Història

Lliçó 30. Art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior. Interpretacions

Aurinyacià, 35.000 – 30.000

1. Zona Europa Oriental-Central 

Hohlenstein-Stadel o Hohle Fels                           Hohlenstein

                                                                                              home_dona_lleo2
Home/dona lleó. 32.000. 29,6 x 5,6 cm

Vogelherd

         VohelgerdVohelgerd2   

                                                            Geissenklösterle

                                                                              Geisenkosterle1
Adorant. 3,8 x 2,4 cm

     Geisenkosterle2
Adorant. Ivori de mamut trobada el 1979 a Geißenklösterle prop de Blaubeuren. 3,8 x 2,4 cm. 35.000 anys  

.                         Galgenberg, Stratzing

Gangelberg
Figura femenina. 7,2 cm. 30.000 anys                     Jaciment de Galgenberg      

2. Zona Franco-Cantàbrica  

La Ferrasie 

vulves_Ferrassie
Vulves i cassoletes de La Ferrasie

vulves_Ferrassie2
Gravats aurinyacians de vulves a La Ferrasie

Abric Celier  

vulves_Celier
Gravats aurinyacians de vulves a l’abric Celier

Abric Fongal 

abric_Fongal
Gravat aurinyacià de l’abric Fongal que recorda un sol

Abric Blanchard  

          calendari_lunar
Gravat aurinyacià amb vulves             Os amb 69 osques. 32.000. Calendari lunar?

mapa_cultura_aurinyaciana

          Gravetià 30-20.000    

1. Zona Europa Oriental-Central    

Dolní-Vêstonice 

martell_bifac_Vestonice
Martells de pedra, bifaços i làmines de pedrenyal

os_tallat_Vestonice
Os tallat. La simplicitat i regularitat de les incisions fan pensar en un registre d’alguna cosa, potser dies d’un cicle, com la lluna. Hi ha 24 talls a la fila inferior, 24 (alguns semblen dobles) a la fila del mig, i 17 visibles a la fila superior.

os_tallatEs tracta d’un objecte que ha passat per moltes mans i ha estat utilitzat per moltes generacions. El disseny tallat en un ullal redreçat era una abstracció geomètrica de la Gran Mare Terra, format per ovals concèntrics per donar forma als pits caiguts, ventre arrodonit, i cuixes voluptuoses. El cercle és el símbol de tot, la totalitat dels mons coneguts i desconeguts, i simbolitza la Gran Mare de Tots. Els cercles concèntrics, en especial la forma en què s’utilitza per suggerir els elements maternals importants, reforça el simbolisme. El cap és un triangle invertit, amb el vèrtex formant la barbeta, i la base, lleugerament corbada en forma de volta, a la part superior. El triangle que apunta cap avall és el símbol universal de la dona, era la forma exterior del seu òrgan reproductor i per això també simbolitza la maternitat i la Gran Mare de Tots. L’àrea de la cara conté una sèrie horitzontal de dobles barres paral·leles, unides per línies d’incisió lateral que van des del mentó fins la posició dels ulls. L’espai més gran entre el primer grup de dues línies horitzontals i les línies arrodonides, paral·leles a la part superior corbada es va omplir amb tres conjunts de línies dobles que eren perpendiculars, unint-se on els ulls estan habitualment. Adaptat de Jean M. Auel (1991).Les planes misterioses. Barcelona. Columna. (Col. Col·lecció clàssica, 194). 2ª impr. Pàg. 348.

cullera_pala
Cullera? Pala?

cabanaReconstrucció d’una cabana

forns
Forn amb parets d’argila                                                   Reconstrucció d’un forn

        mamut_rinoceront
Mamut (no es mostren els ullals)                                              Cap de rinoceront

      figures-ceramica
Figura zoomòrfica de ceràmica                               Figura antropomòrfica de ceràmica

   Venus_Dolni_Vestonice
Venus de Dolní-Vêstonice. Ceràmica. 111 mm alçada       Figures estilitzades de dona 43 mm d’amplada. 29-25.000 anys.
Cal notar els 4 forats del cap, potser per portar herbes o flors

enterrament_triple
Enterrament triple de joves, una dona i dos homes, d’edats compreses entre els 17 i els 23 anys. La noia mostra importants deformacions patològiques a la seva cara i va ser dipositada al centre amb un fetus entre les cames; ambdós homes mostren senyals de mort violenta

Sunghir 

enterrament_Sunghir
Enterrament de Sunghir. 25.500-24.430 anys. Duia una camisola i casquet que s’han pogut reconstruir gràcies a les 3.500 perles d’ivori que, cosides, decoraven la roba

enterrament_Sunghir_doble
Inhumació doble de Sunghir. Un nen i una nena, d’uns 7-9 anys un i l’altre de 12-13 anys. 21.800 anys. Estarien vestit amb un total de 7.500 perles cosides als vestits, a més de braçalets d’ivori ofrenes (damunt dels cossos, dues escultures d’animals, un cavall i un mamut) i als costats puntes, llances i rodes-radiades d’ivori           

Figures femenines exemptes (Venus paleolítiques) 

   venus_Hohle
Venus de Höhle Fels o Vénus de Schelklingen,       Venus de Galgenberg, 30.000 ane. 40.000-35.000 ane. Ivori de mamut                           Serpentina verda. 72 mm. 40.000-35.000 ane. Ivori de mamut. 59,7 x 34,5 mm

venus_Dolni_Willendorf
Venus of Dolní Věstonice. Ceràmica.                    Venus de Willendorf. Pedra calcària.                 29-25.000. 111 x 43 mm                                        24-22.000. 110 mm.

  venus_Moravany_Malta
Venus de Moravany. Ivori de mamut. 22.800. 7,6 cm      Venus de Mal’ta. Ullal de
mamut.   22.000.

venus_Gargarino
Venus de Gagarino, Ucraïna. Roca volcànica. 22.000

 2. Zona Franco-Cantàbrica    

venus_Brassempouy_Laussel
Venus de Brassempouy, 26-24.000 ane.       Venus de Lausel, 25.000/20.000 ane.   Ivori de mamut. 36,5 mm                               Roca calcària. 440 mm   
Lespugue_Savignano_Grimaldi

Venus de Lespugue. Ivori   Venus de Savignano. Esteatita. Venus groga de Grimaldi 26-24.000. 147 mm             25-22.000. 225 mm    

Epigravetià: 20.000 – 14.000  

Mézin     

figura_falica_bracalet
Figures fàl·liques amb ivori de mamut            Braçalet

ossos_mamut
Espatlla de mamut pintada amb motius geomètrics   Ossos de mamut utilitzats en la construcció d’una cabana

Mezhirich 

                              cabana_Kiev
Ossos de mamut recreant una cabana. Museu d’Història Natural de Kiev.

casa_Mezhirich
Casa 4 del jaciment de Mezhirich, temporada 1979

Es tracta d’espais artificials de 6-8 metres de diàmetre, edificats amb restes òssies fortes i duradores en el sòcol (les mandíbules encaixen unes en les altres i a manera de contrafort s’hi posa un os llarg de les extremitats. Per tancar l’espai i delimitar la volta en «falsa cúpula» s’hi posen els ullals; els intersticis es tapen amb els omòplats entrellaçats i s’acaba reforçant el sostre amb restes de cranis i vèrtebres. L’entrada es resol amb dos grans ullals clavats verticalment i algun os llarg. El nombre de mamuts necessaris en cada construcció és de 20 a 50 individus. Tot plegat palesa una planificació del treball de tipus comunal (recollir els esquelets, transport -21 tones per a la casa 1 de Mezhirich- i construcció). Són centres perdurables i estables en el territori, lloc d’agregació grupal amb una funció social no sempre vinculada a les tasques quotidianes (són centres de producció cultural: s’hi decoren ossos…)

Magdalenià: 14.000 – 11.000  

Gönnersdorf

Gonnersdorf2
Gönnersdorf (Renània-Palatinat), al voltant de 12 600. Reconstrucció de l’habitatge N º 1 (Diàmetre 7 m): el marc de fusta amb un sostre sostingut per un pal central es cobreix amb pells dels cavalls, l’entrada compartimentada, oberta cap al sud-est, deixa veure la pavimentació de pissarra i un fèmur de mamut.

Gönnersdorf[1]  i Andernach són campaments magdalenians a l’aire lliure a ambdues ribes del Rhin, de cabanes circulars d’uns 20 m2. El sòl de l’espai interior està pavimentat amb centenars de plaquetes de pissarra i calcària d’origen local, damunt les quals hi ha infinitat de gravats molts sobreposats   Plaqueta de pissarra, 12.600 anys.

plaqueta_figura_femenina
Representació esquemàtica de figura femenina     Els perfils femenins presenten una gran varietat formal, des de les figures més evolucionades (amb braços, cames, pits i natges) fins la simple esquematització (traç vertical i corba dels glutis), i sempre sense cap. Solen compartir l’espai en parelles o en files de fins a nou personatges, com si es tractés d’una dansa.

siluetes_Gonnersdorf
Siluetes femenines del jaciment de Gönnersdorf, sense cap ni braços, gravades en una placa d’esquist. 12.600. 11,8 x 10,8 cm.)
Mapa de distribució de l’estil de gravats de Gönnersdorf.

Art parietal art: 1 Romanelli – 2 Gouy and Orival – 3 Margot – 4 Les Combarelles, Saint-Cirq, Comarque, Vielmouly II, Fronsac, La Font Bargeix – 5 Carriot – 6 Lagrave – 7 Pestillac – 8 Planchard – 9 Deux-Ouvertures – 10 Gazel – 11 Gourdan – 12 El Linar.   Art mobiliari: 13 Megarnie – 14 Gönnersdorf, Andernach, Niederbieber – 15 Nebra – 16 Oelknitz – 17 Teufelsbrücke – 18 Wilczyce – 19 Pekarna – 20 Bycí Skála – 21 Hohlenstein bei Edersheim – 22 Felsställe – 23 Petersfels – 24 Neuchâtel-Monruz – 25 Goutte Roffat – 26 Rond-du-Barry – 27 Faustin – 28 Lalinde, Gare de Couze, Rochereil – 29 Murat, Le Courbet, Fontalès – 30 Las Caldas. 

Peterfels

figura_femenina_lignit
Representació femenina en lignit, 4,5 cm

basto_Veyrier
Bastó de Veyrier amb cabra salvatge i decoració vegetal. 13.000. Fusta de ren. 18,5 cm. Musée d’art et d’histoire, Ville de Genève.

mapa_cultura_magdaleniana

 Interpretacions

La distribució geogràfica dels objectes d’art mobiliari del Paleolític Superior abasta pràcticament tota Europa. Si observem la seva ubicació, és fàcil adonar-se de l’existència de concentracions i dispersions que delimiten les presumibles xarxes de comunicació seguint els cursos fluvials o els passadissos entre muntanyes.

La conca del Danubi –d’est a oest– va actuar com un important corredor que va vertebrar l’Europa centre-oriental. Proper al  naixement del Danubi es troba la capçalera del Rin que –de sud a nord– permet connectar amb la façana atlàntica septentrional. Prenem el llac de Constança com a punt d’unió del Rin i el Danubi –el Rin el travessa i el Danubi, una mica al nord del llac de Constança, desapareix sota terra i és capturat pel Rin– i des d’allí es pot prosseguir cap a la Mediterrània i accedir a la península Itàlica salvant l’orografia alpina, o bé cap a l’oest i penetrar en territori francès, des d’on es pot anar, o bé cap a ponent a través de les conques del Loira i del Garona i arribar a la cornisa cantàbrica, o bé cap al sud pel Roina i arribar a la franja costanera mediterrània i al llevant de la península ibèrica.

Rin_Danubi
En vermell, el riu Rin; en blau, el riu Danubi; en groc, infiltració d’aigües del Danubi al Rin. A pocs quilòmetres, el llac de Constança (Bodensee)

Si per art mobiliari entenem la totalitat d’artefactes amb algun element «decoratiu» del patrimoni material d’una societat, podrem comprendre que les funcionalitats, usos i significats de la gran varietat de peces que s’hi apleguen hauran de proporcionar una gran quantitat d’interpretacions molt diversificades i divergents[2].

Seguint Gamble[3], les obres «artístiques» del Plistocè transmeten una informació entre els col·lectius de caçadors-recol·lectors adquirida a través del nomadisme. Aquesta informació ve codificada mitjançant els vestits, la tecnologia, els objectes de prestigi, etc., i es transmet pels contactes personals (cerimònies, visites, trobades de reunió i diversió…). aquesta transmissió pot ser verbal o visual, i serveix per a conèixer la pròpia societat i el medi en el qual es desenvolupen els esdeveniments sòcio-econòmics. La informació verbal, òbviament, ha desaparegut i només queden alguns elements de la visual, és a dir, l’art moble (i el rupestre), la tecnologia dels instruments i els vestigis dels processos de subsistència.

Les hipòtesis sobre l’organització social dels caçadors-recol·lectors proposen l’establiment d’unes xarxes que intercomuniquen a un grup d’uns 25 individus (amb capacitat d’autoproveïment) amb d’altres de nombre equiparable, en un ideal de sis, de manera que amb aquests 150 individus és efectiu trobar parella i minimitzar els riscos de l’endogàmia; alhora, aquests sis grups interactuarien amb d’altres, de manera que el nombre resultant d’unes 600 persones permet garantir una supervivència a llarg termini. Aquest conjunt ampliat d’individus, i el territori necessari per tal que el sistema de caça-recol·lecció no exhaureixi l’ecosistema, es pot descriure com a grup regional, que posseeix una àrea geogràfica i es reuneixen periòdicament.[4] És el que es coneix com a fenomen de fusió-fissió: congregació anual de comunitats que viuen separades o el comportament gregari dels col·lectius en un lloc predeterminat en funció de les estacions, a través del qual s’organitza la vida pública i privada dels individus i la subsistència (fusió), i la seva posterior disgregació (fissió).

Aquests llocs de reunió s’han volgut vincular amb les gran coves decorades d’Europa occidental. La concentració cíclica de certs recursos biòtics (pas de migracions de ramats d’herbívors, ascens pels rius del salmó per fresar, maduració de fruites…) en un punt concret del territori atreu els caçadors-recol·lectors, els quals cooperen en les captures i comparteixen els resultats, celebren l’èxit en una mena de «festa de la primavera» i «signifiquen» (o «sacralitzen») el lloc mitjançant l’art (rupestre o moble) i reforcen els lligams amb aliances matrimonials-parentals.

El sistema de caça-recol·lecció està molt vinculat al medi del qual depèn. Durant el final del Plistocè els grups humans hagueren d’enfrontar-se a zones en les quals els aliments escassejaven (entorns simples, amb poques espècies) i a altres en els quals eren més abundants (entorns complexos, amb moltes espècies). Davant d’aquesta situació, els grups humans es veuen forçats a ampliar el seu radi d’acció a la recerca d’aliments quan es troben en un entorn simple, és a dir, el territori tendirà a ampliar-se quan la productivitat és baixa. En aquest entorn  simple l’accés als recursos ha de ser lliure, si no es vol entrar en conflicte i, com a conseqüència d’aquest accés lliure als recursos, la informació s’expandeix [un sistema de caça-recol·lecció en un entorn simple està basat en la informació, el coneixement del territori, l’intercanvi de dades, mecanismes culturals que potenciïn expedicions i reconeixement del territori]. El nomadisme està basat en la informació.[5] Aquesta expansió de la informació comporta la homogeneïtzació cultural d’un gran espai. No ens ha d’estranyar, doncs, trobar formes plàstiques iguals o similars en zones de centenars de quilòmetres quadrats.

Per contra, quan els grups humans viuen en entorns complexos, es produeix un tancament de les xarxes socials i, per tant, una regionalització cultural en un territori més restringit.

1. Les figuretes exemptes del Paleolític Superior Inicial

Les figuretes d’ivori de Vogelherd expressen un bestiari compost per lleones, bisons i cavalls, i l’exemplar de Stadel un personatge, probablement masculí, amb cap de carnívor –recorda en actitud i temàtica al déu egipci Anubis. Tot un seguit d’estatuetes d’aquests jaciments alemanys conserven en els seus cossos un conjunt de signes lineals a base d’aspes i feixos rectes paral·lels, que segons Hahn[6] correspondria a una forma de remarcar l’anatomia interna dels animals, tot i que Marshack[7] afirma que són senyals de reutilització. Com sigui, l’existència d’aquests signes requereix una comprensió per part de la societat de fa uns 32.000 anys del codi dels elements abstractes.

Pel que fa a les petites escultures femenines del principi del Paleolític superior, aquestes dones grasses nues sense rostre que semblen estar embarassades, s’ha elucubrat molt, posant-les totes al mateix sac, sense tenir en compte les seves diferències.

  • primer es va pensar que eren personatges reals, és a dir, retrats, i, per tant, la seva motivació bàsica seria «l’art per l’art». Els estudis antropològics han rebutjat aquesta idea; com va dir Leroi-Gouhan seria com deduir caràcters antropològics de les dones del segle XX a partir de les obres cubistes de Picasso. Aquestes figuretes estan plenes de convencionalismes i normes constructives, i per això s’infereix que són la plasmació d’alguna cosa i no de ningú en concret.
  • també s’ha dit que són un model estètic, un cànon de bellesa gravetiana, l’ideal eròtic del moment, i fins i tot s’ha parlat de paleopornografia. Serien les sex-symbolde l’època.
  • la interpretació més popular les fa deesses, símbols de la fertilitat, prosperitat o encarnació d’algun tipus de divinitat5 vinculada amb la fecunditat animal i humana. Però les «venus esteatopígies» paleolítiques mai van acompanyades de nens, com caldria esperar per l’arquetip de la fecunditat.
  • prenent els baix relleus de Laussel com a paradigma, s’ha argumentat a favor de «sacerdotesses» ja que en portar un corn a al mà sembla que intervenen en algun ritual en un espai sacralitzat. A part del fet que la de Laussel és única, caldria preguntar-se per les poses hieràtiques de la resta i el fet que foren trobades a les cabanes dins d’un context domèstic.
  • des d’un punt de vista mèdico-ginecològic[8] s’ha dit que figuren dones embarassades o multípares (mares amb diversos parts) si bé crítiques recents[9] posen de relleu que les mateixes morfologies apareixen en dones actuals que no són mares ni estan embarassades.
  • atès que el significat és problemàtic, hi ha teories que s’han orientat a la funcionalitat. Alguns mantenen que aquestes figuretes varen servir com a mecanisme en els ritus d’iniciació dels adolescents, que per reduir el perill de l’endogàmia varen haver de raptar dones d’altres clans.
  • des de la perspectiva de gènere, les «venus» ens parlarien d’un clan matriarcal enfront de les tradicionals perspectives de societats patriarcals de caçadors paleolítics o, pel cap baix, de supremacia del sexe femení
  • darrerament, basant-se en els exemplars més orientals, White[10] identifica algunes escultures com amulets implicats en el part. Les figuretes de dones siberianes tenen una perforació als peus i per això tenen la capacitat de poder ser penjades o cosides a la roba. Podrien, doncs, ser amulets personals per tal de prevenir els problemes i propiciar el part.

Sigui com sigui, sembla que l’únic que es pot constatar és que són peces supraregionals que defineixen la unitat cultural del Gravetià a Europa, al llarg de 3.000 km des de Brassempouy fins a Kostienki, al marge de les siberianes que potser serien una altra cosa. Si les situem damunt d’un mapa, es veu com queden repartides entre certs paral·lels i en un corredor d’Est a Oest, en uns moments de rigor climàtic que obligava a ampliar el territori per augmentar la possibilitat d’aconseguir recursos en un entorn simple, i, per tant, es produeix una homogeneïtzació cultural com ho palesen aquestes estatuetes femenines així com la uniformitat tecnològica i temàtica moble.

És interessant comprovar el procés d’esquematització que experimenta el tema femení després del Paleolític Superior Inicial; és a dir, la reducció de les figures a siluetes estilitzades en les quals es destaquen sobretot els glutis i pits. Segons alguns autors, aquest fenomen, juntament amb  l’amagament de l’art rupestre a les profunditats de les coves, la proliferació de signes en combinació, la producció generalitzada d’art sobre plaquetes…, palesa la restricció en la informació i, per tant, un increment de la complexitat social.

O sigui, les petites escultures femenines gravetianes són naturalistes pel fet que tot espectador que les contempli pot identificar les imatges pel cap baix com a figures de dones, tanmateix, l’estilització, geometrització, esquematització o abstracció impliquen una reducció dels caràcters reals i, per tant, el missatge visual que transmeten és més restrictiu, i esdevé necessària la seva decodificació, només possible pels membres del grup als quals pertany l’obra i, a més, tenir la clau del codi, el que comporta el control del coneixement. Tot plegat fa pensar en un augment de la complexitat social a partir del 20.000-18.000 ane, quan s’entraria en una dinàmica de regionalització en certes parts de l’Occident europeu.

2. Autoria, escoles i territorialitat

Darrerament s’han anat desenvolupant diversos estudis destinats a esbrinar l’autoria de les peces d’art mobiliari. Dues són les tendències bàsiques: l’anàlisi tecnològica i l’estilístico-formal.

Apellániz parteix de l’anàlisi d’autoria de la Història de l’Art, examina els trets formals i gestuals, morfològics i tècnics d’obres de similar construcció, interrelacionant els atributs artístics, morfològics i tècnics. Es pot detectar la mà d’un «mestre» en objectes diferents i la presència d’un prototip que es confecciona en sèrie per diversos autors, el que permet parlar de «taller/escola». Des d’aquesta perspectiva, i segons on apareguin les peces, es poden inferir qüestions de mobilitat, contactes, territorialitat, àmbits d’influències culturals…

Per altra banda, els estudis tecnològics permeten determinar la mà autora i, per tant, la circulació de la peça, el treball de les «escoles artístiques», el seu radi d’acció, a més dels temps invertits, costos, vigències de les obres…

Altres dades provenen de l’experimentació o la confecció de rèpliques de les obres: permet enregistrar el temps, els gestos, les eines imprescindibles i, en definitiva, tot el procés de producció de l’objecte, la seva decoració i utilització. Per altra banda, amb les anàlisis traceològiques (examen de les empremtes d’ús i de treball amb el suport del microscopi electrònic de rastreig) s’obté informació pel que fa al destí de les peces, ja que les marques deixades en les superfícies poden ser discriminades, aïllant els traços i estries de polit intencional, o de fabricació, manipulació, ús ni transport, de les empremtes provocades pels agents naturals que actuen un cop s’ha abandonat l’artefacte.

L’objectiu general és la reconstrucció de la cadena operativa, és a dir, des de l’obtenció de la primera matèria fins l’abandonament de l’obra mobiliària i la seva incidència en l’ordre socioeconòmic

cadena_operativa_simpl
Cadena operativa simplificada d’alguns artefactes ossis: nucli de sílex, obtenció de fulles, transformació en eines, treball de la banya, obtenció dels artefactes de base orgànica, usos.

3. Ornaments, penjolls i elements perforats

A quasi tota la varietat d’elements perforats se’ls suposa una funció ornamental, en la majoria de casos individual, pel cap baix sembla que varen servir per ser duts al damunt (penjats, enfilats, cosits); per tant, aquestes peces porten un missatge, una informació o comunicació social de caràcter visual captada per l’espectador. Els ornaments personals funcionen com identificació del grup, afiliació al grup i distintius individuals dins del propi grup.

Els ornaments personals/corporals simples com granadures d’ivori, petxina, pedra, peces dentàries perforades…, són les primeres manifestacions «artístiques» conegudes, apareixen de sobte a l’Aurinyacià acompanyant al primer Homo sapiens que entra a Europa. Sembla ser que en les primeres granadures es buscava la brillantor de la dentina i el nacre natural. Potser la profusió d’ornaments personals de les primeres cultures dels humans moderns formava part d’un sistema d’integració social, potser entre ells i enfront dels altres (els neandertals), atès que l’evident substitució humana en l’espai europeu va poder ser violenta o per desplaçament progressiu, però, sens dubte, de qualsevol manera, jugarien un paper gens menyspreable les innovacions tecnològiques (talla laminar i indústria òssia) i la cohesió grupal (ornaments, música…) dels sapiens.

La cura pel vestuari i pels ornaments personals haurien de servir, pel cap baix, per intentar canviar la imatge nefasta i «primitiva» que popularment es té dels nostres «avantpassats prehistòrics cavernícoles». Pensem, a més, en les diademes, braçalets, milers de perles cosides a la roba, agulles pel cap, pentinats, collars…, davant dels quals és difícil seguir mantenint la imatge d’uns humans vestits amb tapalls i d’aspecte malgirbat i descurat.

4   Les eines i els signes

La tecnologia lítica i, sobretot, l’òssia faciliten la possibilitat d’extreure conclusions sobre territorialitats i intercanvis d’informació. Els propulsors, per exemple, tornen a quedar concentrats en els Pirineus i la Dordonya, i la seva dispersió pot ser utilitzada com indicatiu d’un tancament de les xarxes socials o regionalització cultural.

Alguns utensilis ossis mostren signes complexos gravats que alhora apareixen en múltiples llocs o suports, tant en instruments llancívols com en plaques decorades, el que caldria relacionar, dins de la concepció de comunicació visual, amb una mena de «distintiu ètnic» i servir com demarcador territorial del radi d’acció o d’influència a nivell cultural del grup en qüestió. Per exemple, el motiu de dos rombes amb un traç intern en una atzagaia d’Isturitz i en el bastó de Lortet[11], o l’esquema de dos cercles tangents emmarcats per angles, localitzat en diferents suports en una àrea del sud francès.

basto_Lortet
Fragment del Bastó de Lortet, on s’observa el rombe amb una incisió al seu interior

basto_Lortet2

        Lortet_Isturitz
Signe recurrent en el bastó de Lortet i en una atzagaia d’Isturitz

5. La música

Segons els documents disponibles, sembla ser que la música és consubstancial als primer humans anatòmicament moderns. Probablement, els primers «acords» foren creats utilitzant la veu com instrument, potser acompanyada de cops rítmics amb peus i mans, que donarien pas a les expressions corporals de la dansa. Els vestigis objectius del fenomen musical provenen dels inicis del Paleolític Superior, amb testimonis d’instruments de vent i percussió. Recordem les flautes d’isturitz, els brunzidors, els rodets… També s’ha argumentat sobre la capacitat de les coves de respondre com una gran caixa de ressonància que amplificaria la veu i el so dels instruments. La música serviria, alhora, d’aglutinant i de diferenciador del grup.

6. Notacions i calendaris

No és massa difícil pensar que una comunitat que depèn del medi, necessita saber amb seguretat, per exemple, quan s’apropa l’època de pujada dels salmons pels rius, o els desplaçaments dels ramats d’herbívors, per tal d’organitzar les captures, conservar els recursos i emmagatzemar amb previsió. Aquests coneixements i control sobre la naturalesa estarien a la base dels primers sistemes comptables, com ara calendaris solars, lunars…És per això que alguns objectes d’art moble han estat explicats com sistemes de notació.

os_Ishango
Os d’Ishango, Zaire. 25-20.000 ane

os_Tai
Porció òssia de Taï. Magdalenià final

os_Blanchard
Os de Blanchard. 30.000 ane

Un cas emblemàtic és el «calendari lunar» de l’abric Blanchard, exhumat d’un nivell Aurinyacià, amb una decoració acumulativa seqüencial serpentiforme on és probable seguir les fases lunars.

7. Plaquetes i còdols

En general, les plaquetes, blocs i còdols decorats manifesten un art no utilitari. En alguns casos és possible deduir-ne els seus usos quotidians o simbòlics, però en molts l’aparent funcionalitat sembla limitada a suportar els dissenys artístics.

Tot i que en algunes plaquetes les figures foren fetes en gravats profunds, la gran majoria conserven els motius finament traçats, el que comporta que la seva visualització esdevingui molt complicada i requereixin unes condicions d’il·luminació adients; a més, en nombroses peces les imatges es superposen dificultant la comprensió del seu contingut.

Lorblanchet, en observar els llocs amb abundants concentracions de plaquetes i d’art moble en general, ha insistit en la circumstància que en els llocs amb molt art mobiliari escasseja l’art parietal, i a l’inrevés. En altres ocasions, com Castillo, Altamira, Enlène, l’art portàtil es diposita a les avantsales de les grans coves decorades, i en molts pocs casos localitzem art moble associat als panells parietals, molt distanciats de la llum solar a l’interior de les coves. El conjunt d’art moble que se sol qualificar de no utilitari –o encara no es coneix el seu ús– com les plaquetes, còdols i figuretes exemptes, apareixen en ambients domèstics.

Per la seva banda, Davidson[12] fa servir les quantitats de plaquetes, les seves cronologies i distribució territorial per recolzar el fenomen de més gran control en l’accés a la informació a partir de la desaparició de les figures naturalistes del Gravetià, ja que els suports petris estan restringits a uns contextos particulars i a uns entorns restrictius. Segons aquest autor, justament al voltant del 20.000 comença a generalitzar-se la producció de plaquetes, en el 18.000 arriben a la Dordonya i la conca del Vézere, entre el 15-13.000 s’estenen als Pirineus, Cantàbric i nord de França, i entre el 12-11.000 només van quedant a Isturitz, Gönnersdorf i Parpalló. En conclusió, al llarg del Paleolític Superior Inicial les xarxes de comunicació romanien obertes i l’accés a la informació liberalitzat, com ho mostren, entre altres, les venus gravetianes; amb posterioritat sorgeixen les limitacions en l’ús de l’espai i control d’accés a la informació, integrat per una ideologia col·lectiva a algun nivell.

8. El caràcter narratiu-iniciàtic: mites, contes i llegendes

No és inversemblant pensar que en les comunitats de caçadors-recol·lectors del Plistocè, com en qualsevol cultura àgrafa, existís un fort component de tradició oral. D’aquesta manera, potser mites, contes i llegendes puguin estar representats en els suports mobiliaris. Es troben peces mobles amb «escenes» molt complicades i recurrents, de vegades amb personatges fantàstics, que farien entreveure que estem davant l’expressió sintètica d’un «mite» i, per tant, la funcionalitat de l’objecte seria materialitzar aquesta fórmula narrativa o mitogràfica. És molt complicada, tanmateix, la seva lectura ja que ignorem els significats de la conjugació dels motius que formarien part de l’univers ideològic dels seus creadors.

sceptre
Le sceptre
. Cova de La Vache. Banya de ren. 14.000 ane

Un artefacte molt espectacular és la punta de cèrvid de La Vache, conegut com «Le sceptre», de 21 cm i provinent del Magdalenià Superior, on s’hi troben esculpits cinc caps acoblats de diferents animals: un ocell del coll del qual surt un pròtom de cérvol (o ur) que acaba en un peix (salmó) amb dos signes en aspa en el dors, a l’altra cara i partint també de l’ocell trobem el cap d’un ós (o cavall) seguida de la d’un felí. Alguns hi ha vist la representació de l’aire (l’ocell), l’aigua (el peix), els herbívors terrestres benèfics (cavall i ur/cèrvid), carnívors terrestres malèfics (felí-ós).[13]

Un altre exemple de reiteració de temes animalístics, i igualment en suports ossis similars, ens manifesta la conjugació d’un carnívor atacant, en quasi tots els casos, a un cèrvid amb el cap en posició frontal. Alguns ho han volgut interpretar com la plasmació d’un esdeveniment mític o narratiu (el «llop ferotge»).

Lortet_Azil
1) Lortet, 2) Mas-d’Azil, 3) Laugerie-Basse, 4) El Pendo, 5) Les Eyzies

El «mite dels caçadors de bovins» estaria desenvolupat en un conjunt de peces en les quals sobresurt la figura d’un bisó-ur relacionat amb siluetes humanoides molt simples, en el millor dels casos antropomorfes, que en nombroses ocasions durien a l’espatlla una mena d’instrument allargat. A la placa òssia de Raymonden s’hi observa un bisó desmembrat, amb dues potes tallades posades davant del cap i, partint d’aquest, un traçat ramiforme que fa pensar en la columna vertebral de l’animal, a ambdós costats de la qual dues sèries de figures identificades com perfils humans.

costella_magdaleniana
Fragment d’una costella del magdalenià. Château des Eyzies
bisons_urs
Els caçadors de bisons-urs: A) Raymonden. B) Château des Eyzies. C) Bruniquel. D) La Vache. E) Roc-de-sers. F) Laugerie-Basse. G) Isturitz. H) Lascaux (art parietal)

Pechialet

Plaqueta de Péchialet anomenada «La caça de l’os»

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[1] Esteban Álvarez Fernández: «Las perlas de madera fósil del terciario y los objetos de adorno-colgantes sobre dientes de zorro y ciervo del magdaleniense de Gonnersdorf y de Andernach-Martinsberg -2, (Neuwied, Rheinland Pfalz, Alemania)». Zephyrus, 52, 1999, pàgs. 79-106. Universidad de Salamanca.En línia a http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/70609/1/Las_perlas_de_madera_fosil_del_terciario.pdf
[2] Pensem en tots els objectes que tenim a casa: un escut del Barça i un de l’Espanyol (s’interpretarien com un símbol religiós d’adoració al sol?) o una bola de vidre dins la qual hi ha l’estàtua de la llibertat de Nova York (seria vista com un símbol de l’univers encarnat per una dona, com un premi a una cursa atlètica, o com un ritual al foc?), o una forquilla (podria ser un símbol matemàtic, un instrument musical o una joguina que representaria les feines del camp?). I què dir-ne d’una figura arraulida, d’uns cinc cm d’altura feta de fang cuit, fent les seves necessitats? (algú l’arribaria a interpretar com la figura del «caganer» d’un pessebre català?). És obvi que només qui pertany a la cultura que va confeccionar cada objecte pot conèixer el codi interpretatiu i, per tant, distingir entre element lúdic, ornamental, educatiu, simbòlic… Amb aquests exemples només es vol indicar la dificultat interpretativa de l’art moble del Paleolític Superior i de la complexitat que té tota aproximació a la història i la vida d’aquelles societats.
[3] Gamble, Clive (1990).El poblamiento paleolítico de Europa. Barcelona. Crítica. (Col. Crítica/arqueología). 520 pàgs.
[4] Tot i la impossibilitat de conèixer el nombre d’habitants del Paleolític, es presenten com a mers indicadors les hipòtesis que són més acceptades. En el Paleolític Mitjà, a la Península Ibèrica es calcula que hi podrien viure uns 10.000 individus, 1.500 dels quals a l’àrea dels Països Catalans.  I a finals del Paleolític Superior, les xifres podrien ser 30-40.000 o 50-100.000 (segons les estimacions) i 5 o 10.000, respectivament. En aquest darrer període se sol donar una xifra de 10 milions d’habitants a nivell  mundial.
[5] La majoria de desplaçaments responen no tant a la recerca de menjar, sinó al fet que se sap de l’existència d’aliments. Si un lloc té abundància d’aliments, sempre s’hi podrà tornar: la més gran mobilitat es produeix, doncs, quan es té la més gran quantitat d’aliments (no quan aquests escassegen). Què fan quan un lloc té abundància d’aliments?. Emprenen un viatge per a veure què hi ha a l’altra banda del territori, que potser fa temps que no visiten, per a veure què s’hi esdevé i obtenir informació. Si surt malament, poden tornar a la situació segura coneguda. Cal ten•ir present que del seu territori, que pot tenir entre 20 i 250 mil km2, en coneixen els guals, les fonts d’aigua, els amagatalls d’eines, els rastres de caça… No romanen on es troben localitzats els recursos alimentaris, sinó que aprofiten aquesta circumstància per a traslladar-se a altres àrees, a la recerca d’informació. La forma de saber quines opcions tenen en cas de trobar-se amb problemes, és a través de la mobilitat, mitjançant la qual s’acumula un banc d’informació que permet seleccionar alternatives. Per tal que un sistema esdevingui sedentari, s’han de donar un conjunt de circumstàncies en les que una informació d’aquest tipus no sigui ja d’utilitat, i l’opció de traslladar-se a territoris no ocupats deixi de ser una alternativa realista. Preguntar-se sobre l’origen de l’agricultura vol dir saber què podia forçar un grup d’individus a passar d’un sistema basat en un banc d’informació (caça-recol·lecció) a un altre basat en un banc de labor (agricultura).
[6] Hahn, J. (1986). Kraft und Agresión. Die Botschaft der Eiszeitkunst im Aurignacien Süddeutschlands?. Tubinga.
[7] Marshack, A. (1990). «L’evolution et la transformation du décor du début de l’Aurignacien au Magdalénien final», a L’Art des objets au Paléolithique, pàgs. 139-162. París.
[8] Duhard, J.P. (1992). «La dichotomie sociale sexuelle dans les figurations humaines magdaleniennes. Une conceptions naturaliste à propos du modèle français». Rock Art Research, nº 9, pàgs. 111-118. Sidney
[9] Russel, P. (1999). «Learning from curves: the female figure in paleolithic». News95. International Rock Art Congress, CD. Pinerolo
[10] White, R. (1996). «Actes de substance: de la matière au sens dans la représentation paléolithique». Techne nº 3, pàgs. 29-39. París.
[11] Pilar Utrilla i Manuel Martínez-Bea (2005). «La captura del ciervo vivo en el arte prehistórico». MUNIBE (Antropologia-Arkeologia) 57. Homenaje a Jesús Altuna. San Sebastián. Pàgs. 161-178. En línia a  http://www.euskomedia.org/PDFAnlt/munibe/aa/200503161178.pdf
[12] Davidson, Iain. (1997). «The power of Pictures» a Conkey, Margaret.; Soffer, Olga.; Stratmann, Deborah.; Jablonski, Nina.G. (eds.) (1997). Beyond art: Pleistocene image and symbol. San Francisco. The CaliforniaAcademy of Sciences. University of California Press. pàgs. 128-158
[13] Henri Delporte (1993). «L’art mobilier de la Grotte de la Vache : premier essai de vue générale». Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française. Vol. 90, nº 2. pàgs. 131-136 . en línia a http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bspf_0249-7638_1993_num_90_2_9555
Joan Campàs    Aura digital
Curs: Orígens de l’Art i evolució humana: l’homo significans
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC
Materials del curs en format .pdf

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  51. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  55. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  56. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  57. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  58. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  59. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  60. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  61. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  94. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  95. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  96. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  97. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  98. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  99. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  131. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  154. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  155. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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  165. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  166. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  167. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  168. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  169. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  170. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  171. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  172. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  193. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  194. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  197. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  198. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  199. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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