Història

Lliçó 28. L’art moble del Plistocè

Concepte d’art moble 

Per art moble o mobiliari entenem tots aquells objectes que mantenen pel cap baix una grafia o representació d’origen humà, i que posseeixen la capacitat de ser transportats per una persona de complexió mitjana. Es tracta, doncs, d’objectes movibles que es poden traslladar pel territori, fins a distàncies molt llunyanes del lloc de producció.

cova_Blombos
Art mobiliari de la cova Blombos[1], Sud-Àfrica. Bifaços, bloc d’ocre gravat i atzagaies d’una antiguitat de 75.000 anys

 Els suports 

Es poden agrupar els objectes mobiliaris en funció de la substància que utilitzen com a suport. Així es poden distingir:

  • obres en suport orgànic: procedeixen de parts esquelètiques de certs animals (ossos, banyes, dents, closques)
  • obres en suport inorgànic: procedeixen de minerals. Les obres fetes amb fusta o cuir no s’han conservat.

1. Suports orgànics

Les espècies més habituals de les quals se n’aprofiten els ossos foren els cèrvids, èquids i aus. Dels cèrvids es feien servir les peces dentals, els ossos de les extremitats, les costelles, els omòplats i sobretot les banyes (propulsors, atzagaies, bastons perforats, arpons, etc.) que per la seva robustesa i morfologia eren ideals per a fer eines llancívoles.

Les banyes dels cèrvids resultaren molt versàtils i una primera matèria bastant explotada. La banya de ren presenta un desenvolupament molt arquejat, mentre que la de cérvol és més rectilínia. La banya en brut ha de sofrir un procés de fractura per tal de rebutjar les parts inservibles i aconseguir les porcions desitjades. La majoria d’objectes de banya amb un destí llancívol (atzagaies, arpons, varetes) foren fets a partir de resquills de cornamenta. Per a l’obtenció dels resquills es feien servir dues tècniques:

  • doble ranurat: consisteix a fer dues incisions paral·leles a la zona cortical de la banya amb el burí, i després s’extreu la vareta amb l’ajut d’una eina a mode de falca. Un cop es té el tros, se li ha de donar la forma concreta i s’ha de polir amb roques amb capacitat abrasiva (gres o sorrenques)i granulometria cada cop més petita (òxids metàl·lics o hematites).
  • percussió: s’obté el resquill de cornamenta colpejant de forma directa la banya; el producte  és de mida inferior i més bast que l’obtingut amb l’altre sistema.

Si la cornamenta no és fresca, cal posar-la en remull durant unes hores per tal de facilitar-ne el maneig; quan es treballa amb banya de ren, la vareta s’ha d’escalfar per tal de redreçar-la, operació assistida probablement per un bastó perforat.

En algunes èpoques i llocs, l’ivori i altres peces dentàries foren les primeres matèries fonamentals.

  • l’ivori és una matèria molt dura i de mida considerable. Es deuria treballar per percussió directa –que produeix resquills irregulars– i per ranurat mitjançant burins i falques. L’ullal ha d’estar sec –pot comportar diversos mesos–, però el treball sobre els resquills s’haurà de fer humitejant el tros d’ivori durant dies. Algunes peces (braçalets i diademes) es fan a partir de làmines primes d’ivori sec que són arquejades en un medi líquid per cocció per tal que no apareguin esquerdes i aconseguir així la flexibilitat necessària per se doblegades.
  • les dents s’utilitzaren bàsicament com ornament (perforades, decorades, esculpides), grans de collar, granadures i penjolls, de vegades decorats amb representacions d’animals i/o signes. Sembla que no hi va haver predilecció per algunes dents o queixals d’espècies particulars, però sí que es caçaven certes espècies de carnívors per obtenir la primera matèria suficient per a la fabricació de peces dures ornamentals (a més de la pell) i no només per ser menjades.

Les closques de mol·luscs es feien servir de penjolls, grans de collar o per ser cosides als abrics o gorres. Algunes esdevingueren més de «moda», atès que certes espècies marines han estat localitzades a l’interior del continent allunyades centenars de quilòmetres dels seus llocs d’hàbitat.

2. Suports inorgànics

Són masses minerals entre les que sovintegen els gresos, els esquists, les roques carbonatades i els òxids metàl·lics; en poques ocasions es troben materials semipreciosos, com l’atzabeja o l’ambre.

Pel que fa a les formes es pot distingir entre:

  • còdols: correspon a un volum de mineral arrodonit i/o aplanat per l’erosió en un medi líquid. N’hi ha dos tipus bàsics: els de platja (més plans) i els de riu (més arrodonits).
  •  plaquetes: porcions de roca de poc gruix que mostren dues cares o superfícies paral·leles i més o menys planes. Si l’eix major supera els 20 cm parlarem de plaques
  • bloc: massa informe o irregular de roca de notable pes i volum. Si no pot ser transportat ja no parlarem d’art mobiliari sinó d’art rupestre.

Cal també fer referència als òxids de ferro, alguns d’ells decorats amb gravats. Els ocres (poden anar del color groc al vermell) són substàncies molt habituals en els jaciments, atès que posseeixen la capacitat d’acolorir qualsevol superfície, inclosa la pell humana, però també ofereixen altres qualitats com les d’antisèptic, cauteritzador de ferides, antipicades, adobat de pells…, i els hematites han intervingut com abrasiu fi en la darrera fase del procés de polit de les peces sobre suports orgànics. Cal anar amb cura, doncs, d’interpretar la seva presència amb finalitat estètica, ritual o simbòlica.

Tipus d’objectes

Existeixen nombroses classificacions de les obres d’art mobiliari sobre suport d’origen animal i mineral, estructurades a partir de la seva morfologia, cronologia, funcionalitat, ús. Aquí s’opta per una subdivisió que distingeix peces d’ús quotidià, objectes de petit format, quasi sempre perforats que remeten a ornaments personals, i peces de caràcter simbòlic o ideològic.

1. Fets amb os

1.1. Objectes venatoris o d’ús quotidià

1.1.1. Atzagaies

Comencem per certs prototipus que evidencien una activitat cinegètica, i que poden ser encasellats com armes o puntes llancívoles.

atzagaies_magdaleniaAtzagaies de base dividida del Magdalenià. Musée de Toulouse.

Les atzagaies corresponen a puntes de projectil o venables amb longituds que varien entre els 5 i els 30 cm., confeccionades amb os, ivori o banya i adossades a un mànec de fusta. Per a la seva fabricació es va fer servir, sobretot, la tècnica del doble ranurat.

Al llarg del Paleolític Superior han canviat les formes, mides i seccions transversals (arrodonida, triangular, quadrada).

Les primeres atzagaies daten de l’Aurinyacià, no solen estar decorades i se’n troben de dos tipus:

  • de base dividida (Aurinyacià antic): tenen una incisió a manera de llavis per facilitar l’emmanegament
  • losanges (Aurinyacià evolucionat): massisses i de disseny romboïdal allargat

Amb el Gravetià es deixen de fabricar les anteriors i trobem el desenvolupament de l’atzagaia monobisellada: una punta cònica bisellada amb la finalitat de facilitar l’emmanegament. La decoració és a base d’incisions a la superfície del bisell.

Durant el Magdalenià es dóna una explosió qualitativa i quantitativa de la indústria òssia. Les atzagaies es renoven i es dóna una gran variabilitat formal. Trobem atzagaies de bisell doble, acanalades, amb aplanament en el fust i les blegades que, en definitiva, no són més que diferents modalitats per a la fixació a altres elements i crear eines més complexes i efectives.

atzagaies

Resumint, doncs:

  • Aurinyacià (35000 – 28000): Atzagaies de base enfonsada i atzagaies romboïdals
  • Gravetià (27 000 – 22000): Atzagaies de base bisellada i atzagaies fusiformes
  • Solutrià (22 000 – 18000): Atzagaies amb la zona central aplanada (també n’hi ha de bisellades i fusiformes)
  • Magdalenià (18 000 – 10000): Al costat de les anteriors, apareixen les atzagaies de ranures (probablement per a incrustar Micròlits), atzagaies de base bifurcada i atzagaies profusament decorades
    atzagaia_bisellada
    Atzagaia de base bisellada doble. 21.7 x 1.8 x 1.5 cm, 21.3 g. Magdalenià. Musée de Toulouse

La tècnica decorativa de les atzagaies és la incisió i els motius geomètrics lineals, que responen a necessitats funcionals i no ornamentals[2]: estarien destinats a ajustar la punta del projectil al mànec, a suportar millor la resina i augmentar l’adherència, carregar el verí, provocar l’entrada d’aire a la ferida, encaixar petites peces de sílex i dotar de més eficàcia l’arma.

1.1.2. Arpons

Propis de la segona meitat del Magdalenià, serien l’extrem o cap, amb capacitat de penetració en l’animal, d’un instrument molt sofisticat de sistemes d’emmanegaments[3]. Són de banya o os. La característica que els diferencia de qualsevol altra eina és la presència de dents o ganxos destacats d’un cos longitudinal. Els arpons azilians són aplanats amb un orifici allargat a la seva base.

arpons
Arpons d’os. 13.000-11.500. Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigación de Altamira. Santillana del Mar, Cantabria

Pel que fa a la decoració, els motius estan gravats i solen ser lineals. Només uns pocs casos tenen temes figuratius: el cavall del Pendo, caprí de Rascaño, ur de Morín i os del Castillo.

Si considerem que l’arpó ha anat evolucionant i suposem que s’han perfeccionat el desenvolupament de les seves dents, tindríem:

  • magdalenià IV mitjà: inicis dels arpons amb dents poc marcades que sobresurten poc del fust
  • magdalenià V superior: les dents es situen longitudinalment a l’eix del fust en una única filera
  • magdalenià VI superior: afegeix una altra fila de ganxos a la peça, creant els arpons de doble filera de dents o bilaterals
  • azilià: els arpons s’escurcen i aplanen, perforant-se la base amb un típic forat ovalat

arpons_azilians

 Arpons azilians de Le Mas-d’Azil, Ariège. Os. 81 × 19 × 7 mm.  12.000-9.500 anys. Musée de Toulouse.

 Arpons magdalenians de banya de ren amb un o dos rengles de dents (1: Mas d’Azil, 2: Bruniquel, 3, 4, 5: La Madeleine ; 6, 7: Lortet)

1.1.3. Varetes

Fetes habitualment de banya de cèrvid, són de forma cilíndrica. En el Magdalenià Mitjà-Superior assoleixen el màxim nombre i luxe decoratiu.

La funcionalitat estaria vinculada a un instrumental llancívol o com a peces intermèdies d’encast, o com a eina per fabricar ascles.

varetes

1.1.4.  Propulsors

Els propulsors són instruments cinegètics d’ús prolongat. Són típics del Magdalenià Mitjà-Superior i el seu marc territorial està restringit a les zones clàssiques de Dordonya i Pirineus, amb una excepció a Suïssa (Kesslerloch) i una altra al Cantàbric (Las Caldas).

propulsor
Mecanisme per llençar un dard amb un propulsor

Les seves formes es redueixen a dos grups: simples i escultòrics. Els primers consten d’una tija longitudinal a l’extrem de la qual hi ha tallat un ganxo, o lligat cert tipus d’atzagaia, amb la finalitat de recolzar-hi l’extremitat del projectil, l’objecte s’agafaria per la banda oposada, on una perforació asseguraria un cordill que estaria unit al canell del caçador/a. Els segons són propulsors amb escultures d’animals.

propulsors
Rèplica de propulsors: una punta d’atzagaia de bisellat simple, cova de Placard, cova de Combe-Saunière, cova del  Kesslerloch (Suïssa), cova de Placard, Cova d’El Castilo, cova de  Mas d’Azil, cova d’Isturitz, cova de Mas d’Azil, cova de Gourdanpropulsor_facsimil

Facsímil del propulsor de Mas d’Azil                                                  Dibuix de l’original

El propulsor imprimeix més energia al llançament que si aquest es fes només amb el braç i projecta, per tant, a major distància el projectil, amb el que augmenta l’efectivitat en la cacera i minimitza el risc en enfrontar-se amb la presa. La fabricació d’aquestes armes parteix de la intersecció de diverses branques de la cornamenta d’un cèrvid, porció òssia massissa que permet el modelat de la figura escultòrica, d’aquesta manera l’artista adapta la representació al volum disponible (una mena d’Y), determinant aquest l’obra i el disseny final. Els problemes tècnics derivats de les limitacions dels suports foren resolts de diverses maneres: replegant el cap sobre el cos (propulsor de La Madeleine), suprimint el cap, ganxos que formen part de la figura esculpida, fent-los coincidir amb apèndix anatòmics dels animals tallats (cua, orella, peülla). L’escultura té un valor funcional, atès que en ser una massa pesada a l’extrem del propulsor ajudaria a proporcionar una més gran força i velocitat al projectil.

propulsor_biso
Propulsor del bisó que es llepa, de La Madeleine. 13.000 anys. 10,5 cm. Musée National de la Préhistoire aux Eyzies-de-Tayac

propulsor_Mas_Azil
Propulsor de Mas d’Azil. Facsímil en l’exhibició a Le Musée National de Prehistòria, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac. La figura de la cabra salvatge fa uns 7 cm. i el conjunt del propulsor 29,5 cm. Datació: al voltant de 16.000 anys.

Aquest va ser un dels primers exemples d’art produït en massa. S’han trobat fragments de fins a deu exemples d’aquest disseny, el que significa que se’n varen fabricar desenes o centenars. La línia de gravat al llarg del cos de l’animal, possiblement, representa un canvi en el color del pelatge.

Encara que molts autors ho interpreten que el que mira la cabra són els seus excrements amb una au, Bandi[4] (1988) proposa que el que surt de la part de darrere de la cabra salvatge és un nadó, i l’animal estaria donant a llum, argumenta que els animals mai miren cap enrere per veure els seus propis excrements, però generalment ho fan quan donen a llum.

propulsor_Trois_Freres
Propulsor de la cova Trois Frères a Enlène. Dues cabres salvatges acèfals enfrontades. Banya de ren. 9,2 cm. 13.000 anys. París. Musée de l’Homme

1.1.5. Bastons perforats

Obtenen la màxima expressió numèrica i decorativa en el Magdalenià Mitjà-Superior. Són peces generalment de banya que presenten una o diverses perforacions circulars, efectuades en general a prop de la inserció de les puntes. El seu ús ha estat molt controvertit, ja que durant un temps foren anomenats bastons de comandament, cosa que comportava un sentit no demostrat de distinció, poder o jerarquia del seu propietari respecte la resta del grup. Les anàlisis d’empremtes de microdesgasts confirmen que la zona activa radica precisament en la perforació i se’n dedueix un ús com redreçador d’atzagaies, mànecs de fusta, etc., amb la calor com intermediària.  basto_perforat
Bastó perforat en banya de cèrvid amb decoració incisa de dues figures de cèrvids (rens?). Es conserva a l’Archäologisches Landesmuseum de Konstanza

basto_madeleine
Bastó perforat gravat amb una filera de cavalls. Banya de ren. 31 cm. 11.000 anys. Abric de La Madeleine (Tursac, Dordogne)

Segons la seva morfologia i decoració, s’agrupen en tres apartats:

  • simples: no tenen cap motiu gravat, amb un o més orificis, amb formes allargades en T o L, en relació a la porció de banya elegida per a la seva fabricació.
  • amb decoracions variades: les incisions solen adaptar-se al volum cilíndric que desembarassen els suports, creant de vegades complicats dissenys pericirculars entre animals i signes.
  • relleu fàl·lic: són una variant del grup anterior; el relleu del gland es fa a l’extrem oposat de la perforació amb entalladures i protuberàncies més realistes. basto_Pendo
    Bastó perforat de la cova d’El Pendo. 168 x 34 x 27,00 mm. 13.000-11.500 anys. Té forma de cap de cavall i està profusament decorat, alternant motius figuratius (caps de cérvola, cérvol i cavalls), signes i traços lineals.

En alguns casos, certes decoracions a base de cúpules, ajustades perfectament als dits, tenen a més la funcionalitat de facilitar l’aprehensió del fust i exercir amb això major força en el treball. basto_Castillo
Bastó perforat del magdalenià superior. 10.310 anys. Cova del Castillo, Santander

El seu ús s’ha interpretat, també, com a propulsor d’atzagaies, a partir d’estudis experimentals. Per tal d’utilitzar el bastó perforat com un propulsor, es va lligar un tros de corda a l’atzagaia, més o menys cap a la meitat; seria de cuir per a les atzagaies lleugeres i de tendó per a les més pesades. El fet d’afegir una corda a l’atzagaia, la converteix en una gran fletxa Suïssa o polinèsia[5]. L’ús d’aquesta atzagaia equipada com una fletxa suïssa dóna un augment entre un 50 i un 100 % en abast en comparació a llençar-la manualment. El bastó perforat és utilitzat passant la corda pel forat i posicionant la corda paral·lelament a l’eix del bastó. La corda es sosté amb la mà com si fos un propulsor.   fletxa_suissaUna demostració de l’ús de la fletxa suïssa basto_Enfer
Bastó perforat en forma de doble fal·lus. Gorge d’Enfer. 9,5 cm

1.1.6. Agulles

La seva morfologia és com les actuals: des de la seva invenció al final del solutrià només s’ha modificat la primera matèria. Durant el Plistocè eren la majoria d’os i molt poques de banya o ivori. N’hi ha de mides diferents. La seva existència ens parla d’un sistema de costura i vestimenta.

agulles
Agulla d’os d’ull pla de la cova de Gourdan. 59 x 3 x 2 mm. Magdalenià

1.1.7.  Flautes i tubs

Aquests artefactes estan fets amb ossos llargs d’aus, pel fet de ser buits. La funcionalitat de les flautes[6] és evident; la dels segons podrien servir per ingerir o expulsar líquids o com estoigs.

flauta_Hohle_FelsFlauta d’os de voltor amb cinc forats, trobada el 2009 a la cova Hohle Fels a l’oest d’Ulm (Alemanya) i datada de fa uns 35.000 anys. Aquestes troballes demostren la presència d’una tradició musical ben establerta en el moment en què els humans moderns van colonitzar Europa. Nicholas J. Conard, Maria Malina & Susanne C. Münzel: «New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany». Nature 460, 737-740 (6 August 2009). Published online 24 June 2009.

La decoració dels tubs tendeix a ocupar tota la superfície en una composició circular. La presència de les flautes[7] equival a suposar la manifestació musical o la producció artificial de sons harmònics. No se’n conserven massa exemplars però en tenim testimonis des del Paleolític Superior Inicial (Dolní-Vêstonice, Isturitz…), fins el Magdalenià (Castillo, La Paloma, La Cüelga, Le Placard, Isturitz…).

flauta_Geissenklosterle
Flauta paleolítica feta amb cúbit de cigne, de l’aurinyacià, d’uns 36.000 anys d’antiguitat, del jaciment de Geissenklösterle (Suàbia, Alemanya).

S’ha constatat un prototipus procedent d’un jaciment eslovè (Divje Babe[8]), que data d’uns 43.000 anys, amb la possibilitat que pertanyés a un grup de neandertals; si es confirmés, obriria importants conseqüències sobre l’origen de la música, per una espècie humana diferent de la nostra.

flauta_Babe
Flauta de Divje Babe. Fèmur d’os de les cavernes. 45.000 anys. Museu Nacional d’Eslovènia, Ljubljana. Alguns investigadors consideren que les perforacions no són antròpiques sinó que estan vinculades a l’acció dels carnívors.

A partir d’una flauta del gravetià d’Isturitz ha estat factible reconstruir el procés de fabricació, el cost temporal –una hora i mitja– i les seves peculiaritats organològiques[9]. Es tracta d’un objecte de 21 cm, amb una embocadura polida i un fust decorat amb curtes línies paral·leles i quatre orificis disposats en dues sèries a distàncies regulars que, en principi, ofereixen una escala pentatònica. flauta_Isturitz2
Flauta d’Isturitz. Aurinyacià, entre 40.000 i 26.000 anys. Musée d’Archéologie Nationale de Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

1.2. Objectes d’ornament-penjolls/perforats

1.2.1. Rodets o plaques circulars

Són característiques del Magdalenià Mitjà i estan fets amb ossos plans de pocs centímetres de diàmetre (de 3 a5 cm) que poden mostrar una perforació central com a part integrant de la seva confecció, fent-la servir com a centre des del qual s’atacaria el suport amb un burí i una corda (com si fos un compàs). Podrien ser «botons» o instruments musicals (platerets). rodet
Rodet de la cova d’El Linar (anvers i revers). Os. Part conservada: 5,3 × 2,7 × 0,3 cm. Diàmetre original: 6,4 cm. 15.420-14.040 anys

La cara A presenta la part d’una figura gravada corresponent als quarts posteriors d’un cavall, del qual es reprodueixen fidelment detalls anatòmics mitjançant la combinació de traços de diferents intensitats, més profunds per ressaltar el contorn exterior i molt més subtils per al farciment interior. El pelatge i el volum s’han representat per una successió de traços simples, fins, fets amb seguretat que, en les seves vores superior i inferior, es reforcen amb altres més curts intercalats regularment per ombrejar i donar volum. Aquesta disposició a manera de serrells reprodueix el pèl més llarg i espès corresponent a certs cavalls o a la seva capa hivernal, i, també, es representa
així el canvi de to que pot haver-hi a la capa, entre el flanc i el ventre. Entre la gropa del cavall i la vora del rodet apareix una figura de difícil definició per la seva manca de claredat i per estar afectada per la fractura de l’objecte. Es conserva únicament el que sembla ser un cap acabat en un musell afinitat, amb la indicació d’un ull, la relació més directa podria establir-se amb els caps fantàstics d’alguns antropomorfs de l’art rupestre i moble. Formalment podria posar-se en relació amb els existents en el Gran Sostre d’Altamira on apareixen gravats, a la perifèria o fins i tot en l’interior d’altres figures, fins a vuit éssers  d’aquest tipus, i també en altres coves com Los Casares (Guadalajara), Abauntz (Navarra), així com en el rodet de Mas d’Azil (Ariège) o en el còdol gravat de La Madeleine (Dordogne).

 rodet_Azil
Rodet de Mas d’Azil  rodets_Azil
Rodets de Mas d’Azil

 rodet_Las_Aguas
Rodet de la cova de Las Aguas. Anvers i revers. Os. Diàmetre: 4,5 cm. 15.030-14.440 anys

La cara A presenta com a decoració sis radis, amb un acabat més depurat i disposició més regular que els de la cara B. La seva superfície està suavitzada per fregament o fricció causat pel seu ús continuat, és a dir, seria la cara interna de la peça mentre que la cara B –sense aquest fregat– seria llavors la part visible de l’objecte. Això permet afirmar que la figura del segment circular va ser l’element més característic i rellevant de l’objecte.

Aquests rodets fonamenten les hipòtesis relacionades amb l’existència d’una comunitat cultural magdaleniana i amb la mobilitat dels grups humans durant el Paleolític superior. Les convergències apreciades entre les peces cantàbriques i les de diversos jaciments francesos reforcen la idea de l’existència de connexions a llarga distància, de manera que la cornisa Cantàbrica estava plenament integrada en aquesta xarxa de relacions socials i culturals[10].

1.2.2. Contorns retallats

cap_cavall
Contorn retallat de cap de cavall del magdalenià del jaciment d’Arudy

Sorgeixen també en el Magdalenià Mitjà. La tècnica dels contorns retallats també s’exerceix sobre omòplats i perforats, però el concepte de contorns/perfils retallats està més vinculat a figuretes exemptes (d’uns 3-7 cm) de caps realistes d’animals, bàsicament èquids i caprins –isards– (més del 60 % representen cavalls i, la resta, caprins, en la fabricació de les quals fou habitual partir de l’os hioide de cavalls o bovins.[11]

os_hioide
Dibuix de l’os hioide d’un cavall

caps_biso
Cova de Las Caldas, nivell VII: caps de bisó gravats en un hioides de cavall jove

 cap_cabra
Contorn retallat de cap de cabra sobre hioides de cavall. Cova la Garma.

Gairebé sempre mantenen una o més perforacions a prop de les orelles o dels orificis nasals amb un propòsit de subjecció o suspensió, a més, a uns pocs casos li van ser gravades unes línies en forma de corda en sentit transversal als morros i longitudinal a les mandíbules, que van fer pensar en testimonis mobiliaris d’una domesticació primerenca dels cavalls pels magdalenians.

L’ús dels perfils retallats típics com a elements ornamentals o de suspensió no ofereix molta discussió, potser s’hi podrien veure insígnies de distinció intergrupal.

1.2.3. Brunzidors, «churingas»[12]

Són fragments ossis aplanats, llargs i amples, propers a la forma romboïdal, de seccions plano-convexa i el·lipsoïdal, amb un orifici en una de les seves extremitats. S’han relacionat amb la música o amb efectes sonors. Les comparacions etnogràfiques els vinculen amb cerimònies i rituals, servint de vehicle a la veu dels avantpassats. Tots els exemples coneguts provenen del Plistocè Superior.  brunzidor_Pendo
Brunzidor de la cova d’El Pendo. Banya. 85 x 26 x 4 mm. 13.000 – 11.500 anys

Del brunzidor de la cova d’El Pendo se’n conserven dos fragments independents. Està allisat, perforat i profusament decorat amb dos cèrvids, un animal fantàstic i diversos traços lineals. El fragment major presenta una rica decoració gravada que suggereix una escena: entre la vegetació sorgeix un animal ferotge, amb la gola oberta i grans dents que sembla estar a punt de devorar a un gran cérvol mascle que sembla fugir entre les herbes. El fragment més petit representa potser un ren.

El brunzidor és un instrument sonor també anomenat rombe o churinga (en castellà, bramadera[13]). Es tracta d’una fina làmina d’os, asta o ivori amb forma pisciforme. Sol estar perforat per ser agafat per un llarg cordill i s’utilitza fent-lo girar mitjançant moviments circulars ràpids del braç, el que ocasionarà simultàniament un moviment de rotació de l’objecte respecte al cordill que el subjecta. Aquest últim produeix un brunzit greu, que oscil·la en la seva intensitat depenent de la velocitat del seu moviment. Els majors produeixen un so més greu, d’una freqüència propera al bram dels bisons o urs. Solen estar decorats amb motius figuratius formant «escenes» com en aquest cas o bé geomètrics. A Europa occidental solen aparèixer en cronologies magdalenianes i fins i tot solutrianes, encara que no més antigues. Objectes similars són utilitzats actualment per pobles aborígens.

1.2.4. Espàtules/allisadors

Hi ha altres peces allargades i aplanades però més estretes, que generalment no presenten cap perforació i han estat anomenades allisadors, espàtules o paletes. Fabricades en costella o banya, se’n troben des de l’inici del Paleolític Superior però comencen a ser decorades en el Magdalenià amb el retall en un extrem d’una figura de peix o només la cua, el que definiria el prototipus d’espàtula. S’ignora el seu ús.  espatules
Espàtules de la cultura Kostenki-Avdeevo

1.2.5. Braçalets i diademes

Els braçalets i diademes palesen un clar sentit d’ornament personal. Els exemples que es tenen documentats a l’actualitat provenen sobretot d’assentaments del Paleolític Superior d’Europa Oriental. Foren confeccionats en ivori, i n’hi ha d’una o més làmines incurvades per l’acció del vapor. Els simples estan sense decoració, però en les superfícies més grans s’omplen amb incisions rítmiques de motius geomètrics molt elaborats.

bracalets
Braçalets de Mézine, Ucraïna

bracalets2

1.2.6. Granadura, grans de collar

En aquest apartat s’haurien d’incloure tots els mol·luscs perforats amb o sense acolorir en vermell, les peces dentàries foradades llises o gravades amb dissenys lineals o animalístics, una gran diversitat de penjolls de banya, os, ivori…

Fins ara es creia que aquests elements ornamentals apareixien amb l’arribada de l’Homo sapiens a Europa i formaven part dels vestigis més significatius dels préstecs tecnoculturals entre els Homo sapiens i els Homo neanderthalensis.

petxines_Blombos
Petxines perforades de la cova de Blombos, Sud-Àfrica, de 75.000 anys. Grans de collar de petxines de Nassarius kraussianus. a) Obertura realitzada amb l’ajut d’una eina d’os; b) cara plana produïda per desgast, probablement pel fregament amb altres perles o amb un lligam; c) restes d’ocre; d) aspecte general dels grans del collar.

Però fa 75.000 anys, en el que ara és Sud-àfrica, un grup d’homininis va recollir petxines a la desembocadura d’un riu que mor a l’Índic. No els valia qualsevol petxina. Val agafar les del mol·lusc Nassarius kraussianus, que té forma de cargol, i es van quedar només amb els que superaven el mig centímetre de diàmetre. Després les van perforar, les van tenyir de vermell (o bé les van enfilar en fils vermells) i van formar amb elles collarets o braçalets.

Les petxines han estat descobertes a la cova de Blombos, a 20 quilòmetres de la desembocadura del riu i a 300 de Ciutat del Cap. Hi havia 41 petxines en total, disposades en grups d’entre 2 i 17 unitats. Dins de cada grup, totes les petxines tenien la mateixa mida, color, diàmetre del forat i tipus d’erosió pel fil, el que suggereix que corresponien a un mateix collaret o braçalet.

petxines_Aviones
Petxines perforades de la Cova de los Aviones: 1) Acanthocardia tuberculata, 2-3)Glycymeris insubrica. 50.000 anys  penjolls
Diferent tipologia de granadura dels penjolls magdalenians de la cova Praileaitz I

Les anàlisis tecnològiques de les perles d’ivori o banya de ren i les canines superiors dels cérvols aporten dades significatives de determinats aspectes socioeconòmics dels grups del paleolític Superior; la cadena operativa o procés de fabricació d’aquests ornaments comença amb l’obtenció de la banya o ivori, l’extracció dels resquills, conformació d’un bastonet matriu, subdivisió de les futures perles, polit, perforació, seccionat de les porcions individuals i acabat llustrós, amb un cost temporal d’1-2 hores de mitjana per a cada element.

penjolls2

1.3. Objectes de caràcter ideològic

S’inclouen en aquest apartat aquelles peces d’art mobiliari que no poden ser classificades en cap dels epígrafs precedents, és a dir, tots els objectes la funcionalitat o probable destí dels quals desconeixem. Habitualment hom sol parlar d’objectes de caràcter «religiós» però és un terme massa connotat. Molts han estat utilitzats durant llarg temps, atès que presenten empremtes d’haver estat enganxats a la vestimenta, transportats en algun recipient o sac, utilitzades periòdicament i marcades amb afegits posteriors.

cova_Volgelherd
a–c, Cova Vogelherd; d, Cova Hohlenstein–Stadel . Les talles representen a) el cap d’un lleó de les cavernes, b) un cavall, c) un mamut, d) una figura humana masculina/femenina amb cap de lleó/lleona de les cavernes.

Pràcticament tots són estatuetes d’animals i figuracions humanes, la majoria femenines, fetes sobretot en ivori i, de vegades, de fusta o banya. Com exemples il·lustratius cal recordar la col·lecció del jaciment de Vogelherd, l’home/dona lleó/lleona de Hohlenstein-Stadel i les imatges femenines conegudes com a «Venus».

2. Fets amb pedra

Fa dos milions i mig d’anys els primers humans ja fabricaven instruments amb pedres i probablement amb materials orgànics (fusta o os).

Per tal d’analitzar les eines lítiques –la tecnologia prehistòrica estudia la forma d’aquests objectes, el seu procés de fabricació i ús– s’han desenvolupat diverses perspectives metodològiques.

● l’enfocament empíric, culturalista i cronoestratigràfic. Des d’aquest punt de vista, determinats objectes poden ser considerats com veritables «marcadors» culturals, propis d’una determinada «cultura prehistòrica». Aquesta visió és el reflex en la Prehistòria del concepte de «fòssil director» de la Paleontologia, substituint el paper de marcador cronològic d’un determinat fòssil per un determinat estri. Aquesta manera d’estudiar els objectes prehistòrics té com a primer objectiu la seva classificació. Però no es classifiquen tots els objectes, només els que es consideren representatius que tradicionalment són els objectes retocats. Aquesta classificació morfològica ha de permetre determinar l’existència d’objectes especialment característics, que poden ser indicatius d’una determinada cultura prehistòrica.

L’exemple més seguit és la tipologia de François Bordes[14]: va elaborar una llista de tipus d’objectes del Paleolític Inferior i del Mitjà que segueix sent la base sobre la que es recolzen molts treballs sobre la indústria lítica d’aquests períodes.

Crítica a aquesta metodologia:

  • està mancada d’una base teòrica sòlida
  • no pren en consideració tots els objectes recuperats en un determinat nivell arqueològic, sinó que concedeix un valor especial a determinats elements i prescindeix d’altres.
  • aquests estudis es recolzen en l’observació i classificació d’objectes segons la seva morfologia sense tenir en compte altres aspectes, com el procés de fabricació i la seva utilització eines_mosterianes
    Els neandertals van ser experts fabricants d’eines de pedra. La major part de les seves eines pertanyen a la indústria mosteriana (nom del jaciment de Le Moustier, al sud de França), que inclou diversos elements distintius estilísticament i funcional. Francois Bordes va descobrir 64 nivells d’ocupació superposats en una cova, que abasta el període comprès entre uns 85.000-45.000 anys ane

● enfocament analític i estructural de Georges Laplace[15]. El seu marc teòric parteix del caràcter dialèctic dels processos històrics i de la concepció estructural dels objectes, sota la influència de l’estructuralisme i de plantejaments i sistemes d’ordenació derivats de la paleontologia.

La metodologia utilitzada es basa en la descomposició d’aquestes estructures morfotècniques en una sèrie de caràcters significatius.

Tanmateix, encara manté concepcions arrelades en una visió tradicional de l’arqueologia, com el seu caràcter tipològic i la seva perspectiva culturalista de la realitat històrica.

● Sistema Lògic Analític (SLA)[16]

La insatisfacció amb els resultats de les anàlisis tradicionals va donar lloc a l’aparició d’estudis tecnològics que parteixen del concepte de «cadena operativa». L’aplicació d’aquest concepte s’origina a França amb la intersecció de dues tradicions: els treballs de replicació experimental d’eines prehistòriques  de François Bordes i l’interès pels aspectes cognitius del comportament de Leroi-Gourhan. És un enfocament processual dels sistemes tècnics, atès que es considera imprescindible estudiar cada una de les fases de producció dels objectes, des del proveïment de primera matèria fins la seva utilització o abandonament. cadena_operativa
Esquema bàsic d’una cadena operativa

Leroi-Gourhan és responsable de la creació, el 1964, del concepte científic de Cadena Operativa (chaîne opératoire) aplicada a la tecnologia lítica prehistòrica: és el conjunt de passos encadenats (seqüència dinàmica) que es donen en la producció d’artefactes lítics, des de la recollida de la primera matèria, fins al seu abandonament, passant per les diferents fases de fabricació (generalment la talla), de la seva utilització i de la seva reconstrucció (afilat, revifat, reaprofitat…) i la seva reutilització, si es donés el cas. Les cadenes operatives permeten establir diferents estils i estratègies culturals, per la qual cosa són una eina conceptual d’inestimable valor en prehistòria i arqueologia.

El Sistema Lògic Analític[17] va sorgir cap el 1983 com a reacció als sistemes de classificació empírics tradicionals. Tres línies de pensament hi conflueixen:

  • la tipologia analítica de Georges Laplace
  • l’arqueologia analítica de David L. Clarke[18]
  • la lògica històrica de Thompson[19]

Recull també la perspectiva processual que planteja l’estudi de cadenes operatives lítiques.

L’eina és fabricada en el marc d’un procés tècnic, que organitza progressivament una matèria inorgànica i la converteix en una prolongació del cos humà. L’objecte és un instrument d’acció sobre el medi, per tant és el resultat d’un procés de selecció i interacció. Tradicionalment la relació entre els artefactes d’un conjunt industrial s’enfoca des del punt de vista de la tipologia, agrupant sèries d’objectes que presenten atributs morfològicament similars. Tanmateix, aquest enfocament no té en compte els processos que donen lloc a les eines. Els objectes lítics han de ser estudiats des de tres enfocament:

  • el morfotècnic: és la materialització d’una determinada tècnica que dóna forma a l’objecte. Consisteix en l’estudi analític dels trets fonamentals de cada objecte. El primer pas és la classificació de l’artefacte dins del procés de producció
  • el morfopotencial: es refereix a la capacitat teòrica d’intervenció sobre el medi d’una determinada estructura morfotècnica, quantificada per la morfologia i l’angle dels talls
  • el morfofuncional: es refereix a la manera específica en què una estructura morfotècnica i potencial és utilitzada. Es recolza en l’experimentació i l’observació mitjançant microscopi dels talls dels objectes. L’experimentació té com objectiu l’elaboració d’una col·lecció de referència d’artefactes de diverses primeres matèries que han estat utilitzats en determinades tasques. Aquests artefactes experimentals són observats al microscopi electrònic per determinar les característiques de les empremtes d’ús que ha produït la seva utilització.

2.1. Objectes d’ús quotidià

2.1.1.  Làmpades

Consisteixen en masses minerals que han experimentat un tractament per tal d’aconseguir una concavitat, amb dimensions que fluctuen entre els 12-20 cm. N’hi ha de senzilles i de més elaborades, amb mànec i decoració. Alguns exemplars posseeixen un desguàs per a l’evacuació del combustible fos. De morfologia variada, les més comunes són les circulars. Pel que fa al material, solen ser de gres o de roques carbonatades i de calcites estalagmítiques. Abasten totes les etapes del Paleolític Superior. En cas d’estar decorades, el camp elegit és el mànec (signes lineals) i el revers (dissenys animalístics).  lampades
Làmpada de Le Coual                                        Làmpada de Solvieux

lampada_Lascaux
Làmpada de greix de ren de Lascaux. 17.000 anys

 lampada_Mouthe
Làmpada de La Mouthe

A través de les anàlisis físico-químiques es coneixen els mecanismes de fabricació i activitat. El combustible més adient per a l’alimentació de les làmpades seria el greix animal de foca, cavall i boví, per les seves temperatures de fosa baixes, els bles idonis són els vegetals i, en particular, les petites branques de ginebró, pi o líquens. Com a recàrrega es pot fer servir un tros de grassa sòlida i si un es trasllada amb la làmpada, per exemple, a l’interior d’una cova, el millor és dur un os llarg de cavall  dins d’un contenidor i quan es necessiti més greix només caldrà trencar la diàfisi i treure el moll de l’os[20]nombre_lampades
Nombre de làmpades. Distribució cronològica de les làmpades del paleolític. A l’esquerra, cert, probable o possible; a la dreta, dubtosa.

2.1.2. Compressors-retocadors

Les eines que han arribat fins a nosaltres procedents del Plistocè estan fetes de pedra i os; la primera matèria de roca silícia (totes les varietats del genèric sílex[21] o pedrenyal) és la més buscada per les seves qualitats de fractura i vores tallants.

En la cadena de producció de peces lítiques intervenen instruments accessoris, els anomenats percussors, que poden ser tous (fusta, banya, os), o durs (còdols); per a la delineació final de l’objecte a través del retoc s’utilitzen els retocadors i/o compressors (que també són tous o durs), bé retallant la peça per percussió o per pressió.

En el Magdalenià van ser utilitzats còdols que estaven decorats amb representacions figuratives i, per tant, són entesos com art moble. Sovint, un retocador-compressor presentarà a les extremitats actives les empremtes pròpies del treball desenvolupat, que poden desfigurar la decoració.

plaqueta_Gourdan
Plaqueta d’esquist de la cova de Gourdan

Al centre de la placa (longitud 10 cm), hi ha gravat un ésser humà en miniatura. Llegible tot i les línies fines, és esquemàtic. La presència del penis pot determinar que es tracta d’un home;  a la part posterior del cap, un apèndix en punta pot representar el cabell o un barret. L’home aixeca un braç; de la seva mà sorgeix una línia que el connecta a un peix, poc detallat, identificable per la seva silueta i dues aletes, dorsal i anal, indicades. Es pot interpretar el conjunt com una escena de pesca. laqueta d’esquist de la cova de Gourdan. 11 cm.

2.1.3. Trituradors

Altres còdols han estat aprofitats per a múltiples finalitats, emmarcades en les activitats econòmiques dels grups humans paleolítics (des d’activitats quotidianes relacionades amb preparar el menjar –aliments que han de ser partits, triturats, mòlts… – a treballs amb encluses i suports.

Entre aquestes eines trobem uns còdols, lloses i pedres buides utilitzats com a trituradors de pigments, com a paletes de color o com a cassons per desar o transportar colorants líquids. En aquest context, cal citar també la modificació de masses minerals utilitzades a manera de llapis o l’ús d’òxids de ferro (hematites, ocre, mangra) per les seves qualitats desinfectants o com abrasiu fi i per la seva capacitat de tenyir-pintar qualsevol superfície.

2.2.  Objectes d’ornament-penjolls/perforats

Els objectes de pedra perforats són molt abundant. La «bijuteria paleolítica» aplega peces de gres, calcària, pissarres, ambres (negre i groc) i fins i tot fòssils. Les formes i mides són molt variades, des de granadures de collar a perles per ser cosides a la roba, penjolls…


[1] Blombos, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blombos, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blombos_Cave

[2] Allain, J. i Rigaud, A. (1986): «Décor et fonction. Quelques exemples tirés du Magdalénien». París. L’Anthropologie, t. 90, pàgs. 713-738.

[3] Juan A. Fernández- Tresguerres:Arpones decorados azilienses. En línia a http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/71419/1/Arpones_decorados_Azilienses.pdf

[4] Bandi, H.: «Mise bas et non défécation. Nouvelle interprétation de trois propulseurs magdaléniens sur des bases zoologiques, éthologiques et symboliques». Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Série I, Prehistoria, t. I, 1988, pàgs. 133-147

[5] Veure a You Tube el vídeo The Swiss Arrow (Pathfinder Dart), a http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uCyKrQDFA28

[6] Victor H. Mair: Prehistoric European and east Asian flutes, en línia a http://instphi.org/Festschrift15_Mair.pdf

[7] Mario Menéndez i Eduardo García: «Instrumentos musicales paleolíticos: la flauta magdaleniense de la Cueva de la Güelga (Asturias)». Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología, t. 11, 1998, pàgs. 167-177, en línia a http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv.php?pid=bibliuned:ETFSerie1-715F2DBD-5F3E-ECED-9582-6DCBE705C6E3&dsID=Documento.pdf

[8] Divje Babe flute, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divje_Babe_flute

[9] Buisson, D. (1990). «Les flûtes paléolithiques d’Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques)». París. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, t. 87, nº 10-12. Spécial bilan de l’année de l’archéologie, pàgs. 420-433. En línia a http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bspf_0249-7638_1990_hos_87_10_9925

Buisson, D. I Dartiguepeyrou, S. (1996). «Fabriquer une flûte au Paléolithique supérieur: récit d’une expérimentation». París. Antiquités Nationales, nº 28, pàgs. 99-128

[10] Carmen de las Heras, Ramón Montes Barquín, José A. Lasheras, Pedro Rasines, Pilar Fatás Monforte: «Dos rodetes paleoliticos procedentes de las cuevas del Linar y Las Aguas, Alfoz de Lloredo (Cantabria)». Veleia, nº 24-25, pàgs. 161-174, 2007-2008. Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigacion de Altamira. En línia a http://www.ehu.es/ojs/index.php/Veleia/article/download/1987/1617

[11] M.ª Soledad Corchón Rodríguez: «Los contornos recortados de la cueva de Las Caldas (Asturias, España), en el contexto del Magdaleniense medio cántabro-pirenaico». Munibe (Antropologia-Arkeologia) nº 57. Homenaje a Jesús Altuna. San Sebastián. 2005. pàgs. 113-134. En línia a http://www.aranzadi-zientziak.org/fileadmin/docs/Munibe/200503113134AA.pdf

[12] És una placa de fusta, os, metall o pissarra de forma oval o romboide lligada per un dels seus extrems a través d’un orifici a una corda, amb la qual se li dóna voltes com si fos una fona i d’aquesta forma emet un so profund i característic depenent de la mida de la placa: les més grans produeixen un so més greu i profund, a les més petites el so baixa d’intensitat i s’aguditza. Aquest so ha estat al llarg de milers d’anys considerat sagrat per nombroses cultures.

[13] Ignacio Barandiarán: «Bramaderas» en el Paleolítico Superior peninsular. En línia a http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Pyrenae/article/viewFile/147915/242354

[14] François Bordes (2000). Typologie du Paléolithique ancien et moyen. París. CNRS. 101 pàgs. Original de 1961 a Bordeaux. Delmas

[15] Georges Laplace (1972). «La typologie analytique et structurale: Base rationelle d’étude des industries lithiques et osseuses». Banques des données archéologiques.Colloques nationaux du CNRS. 932 : 91-143.

[16] R. Mora: El sistema lógico analítico, en línia http://www.euskomedia.org/PDFAnlt/munibe/1994368386.pdf

[17] Carbonell, E., Guilbaud, M & Mora, R. (1983). «Utilización de la lógica analítica para el estudio de tecno-complejos a cantos tallados». Cahier Noir 1: 3-64

[18] Clarke, David Leonard (1984). Arqueología analítica. Barcelona. Bellaterra. 492 pàgs.

[19] Edward Palmer Thompson (1981). Miseria de la teoría. Barcelona. Crítica. 304 pàgs.

[20] Sophie A. de Beaune: «Palaeolithic Lamps and Their Specialization: A Hypothesis». Current Anthropology, Vol. 28, No. 4. (Ag. – Oct., 1987), pp. 569-577. En línia a http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/40/71/75/PDF/1987_CA_lamps_.pdf

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204%28198708%2F10%2928%3A4%3C569%3APLATSA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W

[21] El sílex (SiO2), també anomenat pedrenyal en la seva varietat nodular de color negre, és una roca sedimentària formada principalment per diòxid de silici (s’admet que es forma amb aigua de mar o de llac saturada de sílice). És una roca de gran duresa (7 en l’escala de Mohs). Es va usar en l’Edat de Pedra per a l’elaboració d’eines tallants per la seva capacitat de trencar-se en ascles (fractura concoidea, làmines rectes amb lleugeres corbes). Es trencava en puntes tallants.

També va ser usat per encendre el foc per la seva capacitat de crear espurnes en xocar amb una altra peça d’igual o major duresa. Aquesta aplicació continua fins als nostres dies, sent comú que s’utilitzi per produir l’espurna en els encenedors. Típicament es presenta en forma de nòduls entre estrats de calcària.

Els humans del Plistocè utilitzaven el pedrenyal, juntament amb l’obsidiana, un vidre d’origen igni, per manufacturar eines punxants i tallants, com destrals de mà, puntes de fletxes i puntes de llances.

Joan Campàs    Aura digital
Curs: Orígens de l’Art i evolució humana: l’homo significans
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del curs en format .pdf

1. Una visió de conjunt de l’art paleolític
2. El paleolític: cronologia i referències etnoarqueològiques
3. Evolució tecnològica en el Paleolític. Referències etnoarqueològiques de l’hàbitat
4. La construcció del coneixement de l’art del Paleolític
5. El paradigma d’Henri Breuil i la seva crisi

6. L’estructuralisme de Leroi-Gourhan i Annette Laming-Emperaire
7. Del xamanisme a l’art com expressió de l’organització social
8. El procés evolutiu: Darwin i la selecció natural
9. Darwin i la selecció sexual. El cicle menstrual
10. La selecció sexual: la competència espermàtica
11. La selecció sexual: l’orgasme femení

12. Sobre els orígens de l’art: les coalicions de dones pintades
13. Una perspectiva ecològica de l’evolució humana
14. Els primers hominoides
15. Els homínids: els preaustralopitecins
16. Els hominins: els australopitecins
17. Paranthropus
18. Els primers Homo: Homo habilis
19. El poblament d’Euràsia: l’homo ergaster/erectus
20. Homo antecessor, rhodesiensis, heidelbergensis i floresiensis
21. L’Homo neanderthalensis
22. L’Homo sapiens
23. Sobre el concepte d’art
24. Les primeres expressions artístiques
25.  Sobre els orígens de l’art del Plistocè
26. L’art rupestre del Plistocè
27. Temes i distribució de l’art parietal
28. L’art moble del Plistocè
29. Temes de l’art mobiliari
30. Art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior. Interpretacions
31. Sobre els orígens del llenguatge

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  98. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  100. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  101. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  102. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  158. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  169. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  170. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  171. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  172. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  173. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  175. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  176. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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  203. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  208. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  209. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  210. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  337. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

  338. I do trust all of the ideas you’ve introduced in your post. They are really convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are too quick for beginners. Could you please prolong them a bit from next time? Thank you for the post.

  339. What i do not understood is if truth be told how you’re not actually much more smartly-appreciated than you might be right now. You’re so intelligent. You recognize thus significantly when it comes to this matter, produced me in my opinion imagine it from numerous numerous angles. Its like men and women don’t seem to be involved unless it is one thing to accomplish with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs great. All the time take care of it up!

  340. Thank you, I have recently been searching for info approximately this subject for a while and yours is the best I’ve discovered till now. However, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you positive concerning the supply?

  341. Thanks for the recommendations you have discussed here. Something important I would like to state is that computer system memory demands generally rise along with other improvements in the technologies. For instance, when new generations of processors are made in the market, there is usually a related increase in the size calls for of both the personal computer memory and also hard drive room. This is because software program operated simply by these cpus will inevitably boost in power to make new technology.

  342. One thing I’d like to say is that often before obtaining more computer memory, consider the machine into which it could well be installed. In the event the machine will be running Windows XP, for instance, a memory threshold is 3.25GB. The installation of above this would merely constitute some sort of waste. Make sure one’s mother board can handle your upgrade volume, as well. Good blog post.

  343. One thing I would like to say is that before purchasing more pc memory, have a look at the machine directly into which it could well be installed. If the machine is usually running Windows XP, for instance, the actual memory limit is 3.25GB. Installing over this would basically constitute any waste. Make sure one’s motherboard can handle this upgrade volume, as well. Thanks for your blog post.

  344. Thanks for your blog post. What I would like to bring about is that pc memory needs to be purchased in case your computer can’t cope with whatever you do with it. One can mount two good old ram boards containing 1GB each, for instance, but not certainly one of 1GB and one of 2GB. One should look for the manufacturer’s documentation for one’s PC to be certain what type of ram it can take.

  345. I have seen many useful points on your web-site about personal computers. However, I’ve the thoughts and opinions that lap tops are still not quite powerful adequately to be a good choice if you usually do things that require a lot of power, including video touch-ups. But for net surfing, microsoft word processing, and the majority of other typical computer work they are fine, provided you never mind your little friend screen size. Thank you for sharing your notions.

  346. Thanks for enabling me to attain new thoughts about personal computers. I also possess the belief that certain of the best ways to help keep your notebook in excellent condition is with a hard plastic material case, and also shell, that will fit over the top of one’s computer. These types of protective gear tend to be model distinct since they are made to fit perfectly on the natural housing. You can buy all of them directly from the seller, or via third party places if they are readily available for your mobile computer, however not all laptop may have a covering on the market. All over again, thanks for your tips.

  347. Thanks for enabling me to acquire new concepts about personal computers. I also possess the belief that one of the best ways to keep your laptop computer in best condition has been a hard plastic case, or even shell, that matches over the top of the computer. These types of protective gear are model targeted since they are made to fit perfectly in the natural covering. You can buy all of them directly from the owner, or through third party sources if they are intended for your notebook computer, however not all laptop can have a shell on the market. Again, thanks for your suggestions.

  348. I have realized some new things from your web site about computer systems. Another thing I have always imagined is that computers have become a product that each house must have for some reasons. They supply you with convenient ways to organize homes, pay bills, shop, study, pay attention to music and even watch tv programs. An innovative solution to complete all of these tasks is a mobile computer. These computers are mobile, small, effective and lightweight.

  349. I do agree with all the ideas you have presented to your post. They are really convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for novices. May just you please lengthen them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  350. I have seen plenty of useful points on your web site about computers. However, I have the viewpoint that laptops are still more or less not powerful sufficiently to be a good choice if you often do things that require lots of power, for instance video modifying. But for website surfing, word processing, and majority of other common computer functions they are all right, provided you may not mind the tiny screen size. Thanks for sharing your thinking.

  351. I like what you guys are up too. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the excellent works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site :).

  352. I¡¦ll immediately grasp your rss feed as I can not in finding your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Kindly permit me recognize so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  353. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to “return the favor”.I’m attempting to find things to enhance my website!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

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