altres vegades, sens dubte la majoria, la materialització de les visions es va realitzar després d’haver sortit del trànsit.

Amb aquest mateix punt de vista, interpreten que els signes de l’art paleolític, són en realitat la plasmació del disseny que apareix a les percepcions mentals geomètriques de l’Estadi 1 de la consciència alterada: puntuacions, ziga-zagues, graelles, línies ondulades… Encara que reconeixen l’evidència que no tots els signes semblen derivar de percepcions mentals geomètriques com els tectiformes i claviformes.

Les figuracions que semblen representar criatures mig humanes i mig animals, són considerades representacions de xamans, parcialment transformats en animals en el transcurs de les seves al·lucinacions. Pel que fa a les empremtes de mans, l’explicació que aporta aquesta teoria consisteix en que el veritablement important era l’acte de cobrir la mà i les superfícies amb pintura. Així, es feien desaparèixer les mans darrere d’una substància ritualment preparada, establint una relació íntima amb el món dels esperits. Ja que a moltes d’aquestes mans els falten dits, es pensa que l’amputació de falanges formés part de ritus d’iniciació xamànica.

Les activitats xamàniques s’iniciarien a l’exterior de la cova, on també hi ha manifestacions artístiques, que van poder ser realitzades en el transcurs de ritus. Ja a l’interior de les coves, a les sales amb art, aquestes activitats continuarien, però restringides a un menor nombre de persones, és possible que aquestes sales hagin jugat un paper d’avantsales per a preparar l’esperit d’aquells que buscaven les visions en les experiències que tindrien després en la solitud dels racons més retirats i profunds. Els corredors contenen també imatges que contribueixen a augmentar el significat del trasllat al món del més enllà, aquests llocs constitueixen una simple membrana entre les criatures del món inferior i els visitants. Els cambrils amb art, malgrat unes condicions d’extrema incomoditat, van ser el receptacle de figuracions el veritable sentit de les quals no és capaç d’explicar aquesta teoria, però que en qualsevol cas continuaria reforçant les accions xamàniques en la seva realització. És possible que alguns cambrils profunds amb figures fetes ràpidament fossin llocs on es buscaven visions. La privació sensorial induïda per aquests espais restringits, aprofitant potser la ingestió de drogues psicotròpiques, provocava al·lucinacions d’animals-esperits.

Perseguint la seva recerca espiritual, es servirien també dels seus sistemes d’il·luminació i de les seves mans, per acabar trobant el que havien vingut a buscar. Els animals-esperits desitjats sortien de la roca i se’ls apareixien. Després, tal com permeten determinats estats de consciència alterada, pot que ràpidament esbossessin les seves visions en esforçar-se per fixar-les a la paret i controlar-les. O bé, potser després d’haver sortit d’un trànsit profund, en el transcurs del qual els era impossible dibuixar, haurien pogut examinar les superfícies de pedra per a trobar els testimonis de les seves visions i després, pintant o gravant alguns traços, recrear-les. Quant a l’art moble la teoria xamànica sosté que es tractava d’objectes rituals, l’ús dels quals es limitava a circumstàncies especials.

San_Pintura_Rupestre2

Art rupestre dels San Perdekop Farm al nord de la badia de Mossel

En comparar l’art San amb el conservat a les coves europees comprovem certes semblances, ja que els/les artistes subterranis/es van plasmar puntuacions, ziga- zagues, retícules, arcs concèntrics, animals envoltats de punts, imatges geomètriques simples, animals naturalistes, híbrids i monstres, personatges humans amb cap animal…, i van fer ús de les arestes i relleus naturals del suport rocós. Així mateix, s’ha volgut interpretar els signes circulars i quadrangulars paleolítics com la representació de tambors, alhora els claviformes, circulars i tectiformes serien els bolets amb facultats psicotròpiques, i les fileres de punts les marques del ritme de percussió[2]. En definitiva, els temes bàsics de l’art paleolític semblen coincidir amb els motius dels tres estats alterats de consciència, per tant seria normal pensar que part de l’art del plistocè seria la transposició rocosa de l’univers de les al·lucinacions, o dit d’una altra manera, la «religió» paleolítica estaria centrada en estats alterats de consciència desenvolupats en la foscor de les coves i vinculat amb el poder animal.

Potser es puguin rastrejar a les parets paleolítiques algunes formes de xamanisme, però aquest no explica tot l’art parietal; els temes rupestres són molt variats, sobretot els signes, amb variacions temporals i regionals de les quals bastants no troben la seva solució des dels postulats xamànics. Els autors que defensen aquesta teoria reconeixen que no és plausible reduir tot l’art paleolític només a sensacions neurològiques, ni pretenen una explicació global a les manifestacions artístiques europees. En efecte, qualsevol expressió figurativa pot presentar motius simples similars als fosfens i no necessàriament tenen per què estar inspirats en ells o els seus artífexs drogats. Si el Bosco i Picasso, per citar alguns autors, varen pintar zooantropomorfes, i Kandinsky així com Miró fosfens, només entreveuríem que treballaven en estat alterat de consciència o sota influència de substàncies al·lucinògenes, però no podríem dir que les seves obres eren conseqüència de pràctiques xamàniques.

El problema de la hipòtesi xamànica no només resideix en que no explica tot l’art paleolític, i més concretament el sentit exacte de les representacions, sinó que a més la hipòtesi parteix d’una concepció subjectiva del món de la prehistòria, subjectivisme que neix de la creença en la semblança entre les societats primitives actuals i les seves pràctiques xamàniques amb les societats paleolítiques. Al que s’afegeix l’absència de proves serioses, la teoria xamànica és sobretot una hipòtesi especulativa i comparativa.

Els mateixos autors reconeixen aquesta mancança en les proves a aportar, i es
defensen dient que en les ciències socials la noció imaginària de “prova”, ha de ser substituïda per la de “millor hipòtesi”, aquella que compleix millor les següents condicions:

  • Que tingui en compte la major quantitat de fets. No obstant això aquesta
    hipòtesis només compta com a fet la comparació amb l’art dels san.
  • Que expliqui la major diversitat possible d’observacions. En aquest cas, és evident que només serveix per explicar una mínima part de les manifestacions artístiques del paleolític, sí que explica la cova de Chauvet i les imatges en les que trobem éssers compostos, les quals són poc nombroses.
  • Que pugui ser contrastada. No hi ha res real amb el que contrastar aquesta
    hipòtesi, molt menys l’àmbit neuropsicològic.
  • Que sigui compatible amb les observacions sòlidament establertes per
    investigacions anteriors. En aquest sentit, de vegades contradiu interpretacions anteriors com l’art per l’art, però també afegeix informació a altres que van ser considerades com a vàlides (Leroi-Gourham), sí que és compatible amb el totemisme i certs aspectes de la màgia simpatètica.
  • Que posseeixi un potencial predictible, és a dir, que nous descobriments la confirmin i no siguin incompatibles amb ella. Està per determinar aquesta última premissa, perquè els últims descobriments no aporten el significat de les obres artístiques, i igualment poden confirmar o rebutjar múltiples hipòtesis.

La major part de les crítiques realitzades sobre la teoria xamànica es concentren en aquest punt. El fet que determinades societats primitives actuals, com els san sud-africans, practiquin art rupestre en un marc xamànic, no vol dir de cap manera, que els seus ancestres durant el paleolític manifestessin el seu art en el mateix context, ni tan sols es pot deduir que aquestes societats tinguessin el mateix marc màgic-religiós.

A part de les propostes xamàniques, actualment s’està indagant sobre l’acústica[3] dels espais subterranis i la seva relació amb les manifestacions artístiques (Dauvois[4] i Waller). També hem de ressenyar les opinions de Lorblanchet[5], qui sosté que per arribar a conclusions interpretatives fiables resulta fonamental dur a terme un estudi detallat de les característiques del suport i de l’obra que s’insereix en ell, mitjançant una restitució exhaustiva i l’anàlisi de tots els elements conjugats a la pràctica artística (gest, determinació de pigments i components, datació absoluta, visibilitat i il·luminació, context arqueològic, morfologia de la cova, etc.), la qual permetrà deduir, posem per cas, el temps invertit, el nombre d’individus, les probables escoles, les normes culturals a nivell regional, la contemporaneïtat de les figures, i, per tant, establir les composicions, etc.

2. Tendències i estudis actuals 

En els darrers trenta anys ha anat creixent de forma constant el còmput de llocs d’art paleolític en les seves versions mobiliària i parietal, a destacar: a França, els estudis sobre Ardèche, Lot, Aude, la cova de Labastide, la cova de La Vache, la cova Enlène; a Alemanya els estudis sobre Gönnersdorf i Ardenarch; a l’Europa Central, sobre Dolní-Vêstonice, Predmost i Pekárna; a l’Europa Oriental, sobre Sungir i Malta.

A la dècada dels vuitanta apareix un nou tipus d’art prehistòric, el Macroesquemàtic, presentat a la comunitat científica el 1982, així com nous jaciments allunyats de les àrees clàssiques: Fosca, Navarro, Morón, Piedras Blancas… Per altra banda, el desenvolupament de tècniques de datació directa dels pigments d’origen orgànic està dotant de suport empíric la determinació cronològica dels motius.

art_macroesquematic

Reproducció de l’art macroesquemàtic del Pla de Petracos al Museu Arqueològic de Gandia.

Durant els noranta, al marge de la burda falsificació de la cova de Zubialde, té lloc la troballa de tres grans llocs importants d’art rupestre paleolític. Són les «tres C»: cova Cosquer (1991), Cova Chauvet (1994) i el complex a l’aire lliure de Foz Coa (1994). La curiositat de la primera radica en el fet de trobar-se la seva boca d’entrada a -37 m sota el nivell actual del mar en el litoral proper a Marsella, com a conseqüència de la transgressió esdevinguda a l’Holocè. Sense oblidar el complex càrstic de La Garma a Santander (1995). Les interpretacions estructuralistes i el model explicatiu que proposava comencen a ser sotmeses a una revisió crítica des dels anys setanta, que portarà a la investigació a nous models explicatius[6]. Després de la reformulació teòrica de Leroi i Laming (en què abandonen la teoria de la dicotomia sexual d’animals i signes per a centrar-se en la investigació de les grafies com a part del món cultural i social dins de la realitat arqueològica[7], es produeixen alguna interpretació de base semiològica, i fins i tot algunes que ressusciten la teoria del «art per l’art» i els criteris d’autor.

A la primera es planteja l’estructuralisme (lingüístic en aquest cas), com a mètode d’anàlisi de les grafies prehistòriques, proposant-se que la realitat del fenomen representatiu paleolític es troba en un codi comunicatiu, estructurat i complex al mateix temps[8], cosa a la qual Leroi ja s’havia referit en parlar del mitograma. En el cas de la reaparició de la teoria sobre la motivació estètica i ociosa de l’art paleolític, alguns autors, deixant-se portar per la indubtable bellesa i qualitat de les representacions, tornen a buscar en les condicions econòmiques del grup (la comoditat i abundància de recursos d’aquest), bases de suport per a postular que l’ociositat de l’home cavernari va ser la que va portar a realitzar les grafies[9].

També dins de l’escola anglesa i en el marc neoevolucionista, es plantegen noves interpretacions, en què l’art troba el seu significat sota la fórmula de sistema explicatiu o d’aprenentatge vinculat a les estratègies de subsistència[10].

Però serà en els anys 90 quan la introducció dels nous mètodes de datació en l’àmbit d’estudi de l’art paleolític, i l’anàlisi del context parietal, inaugurin l’època postestilista, en la qual la negació del concepte d’estil i de l’evolució lineal de les grafies paleolítiques com a premisses fonamentals, desembocaran amb el temps en la readopció de patrons interpretatius historicistes.

Clottes_Chauvet

Jean Clottes davant d’un crani d’ós a la cova Chauvet

Les primeres datacions amb C-14 a Pech Merle, Cougnac i Niaux[11], retardaven les dates de les representacions d’aquestes cavitats des d’un E III (solutrià-magdalenià) atribuït per Leroi, fins a moments gravetians (25.000 ane). A causa d’això, es comença a avaluar de manera crítica l’aplicació del sistema dels estils de Leroi a les representacions, destacant que l’art prehistòric no s’hauria d’observar dins d’un esquema evolutiu simple-complex basat en estils, ja que hi ha una sèrie de variants regionals. De la mateixa manera, es posa en dubte el sincronisme en les representacions dels grans conjunts artístics, plantejant com a alternativa la construcció progressiva del «santuari», dilatada en el temps amb retocs i superposicions. Però l’adopció dels nous mètodes de datació i anàlisi (ex. C-14, termoluminescència, anàlisi de pigments, etc), enfront del mètode tradicional de contrast amb l’art moble, i estudi de la superposicions, planteja una nova forma d’enfocar l’estudi de l’art prehistòric (i en general de tots els estudis de la prehistòria), aquell que reivindica la Ciència enfront de l’Arqueologia.

La proposta «cientifista», que infravalorava i excloïa del camp d’estudi suposadament, a tot model explicatiu que no disposés de datacions absolutes, davant de les noves dates i dubtes que se li plantegen, respon contradictòriament i incomprensiblement amb un retorn a plantejaments historicistes que revaloritzen el concepte etnocultural (sense advertir la problemàtica d’observació actualista que comporta), i que barregen ideologia, representació artística i tecnocomplexes. Els models explicatius de Breuil són posats de nou en funcionament amb la reaparició de diferents grups d’origen ètnic, que se substitueixen en el temps, que permeten parlar de l’art dels «aurinyacians» fins a l’art dels «magdalenians». Fins i tot es recullen interpretacions de principis de segle vinculades a plantejaments màgic-religiosos, o que perceben en l’evolució de les representacions un canvi de les creences dels grups humans, que es tradueixen en «modes» a la hora de representar.

Clottes_Cosquer

Luc Vanrell, Jean Courtin i Jean Clottes examinant uns gravats a la cova Cosquer

D’aquesta manera, ens tornem a trobar amb interpretacions de tipus sacral o religiós en les quals l’ocultació, el que és mistèric, el ritual es barregen amb el xamànic, el totèmic i la màgia propiciatòria per a la caça i la fertilitat. Però fins i tot aquest tipus d’interpretacions sobre la significació de l’art paleolític, segueixen sense mostrar una visió clara del que són molts conceptes als que es refereixen constantment i que serveixen de suport als seus discursos interpretatius, com ara «santuari», xamanisme, totemisme, màgia, etc. Fa la sensació que tots ells són la mateixa cosa, i encara que és cert que tenen un mateix fil conductor, no podem emmagatzemar-los en un mateix calaix en el qual introduïm conceptes i elements similars només en aparença, però mai iguals.

D’altra banda, podem afirmar que la introducció dels nous mètodes de datació absoluta en els models explicatius del fenomen artístic paleolític, aporten noves possibilitats a l’anàlisi de tipus cronològic, però en qualsevol cas s’han provat compatibles amb el sistema estilístic de Leroi, al qual complementen i matisen en els seus aspectes temporals.

Els últims treballs i estudis sobre l’art paleolític i la seva interpretació, alternatives a la proposta historico-cultural, han completat les teories precedents i han aportat nous enfocaments. Algunes propostes interpretatives plantegen la diversitat simbòlica dels conjunts cavernaris, enfront dels estudis interpretatius totals com els de Leroi[12]. Altres estudis revisen mitjançant una nova metodologia informatitzada la distribució estadística i espacial de les figures, per establir noves associacions temàtiques[13].

En general les noves investigacions, se centren més que en la significació, en el coneixement del context arqueològic de les representacions, la revisió de conjunts antics, els nous treballs de documentació, així com en l’estudi de les manifestacions a l’aire lliure i la seva disposició territorial.

Trobem propostes que identifiquen el grafisme paleolític com un mitjà d’expressió o fet comunicatiu, que incardina l’home del passat amb l’espai dins del qual es mou i actua. Proposta aquesta en què la contextualització de les grafies i l’anàlisi d’aquestes dins el marc arqueològic són el pilar interpretatiu fonamental[14].

El salt en l’àmbit de la investigació ha estat quantitatiu i qualitatiu des de la visió de finals del XIX, en què un home de les cavernes, primitiu i bàrbar, realitzava les manifestacions, a una altra actual que mostra un home prehistòric que realitza un art complex, ric, i organitzat. Però encara que la consideració de l’individu que fa les representacions i la interpretació de l’art ha canviat, la significació que se li ha donat s’ha basat sempre en un únic principi o plantejament. Fos des d’una perspectiva «ociosa», totèmica, màgica, religiosa, o sexual-simbòlica, la interpretació que se li dóna al sentit de les manifestacions ha quedat contemplada mitjançant un únic valor i explicada mitjançant una teoria unívoca. L’art s’ha observat com un fet únic, el mòbil del qual resideix en una sola causa. Resulta sorprenent que mentre estudiem des d’un enfocament plural i proposem la multicausalitat com a origen de qualsevol procés històric, en el cas de la prehistòria l’explicació de l’art respongui a un motiu contemplat des de la singularitat. A això s’hi sumaria el que no només és un únic motiu o causa el que es dóna a l’art, sinó que sempre ha estat considerat també aquest des de la mateixa òptica: la que té un caràcter sacre o religiós. La barreja de valors totèmics, màgics, amb rituals i cerimònies, la significació del qual s’extreia del contrast amb pobles actuals, va desenfocar termes i va unir conceptualment fets diversos que, malgrat la seva aparença similar, tenien significats diferents. La cova es converteix en santuari, l’artista en bruixot i la significació en religiosa.

La significació de l’art presenta una gran problemàtica, però sigui quina sigui, aquesta ha de respondre a diversos factors, atès que resulta estrany que una sèrie de manifestacions tan elaborades i organitzades alhora com són les artístiques, responguin a un únic fenomen i no a un univers expressiu i comunicatiu alhora, on hi cabria, potser, l’explicació religiosa (sempre que se’ns indiqui amb claredat que s’entén per religiositat a la prehistòria).

Hauríem d’observar així mateix, si admetem la interpretació religiosa, el santuari com a centre de la manifestació espiritual que s’ha considerat que és. La visió tradicionalment acceptada veu com santuari aquell lloc que, situat al fons de la cova i allunyat dels ulls del no iniciat, es caracteritza per albergar, mitjançant una sèrie de ritus i cerimònies expressades per l’art, una activitat espiritual, que generalment es considera religiosa.

La_Lluera

Gravats de la cova de La Lluera, Oviedo

El fet de pintar i gravar constituïa segons aquesta visió l’acte essencial del ritual, i l’artista per tant l’oficiant. Doncs bé, la presència constatada de manifestacions a l’aire lliure trastocaria, com assenyalen Balbín i Alcolea, la presumpció d’atribuir un significat sagrat als contextos ocults i profunds cavernaris. No hi ha diferències, que coneguem de moment, entre les representacions a l’interior o exterior pel que podem suposar que sigui quina sigui la seva significació i les seves motivacions aquestes han de respondre a motius similars. .

Però no només observem que l’art no se circumscriu a l’àmbit cavernari i amagat, (sembla per contra més bé visible i accessible), sinó que també i a la llum de les noves dades, se situa en zones properes a l’habitatge. Les revisions realitzades en alguns santuaris considerats com clàssics (Altamira, La Pasiega, Tito Bustillo, la Lluera) mostren que, atenent a la disposició original de la cova, i l’estudi minuciós de la topografia i el context arqueològic (sent en alguns casos l’observació suficient), les representacions artístiques i el jaciment d’habitació es troben en el mateix lloc. També a l’aire lliure es reprodueix la situació que el que generalment s’ha anomenat santuari, no es diferencia de l’habitatge per trobar-se junts. Exemples de la zona del Duero, tant en el curs que transcorre per la zona espanyola com per la portuguesa (Siega Verde i Foz Coa respectivament), ens remeten a aquesta situació. Per això es fa necessari definir, o almenys contemplar, des d’una nova òptica, el concepte de santuari i la visió religiosa a la qual després de molt temps es torna a recórrer en el moment present. Hauríem d’estudiar a què podem anomenar santuari, i a què habitatge, si és que es troben separats, per després observar si el sentit de les representacions respon a la religiositat proposada.

Foz_Coa

Gravat de Foz Coa, a Vila Nova de Foz Côa, Portugal.

Siega_Verde

Gravat de Siega Verde. Parque Arqueológico del Valle del Côa. Villar de la Yegua (Salamanca).

L’anàlisi de les tècniques, temes, suports, i continguts de les representacions, s’ha de fer tenint en compte l’organització topogràfica del complex cavernari i l’ordenació de les composicions dins d’ell. L’observació de les condicions d’accessibilitat, profunditat, visibilitat, i distància entre les representacions, així com la relació de proximitat respecte a la situació del jaciment d’habitació, permeten ubicar la grafia en el seu entorn, del qual no pot separar-se.

Aquest tipus d’estudis són d’especial rellevància per verificar si el fenomen gràfic està ocult, i per tant vinculat a significats de tipus creencial, o per contra més visual i lligat a la quotidianitat. També necessari es presenta l’anàlisi del territori i les seves característiques espai-ambientals, a partir del descobriment de les grafies paleolítiques a l’aire lliure en els anys 80.

La presència del grafisme paleolític és un fet que constata per si sol l’ocupació del territori; un territori que l’home paleolític coneix a la perfecció i en el qual abunden diferents recursos econòmics a explotar (primeres matèries de diferent naturalesa, rius i zones d’estuari, valls pels quals circulen nombroses ramats d’animals, etc). Si analitzem les grafies com a part integrant del territori percebem que les representacions s’ubiquen en llocs d’interès per a les poblacions (bé des del punt de vista econòmic, habitacional, etc) a manera de «marcadors» que indiquen la importància d’aquest lloc i que fins i tot serveixen per vincular aquest territori a un determinat conjunt humà que l’ocupa i que transita a través d’ell. En aquest últim sentit prenen especial rellevància les representacions afiguratives del fenomen representatiu paleolític, és a dir els signes, els que en termes estadístics suposen el 50% del que es pinta o grava. S’ha observat que dins dels múltiples i innombrables tipus que s’han representat sol ser habitual una repetició dels mateixos signes amb variacions de situació segons les coves. L’existència de paral·lelismes clars entre els signes de diferents coves, conjuntament amb el caràcter repetitiu en la decoració d’alguns elements d’art moble, i en representacions parietals, ens plantegen que molts d’aquests signes podrien ser referències territorials que poden indicar símbols de grup.

Herrerias

Cova d’Herrerías o del Bolao. Conjunt de graelles. La Pereda (Llanes)

La presència de signes de tipus quadrangular, com els tectiformes per exemple, està molt desenvolupada a la zona de l’orient asturià i l’occident de la veïna Cantàbria, però encara que a nivell general és un tipus de signe normalitzat a la regió, podríem dir que es concreta a nivell local o territorial, sent els presents a les cavitats del Sella similars entre si i diferents a altres presents al Castillo, Altamira, o Herrerías. Sembla així que els signes podrien ser interpretats com a elements o referents identificatius d’un grup determinat que s’està movent per un territori concret.

Hem d’entendre que les manifestacions gràfiques han de ser estudiades i valorades dins del context i espai en el qual estan immerses, ja que formen part de la vida dels grups humans paleolítics que les van crear i amb els que manifesten una relació estreta i interacció constant. L’anàlisi de totes les manifestacions gràfiques i de les restes arqueològiques en les àrees que ocupaven i el territori pel qual transitaven aquesta gent, és vital per entendre-les culturalment i enquadrar-les en el seu horitzó cronològic.

Les grafies paleolítiques semblen compondre un mitjà d’expressió que reflecteix les concepcions i ideologia de l’home paleolític, des de l’organització dels grups i la seva ordenació en el territori, passant per les seves motivacions econòmiques, fins a la seva visió del món i de la vida. Concepcions aquestes que presenten mitjançant figuracions animalístiques i signes que graven i pinten tant en l’àmbit cavernari com a l’aire lliure.

La reiteració de temes, associacions i ubicacions en diferents enclavaments cavernaris demostren un caràcter normatiu dins del fet gràfic paleolític que d’una banda exclou les motivacions estètiques d’un autor individual i per altra conforma aquest com un sistema de símbols que són l’expressió ideològica i de identitat grupal. D’aquesta manera les representacions prehistòriques componen un llenguatge que ens parla sobre les formes de vida i organització social dels grups paleolítics. Un llenguatge això sí codificat, però que transmetria missatges recognoscibles i interpretables per a aquells que els practicaven i coneixien per formar part d’un grup.

Hem de desterrar aquells arguments que, com a principis de segle, manifesten un caràcter rígid en unir conceptes dispars com santuari, totemisme, xamanisme, màgia, o religió, sense tenir en compte la dada empírica que proporciona l’arqueologia, ja que no podem aïllar el fet gràfic de l’home que el va crear.

Es fa necessari per tant realitzar nous estudis que ens permetin clarificar aquests controvertits conceptes i valoracions que, durant molt de temps, han estat categòricament defensats i sistemàticament acceptats per gran part dels investigadors.

Un pessimisme sobrevola la capacitat o possibilitat de poder trobar en un futur pròxim la resposta global sobre el significat real de l’art parietal paleolític; potser aquesta situació serveixi d’esperó a les noves generacions d’investigadors per obrir camins inexplorats. Les bases sobre les quals es sosté l’estudi de l’art parietal hauran de ser revisades, enfocant el tema des de perspectives regionals i cronologies curtes, ja que, per exemple, s’ha pretès atorgar una explicació integral a un art que perdura durant mil·lennis (estan més separades en el temps les pintures de Chauvet −32.000 ane− i els polícroms d’Altamira −14.000 ane− que aquests i els grafits urbans de les nostres ciutats), sense tenir en compte les seves presumptes diferents motivacions i els importants canvis temàtics esdevinguts. Tanmateix, com han subratllat diversos autors no deixa de ser rellevant que, fins i tot després de les revolucionàries troballes de Chauvet[15], Cosquer[16], La Garma[17] i Foz Côa[18] l’essència de la iconografia segueixi sent la mateix (bisó/ur-cavall i cabra amb cèrvids), al marge de la múltiples variabilitats tècniques, cronològiques i territorials.

En conclusió avui, després dels nous descobriments i la implantació d’analítiques especials en l’estudi de l’art plistocè existeix l’ambient general de la provisió d’informació fidedigna per plantejar immediatament, com diu Bahn[19] (1994), la «pròxima gran teoria»; en definitiva: explicar el fenomen rupestre des del rigor científic emanat de les dades empíriques i la seva interpretació.

La_Garma

Cova de La Garma. Omoño (Ribamontán al Monte)

A manera de resum:

Interpretacions de l’art del Paleolític

autors_interpretacions1autors_interpretacions2autors_interpretacions3

 

[1] Lewis-Williams, J.D. (1997): «Prise en compte du relief naturel des surfaces rocheuses dans l’art pariétal sud africain et paléolithique ouest européen: étude culturelle et temporelle croisée de la croyance religieuse».L’Anthropologie, t. 101, pp. 220-237. París.
Lewis-Williams, J.D. i Dowson, T.A. (1988): «The signs of all times: entoptic phenomena in Upper Palaeolithic Art». Current Anthropology, vol. 29, nº 2, pp. 201-217.
Clottes, Jean i Lewis-Williams, David (2001). Los chamanes de la prehistoria. Barcelona. Ariel. (Col. Ariel prehistoria). 1ª impr. 176 pàgs.

[2] Vieira, A.B. (1997): «Representaçâo e símbolo na arte parietal paleolítica». Revista da Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, nº 10, pp. 391-413. Lisboa.

[3] I. Reznikoff i M. Dauvois (1988). «La dimension sonore des grottes ornées», a Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française.
M. Dauvois (1989). «Son et musique paléolithiques», a Les dossiers d’archéologie, n° 142.
M. Dauvois i X. Boutillon (1990). «Études acoustiques au réseau Clastres, Salle des peintures et lithophones naturels», a Préhistoire ariégeoise, t. XLV, 1990.
D. Buisson (1990). «Les flûtes paléolithiques d’Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques)», a Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française.
M. Dauvois (1994).  «Les témoins sonores paléolithiques, extérieur et souterrain. “Sons originels”, préhistoire de la musique», a Études et recherches archéologiques de l’Université de Liège, n° 61, 1994.
M. Dauvois (2005). «Homo musicus paleolithicus et Palaeoacustica». San Sebastián. MUNIBE (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57. Homenaje a Jesus Altuna.pàgs. 225-241. En línia a http://www.euskomedia.org/PDFAnlt/munibe/aa/200503225241.pdf

[4] Dauvois, M. i Boutillon, S. (1994): «Caractérisation acoustique des grottes ornées paléolithiques et des lithophones naturels». A La Pluridisciplinarité en Archéologie musicale, pp. 209-252. Paris. Ed. La Maison des sciences de l’homme, 2 vols.

[5] Lorblanchet, Michel (1995). Les Grottes ornées de la Préhistoire. Nouveaux regards. París. Errance. 287 pàgs.
Lorblanchet, Michel (1999). La naissance de l’art. Genèse de l’art préhistorique dans le monde. París. Errance. 304 pàgs.
Lorblanchet, Michel (2006). Les origines de la culture. Les origines de l’art. París. Le Pommier. 192 pàgs.

[6] Pascua Turrón, Juan Francisco: «El arte paleolítico: historia de la investigación, escuelas interpretativas y problemàtica sobre su significado». ArqueoWeb – http://www.ucm.es/info/arqueoweb – 7(2) sept./dic. 2005. En líonia a http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/arqueoweb/pdf/7-2/pascua.pdf

[7] Leroi-Gourhan, André: «Les signes parietaux comme marqueurs ethniques». Altamira Symposium, Santander, 1979, pp. 289-297.
Annette Laming-Emperaire:  «Art rupestre et organisation sociale». Santander Symposium, Santander-Madrid, 1972, pp. 65-80.

[8] Sauvet, G., y Wlodarczyk, A. 1977: «Essai de semiologie préhistorique (pour une theorie des premiers signes graphiques del´homme)». Bulletin de la Societé Préhistorique Française, 74, 2; pp.545-558. En línia a http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bspf_0249-7638_1977_hos_74_2_8467
Sauvet, G. 1988: «La communication graphique paléolithique. (De l´analyse quantitative d´un corpus de données à son interprétation sémiologique)». L´Anthropologie 92, nº 1, Paris, pp.3-16.

[9] Lorblanchet, Michel (1995). Les Grottes ornées de la Prehistoire ; noveaux regards.París. Ed. Errance. 287 pàgs.

[10] Layton, Robert: «Shamanism, Totemism and Rock Art. Les Chamanes de la Préhistoire, en the Context of Rock Art Research». Ed. Cambridge Archaeological Journal10, Issue 1, abril 2000, pp. 169-186.
Mithen, S. 1991: «El arte de los Cazadores Paleolíticos». Mundo Científico 117-11. Madrid, pp. 972-979
Mithen, S. 1998: Arqueología de la mente. Orígenes del arte, de la religión y de la ciencia.Ed. Crítica, Barcelona.

[11] Jean Clottes: «Les peintures de la Grotte Chauvet Pont d’Artc, à Vallon Pont d’Arc (Ardèche, France): datations directes et inidrectes par la methode du radiocarbone». Comptes-Rendus de la Académie des Sciences de París, 320, sèrie IIa, 1995, París, pp. 113-1140.
Jean Clottes: «L’originalité de la grotte Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc, à Vallon-Pont-d’Arc (Ardèche)». Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 1995. Vol. 139. Nº 2. pp. 563-568. En línia a http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/crai_0065-0536_1995_num_139_2_15496

[12] Vialou, Denis: «L’art des grottes en Ariège Magdalénienne». XXII suplement Gallia Préhistoire. Ed. CNRS. París. 1986. 245 pàgs.

[13] Sauvet, Georges: «La communication graphique paléolithique. (De l’analyse quantitative d’un corpus de données à son interprétation sémiologique)». L’AnthropologieVol. 92, nº 1. París, 1988, pp. 3-16.

[14] Balbín Rodrigo de y Alcolea José Javier.: «Vie quotidienne et vie religieuse. Les sanctuaires dans L´Art Paléolithique». L´Anthropologie Vol. 103, nº 1, 1999. pp. 23-49. En línia a https://www.academia.edu/4992877/Vie_quotidienne_et_vie_religieuse._Les_sanctuaires_dans_lart_paleolithique

Balbín Rodrigo de y Bueno, Primitiva: «El análisis del contexto en el arte prehistórico de la Península Ibérica. La diversidad de asociaciones». Arkeos 10, 2000, pp. 97-127.
Balbín Rodrigo de; Bueno, Primitiva; Alcolea José Javier: «Prehistoria del lenguaje en las sociedades cazadoras y productoras del sur de Europa.» En Rodrigo de Balbín y Primitiva Bueno (eds) (2003): El arte prehistórico desde los inicios del siglo XXI. I Symposium Internacional de Arte Prehistórico de Ribadesella. 526 pàgs.

[15] http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/fr/

[16] http://www.culture.gouv.fr/fr/archeosm/fr/fr-medit-prehist.htm

[17] http://grupos.unican.es/arte/prehist/paleo/9/Default.htm

[18] http://www.manorhouses.com/unesco/whfozc.html

[19] Bahn, P.G. (1994): «Nes Advances in the Field of Ice Age Art» a Doris V. Nitecki i Matthew H. Nitecki (eds.): Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans. Nova York. Sprnger. pp. 121-132

Joan Campàs    Aura digital
Curs: Orígens de l’Art i evolució humana: l’homo significans
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del curs en format .pdf

1. Una visió de conjunt de l’art paleolític
2. El paleolític: cronologia i referències etnoarqueològiques
3. Evolució tecnològica en el Paleolític. Referències etnoarqueològiques de l’hàbitat
4. La construcció del coneixement de l’art del Paleolític
5. El paradigma d’Henri Breuil i la seva crisi

6. L’estructuralisme de Leroi-Gourhan i Annette Laming-Emperaire
7. Del xamanisme a l’art com expressió de l’organització social
8. El procés evolutiu: Darwin i la selecció natural
9. Darwin i la selecció sexual. El cicle menstrual
10. La selecció sexual: la competència espermàtica
11. La selecció sexual: l’orgasme femení
12. Sobre els orígens de l’art: les coalicions de dones pintades
13. Una perspectiva ecològica de l’evolució humana
14. Els primers hominoides
15. Els homínids: els preaustralopitecins
16. Els hominins: els australopitecins
17. Paranthropus
18. Els primers Homo: Homo habilis
19. El poblament d’Euràsia: l’homo ergaster/erectus
20. Homo antecessor, rhodesiensis, heidelbergensis i floresiensis
21. L’Homo neanderthalensis
22. L’Homo sapiens
23. Sobre el concepte d’art
24. Les primeres expressions artístiques
25.  Sobre els orígens de l’art del Plistocè
26. L’art rupestre del Plistocè
27. Temes i distribució de l’art parietal

28. L’art moble del Plistocè
29. Temes de l’art mobiliari
30. Art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior. Interpretacions
31. Sobre els orígens del llenguatge

288 comments

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  40. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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  46. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  47. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  48. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  49. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  50. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  51. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  52. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  53. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  54. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  55. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  96. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  97. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  98. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  99. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  100. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  101. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  102. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  103. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  104. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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  123. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  156. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

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  164. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  165. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  166. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  167. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  168. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  169. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  170. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  171. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  192. Thank you for any other wonderful post. The place else may anybody get that type of information in such an ideal way of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am at the look for such info.

  193. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  194. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  199. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  200. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  201. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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