Història

Lliçó 27. Temes i distribució de l’art parietal

1. Temes de l’art parietal 

1. Antropomorfs 

En l’art parietal del Plistocè europeu el tema antropomorf no es prodiga en excés. 

1.1. Figures masculines

El nombre de dissenys masculins parietals és bastant escàs. Pel que fa als motius parcials, resulta tremendament difícil trobar una representació de fal·lus aïllada. Només es pot citar un penis i testicles gravats a Cosquer i una probable figuració exempta modelada en fang de la cova de Bédeilhac.

És en els motius totals on trobem més figures d’homes. Són considerades masculines per posseir penis i està mancades de pits. Apareixen bestialitzats (antropozoomorfs), clarament bípedes, sovint itifàl·lics però amb el cap transformat en un animal (bisó, ur, ocell, cérvol) i sovint amb cua, som si anessin coberts amb la pell d’un quadrúpede figures_masculines

 1) El Castillo. 2-3) Les Trois-Frères. 4) Gabillou. 5) Altamira. 6) Lascaux. 7) Hornos de la Peña. 8) Los Casares. 9) Les Trois-Frères. 10) Addaura.

figures_masculines2

 1) Sous-Grand Lac. 2) Le Portel. 3-4) Massat. 5) Los Casares. 6) Rouffignac. 7) Marsoulas. 8) Labastide. 9) «Màscares» d’Altamira    figures_masculines3

1) Les Combarelles. 2) Los Casares. 3) Villars. 4) Lascaux. 5) Levanzo. 6) Pech-Merle. 7-8) Cougnac

 1.2. Figures femenines

figures_femenines

1)     Pergouset. 2) Micolón. 3) Gouy. 4) Tito Bustillo. 5) Pech-Merle. 6) Les Combarelles. 7) Pech-Merle, seqüència de la «metamorfosi» dona bisó segons Leroi-Gourhan

figures_femenines2

1) La partera de Le Gabillou. 2) Croquis del sector central del fris esculpit d’Angles-sur-l’Anglin. 3-4) Baix relleus de La Magdelaine

figura_femenina3
Possible forat indicant el sexe femení a la cova Cosquer.

1.3. Empremtes de mans

mans

1) Quadre de les fórmules digitals segons Leroi-Gourhan, els prototipus marcat amb una creu no apareixen a l’art paleolític. 2) Croquis dels panells de mans de Gargas. 3) Siluetes de primeres falanges replegades (Gargas i Pech-Merle) 

2. Zoomorfs

zoomorfs1
Bisó. 1) Pindal –gravat i dors pintat. 2) Niaux –pintura negra. 3) Les Trois-Frères –gravat. 4) Font-de-Gaume –gravat. 5) Pech-Merle –pintura negra.

zoomorfs2
Urs. 1) Teyjat –gravat. 2) Font-de-Gaume –pintura tinta plana. 3) Pair-non-Pair –gravat.
zoomorfs3
Èquids. 1) Lascaux –gravat. 2) Lascaux –policrom. 3) Rouffignac –pintura negra. 4) Les Combarelles –gravat.
zoomorfs4
Caprins. 1) Cabra alpina de Gazel –gravat. 2) Cabra pirenaica d’El Castillo –gravat. 3) Isard de Massat –gravat sobre argila. 4) Isard de Peña de Candamo –gravat estriat.

zoomorfs5
Cèrvids. 1) Cérvol de Lascaux –gravat. 2) Cérvola de Covalana –tamponat vermell. 3) Ren de Les Combarelles –gravat. 4) Megaceront femella de Cougnac –pintura negra.

zoomorfs6
Proboscidis. 1) Pindal. 2) Rouffignac. 3) El Castillo. 4) Les Combarelles.

zoomorfs7
Rinoceronts. 1) Rouffignac –pintura negra. 2) Les Trois-Frères –gravat. 3) Font-de-Gaume –pintura vermella. 4) Les Combarelles –gravat.

zoomorfs8
Carnívors. 1) Os de Santimamiñe –pintura negra. 2) Os de Les Trois-Frères –gravat. 3) Felí de Gabillou –gravat. 4-5) Felí de Trois-Frères –gravat. Cànid d’Altxerri inscrit en un ren –gravat.

zoomorfs9
Fauna aquàtica. 1) Abri du Poisson de Gorge d’Enfer –baix relleu. 2) Niaux –gravat sobre argila. 3) Altxerri –gravat. 4) La Pileta –pintura negra. 5) Ekain –pintura negra. 6) Pindal –gravat. 7) Pinnípedes de Nerja –pintura vermella. 8) Pinnípedes de Cosquer –gravats. 9) Meduses (?) de Cosquer –pintura negra

zoomorfs10
Aus. 1) Les Trois-Frères –gravats. 2) El Pendo –gravats. 3) Lascaux –pintura negra. 4) Gargas –gravat. 5) Les Trois-Frères –gravat.

zoomorfs11
Fauna irreal i acèfals. 1-2) Les Trois-Frères. 3) Tuc-d’Audoubert. 4) Pergouset. 5) Bédeilhac. 6) Las Monedas. 7) Le Portel. 8) Les Combarelles

zoomorfs12
Convencionalismes. 1) Cavalls mediterranis. 2) Cérvoles longilínies i cap trilineal. 3-4) Ziga zaga dorsal a Les Trois-Frères i Altxerri. 5-9) Descomposició volumètrica en M: Ekain, Lascaux, Las Monedas, le Portel, Niaux 

3. Ideomorfs

ideomorfs1
Tipologia dels signes segons Leroi-Gourhan

ideomorfs2
Tipologia dels signes. 1) Segons Casado. 2) Segons Sauvet. ideomorfs3
Tipologia dels signes. 1) signes pirenaics. 2) signes d’Andalusia. 3) Assimilació de signes a algunes empremtes d’animals 

2. Distribució geogràfica de l’art rupestre

Cal, d’entrada, tenir present que aquestes subdivisions són convencionals i que, a més, estan compartimentades en funció de les grans perioditzacions tecno-culturals que també són aleatòries, i en les quals és molt problemàtic encaixar els «períodes de transició». Les zone s’han ordenat seguint un criteri geogràfic que va d’est a oest i de nord a sud, i es citen els jaciments més significatius i no el seu catàleg exhaustiu.

La repartició de l’art rupestre no coincideix amb la de l’art mobiliari; aquest es troba molt més estès en un arc que inclou en un extrem Andalusia i en l’altre Sibèria. No es pot saber, per ara, si això obeeix a la manca real d’art parietal en els països orientals o és degut a la manca d’investigació o a qüestions de conservació.

De totes maneres, a nivell geogràfic, els llocs amb art rupestre paleolític queden distribuïts aproximadament entre els 150 llocs de França, una quantitat similar a la Península Ibèrica, una vintena a Itàlia, 1 a Bòsnia-Herzegovina, 1 a Romania, 2 a Rússia… Avui per avui, doncs, el fenomen figuratiu parietal continua sent des d’un prisma quantitatiu característic d’Europa sudoccidentalmapa_pintures_rupestres_EuropaMapa amb les pintures rupestres d’Europa

distribucio1distribucio2distribucio3

art_paleolitic_cantabric
Quadre de l’art paleolític de la Cornisa Cantàbrica

Bibliografia

Alcolea González, José Javier; Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo de (2006). Arte paleolítico al aire libre: el yacimiento rupestre de Siega Verde, Salamanca. Valladolid. Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Cultura y Turismo. 422 pàgs.

Alonso Tejada, Anna (1980). El conjunto rupestre de Solana de las Covachas : Nerpio (Albacete). Albacete. Instituto de Estudios Albacetenses Don Juan Manuel. 240 pàgs.

Altuna Echave, Jesús (1998). Ekain y Altxerri : dos santuarios paleolíticos en el País Vasco. Alegia. Ediciones Oria. 200 pàgs.

Angulo Cuesta, Javier i García Diez, Marcos (2005). Sexo en piedra : sexualidad, reproducción y erotismo en época paleolítica. Madrid. Luzán 5. 200 pàgs. 

Apellániz, Juan María (2009). La abstracción en el arte figurativo del Paleolítico : análisis del componente abstracto en la figuración naturalista del grafismo paleolítico. Bilbao. Universidad de Deusto. Departamento de Publicaciones. (Col. Cuadernos de arqueología de Deusto, 18).  

Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo de; Alcolea González, José Javier; Martinho Baptista, Antonio (2009). Arte prehistórico al aire libre en el Sur de Europa. Valladolid. Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Cultura y Turismo. 500 pàgs. 

Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo de; Alcolea González, José Javier; Santonja Gómez, Manuel (1996). Arte rupestre paleolítico al aire libre de la cuenca del Duero : Siega Verde y Foz Coa. Zamora. Fundación Rei Afonso Henriques. 49 pàgs. 

Beltrán, Antonio (1998). Arte prehistórico en la Península Ibérica. Castelló. Diputació Provincial de Castelló. Servei de Publicacions. 103 pàgs. 

Beltrán, Antonio (1973). Caverna de Niaux. Zaragoza. Librería General. 276 pàgs. 

Botticelli, Guido i Silvia (2008). Lezioni di Restauro. Le pitture murali. Firenze. Centro Di della Edifimi. 206 pàgs.

Botticelli, Guido (1992). Metodologia di Restauro delle Pitture Murali. Firenze. Centro Di della Edifimi. 173 pàgs.

Cruz Berrocal, María i Fraguas Bravo, Alfonso (2009). Introducción al arte rupestre prehistórico. Madrid. Luarna Ediciones .

Danti, Cristina; Matteini, Mauro; Moles, Arcangelo (1990). La pitture murali: tecniche, problemi, conservazione. Firenze. Centro Di della Edifimi.

DD.AA. (1999). Domingo García, arte rupestre paleolítico al aire libre en la meseta castellana. Valladolid. Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Cultura y Turismo. 278 pàgs.

DD.AA. (1993). L’Art pariétal paléolithique. Techniques et méthodes d’étude. París. Ministère de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche, Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. 427 pàgs.

Dowson, Thomas i Lewis-Williams, David (1989). Images of Power: Understanding Bushman Rock Art. Johannesburg. Southern Book Publishers. 208 pàgs.

Dowson, Thomas i Lewis-Williams, David (1994). Contested Images. Johannesburg. Witwatersrand University Press. 120 pàgs.

Fernández Quintano, José (2009). Filosofía del arte paleolítico en el siglo XIX. Madrid. Vision Libros. 2ª ed.

García Guinea, Miguel Ángel (2003). Altamira y otras cuevas de Cantabria. Madrid. Sílex. 2ª ed. 214 pàgs.

García Morales, María (1988). Representaciones zoomorfas grabadas en el arte cuaternario. Madrid. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Servicio de Publicaciones. Tesis doctorales. 1872 pàgs.

Leroi-Gourhan, André (1983). Los primeros artistas de Europa. Madrid. Encuentro Ediciones. (Col. Las huellas del hombre, 2). 142 pàgs.

Leroi-Gourhan, André (2000). La prehistoria. Tres Cantos. Akal. (Col. Textos, 28). 764 pàgs.

Lewis-Williams, David (2004).The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art. Londres. Thames & Hudson. 320 pàgs.

Lorblanchet, Michel (1995). Les Grottes ornées de la Préhistoire. Nouveau regards. París. Editions Errance. 287 pàgs.

Menu, M. & Walter, Ph. (1991). «Les premiers artistes peintres». La Recherche 235, vol. 22: 1086-1089.

Menu, M.; Walter, Ph.; Vigears, D; Clottes, J.(1993). «Façons de peindre au Magdalénien». Bull. Soc. Préhist. Fr  90, 6: 426-432.

Mingo Álvarez, Alberto (2009). La controversia del arte paleolítico. Torrelaguna. Quiasmo Editorial. 156 pàgs.

Mora, Paulo i Laura; Philippot, Paul (2003). La conservación de las pinturas murales. Bogotá. Departamento de Publicaciones de la Universidad Externado de Colombia e ICCROM. 733 pàgs.

Múzquiz Pérez-Seoane, Matilde (2007). Análisis artístico de las pinturas rupestres del Gran Techo de la cueva de Altamira : materiales y técnicas : comparación con otras muestras de arte rupestre : Santillana del Mar, Santander. Madrid. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Servicio de Publicaciones. 1 CD-ROM

Nougier, Louis-René; Ageorges, Verónique (1988). Un paraje de cazadores prehistóricos : Rouffignac.  Bilbao. Ediciones Mensajero, S.A. Unipersonal. 64 pàgs.

Noury Arnaud, Chazine Jean-Michel. «Kalimain: Specific program for sexual determination of prehistoric hands stencils», Communication à la conference Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, 18-23 Avril 2006, Fargo (North Dakota), http://arethpa.ifrance.com/KalimainFargo.pdf

Cfr. Les empreintes de mains se donnent un genre, http://www2.cnrs.fr/presse/journal/2596.htm

Peralto, Francisco (2008). Descubrimiento y estudio de la Cueva de la Pileta. Màlaga. Corona del Sur. (Col. Analecta malaginense histórica y legendaria, 27). 50 pàgs.

Pino Díaz, César del (2005). Pintura mural : conservación y restauración. Madrid. CIE Inversiones Editoriales Dossat-2000. 400 pàgs.

Ripoll López, Sergio; Ripoll Perelló, Eduardo; Collado Giraldo, Hipólito (1999). Maltravieso : el santuario extremeño de las manos. Mérida. Editora Regional de Extremadura. (Col. Memorias (Museo de Cáceres), 1). 170 pàgs.

Sanahuja Yll, Mª Encarna (2002). Cuerpos  sexuados, objetos y prehistoria. Madrid. Cátedra. (Col. Feminismos, 69). 232 pàgs.

Sanchidrián Torti, José Luis (2005). Manual de arte prehistórico. Barcelona. Ariel. 2ª impr. 552 pàgs.

Serna Gancedo, Mariano Luis (coord.) (2002). Las cuevas con arte paleolítico en Cantabria. Santander. Cantabria en Imagen. Asociación Cántabra para la Defensa del Patrimonio Subterráneo. 352 pàgs.

Ucko, Peter John i Rosenfeld, Andrée (1967). Arte paleolítico. Barcelona. Ediciones Guadarrama. 256 pàgs

Joan Campàs    Aura digital
Curs: Orígens de l’Art i evolució humana: l’homo significans
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del curs en format .pdf

1. Una visió de conjunt de l’art paleolític
2. El paleolític: cronologia i referències etnoarqueològiques
3. Evolució tecnològica en el Paleolític. Referències etnoarqueològiques de l’hàbitat
4. La construcció del coneixement de l’art del Paleolític
5. El paradigma d’Henri Breuil i la seva crisi

6. L’estructuralisme de Leroi-Gourhan i Annette Laming-Emperaire
7. Del xamanisme a l’art com expressió de l’organització social
8. El procés evolutiu: Darwin i la selecció natural
9. Darwin i la selecció sexual. El cicle menstrual
10. La selecció sexual: la competència espermàtica
11. La selecció sexual: l’orgasme femení

12. Sobre els orígens de l’art: les coalicions de dones pintades
13. Una perspectiva ecològica de l’evolució humana
14. Els primers hominoides
15. Els homínids: els preaustralopitecins
16. Els hominins: els australopitecins
17. Paranthropus
18. Els primers Homo: Homo habilis
19. El poblament d’Euràsia: l’homo ergaster/erectus
20. Homo antecessor, rhodesiensis, heidelbergensis i floresiensis
21. L’Homo neanderthalensis
22. L’Homo sapiens
23. Sobre el concepte d’art
24. Les primeres expressions artístiques
25.  Sobre els orígens de l’art del Plistocè
26. L’art rupestre del Plistocè
27. Temes i distribució de l’art parietal

28. L’art moble del Plistocè
29. Temes de l’art mobiliari
30. Art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior. Interpretacions
31. Sobre els orígens del llenguatge

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  8. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  9. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  11. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  12. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  13. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  14. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  15. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  16. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  17. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  18. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  20. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  21. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  22. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  23. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  24. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  25. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  26. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  27. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  28. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  29. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  30. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  31. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  32. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  33. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  34. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  36. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  37. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  41. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  42. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  43. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  44. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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