Art

Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les

Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510): La calúmnia d’Apel·les, 1494-95. Tremp sobre taula.  62 x 91 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi. Florència. Encàrrec: família del banquer Segni.

Plantejament de preguntes

Com aquest quadre és un clar exemple d’ècfrasi, procediment literari típic de l’humanisme grec, que permet realitzar una descripció minuciosa de múltiples elements, esdevenint la font literària d’un quadre?

Com va poder influir en aquest quadre Savonarola, les prèdiques calumnioses del qual van precipitar la revolució a Florència?

Fitxa tècnica

Aquesta obra es va produir després de la caiguda dels Mèdici, en plena època de la República. Es considera que és fruit de l’ambient religiós que va dominar Florència durant l’època de domini de Savonarola.

Per les seves dimensions, hom pot suposar que no estava destinada a la decoració mural, sinó que es tractava d’una obra destinada a la contemplació privada.

Molt admirada pels nobles florentins[1], es tractaria d’un encàrrec del banquer Segni, una important família florentina, ja que Giorgio Vasari el va descriure, dient que l’havia vist a casa de Messer Fabio Segni. Posteriorment, va estar als arxius secrets del Palau Pitti. Forma part de la Galeria Uffizi des de 1773.

Descripció

El tema és al·legòric; es basa en una descripció literària sobre una pintura d’Apel·les de Colofó, pintor de l’antiguitat, descrit per Llucià de Samosata[2] en un dels seus Diàlegs i esmentat com a ideal de la composició pictòrica en el tractat de Leon Battista Alberti De pictura (llibre III , § 53), que al·ludia a la falsa acusació, de la qual va ser víctima Apel·les, a qui un rival acusava d’haver conspirat contra Ptolomeu Filopàtor. Aquest és el text:

«§ 5 . A la dreta està assegut un home amb orelles llargues, com les de Mides: tendeix la mà a la Calúmnia que s’apropa. Prop d’ell, dues dones, probablement, la ignorància i la sospita. A l’altra banda es veu la Calúmnia apropar-se sota la forma d’una dona divinament bella, però la cara encesa, emocionada, i com a exaltada per l’ira i la ràbia. Amb l’esquerra sosté una torxa encesa; amb l’altra agafa pels cabells un jove que aixeca les mans al cel i sembla posar als déus per  testimonis. És conduït per un home pàl·lid, repulsiu, de mirada penetrant; es diria d’un home aprimat per una llarga malaltia. És l’Enveja personificada. Dues dones acompanyen la Calúmnia, l’animen, tenen cura de la seva roba i del seu vestit. L’intèrpret que m’ha iniciat en les al·legories d’aquesta pintura m’ha dit que una és la Hipocresia i l’altra la Perfídia. Al seu darrere s’hi veu una dona d’aspecte desolat vestida amb una roba negra i trencada: el Penediment; gira el cap, plora, i mira amb una confusió extrema  la Veritat que va al seu encontre. És així com amb l’ajut dels seus pinzells Apel·les va representar el perill del qual havia escapat.»

És fàcil adonar-se com la complexa iconografia d’aquest quadre  reprodueix fidelment l’episodi original, inserint-lo dins d’una gran sala, ricament decorada amb marbre i relleus daurats i plena de personatges; el quadre s’ha de llegir de dreta a esquerra: el rei Mides (recognoscible per les orelles d’ase) , en el paper de mal jutge, assegut al tron –sobre un pòdium decorat amb relleus en grisalla–, és aconsellat per la Ignorància i la Sospita, representades com a dones de rostres crispats que li estan xiuxiuejant a les seves orelles d’ase. Davant del Jutge hi ha l’Odi (és a dir, la Rancúnia o l’Ira), una figura masculina amb hàbit de monjo, cobert de parracs, sostenint pel braç a una jove, la Calúmnia, una molt bella dona que es fa pentinar els cabells per la Insídia i pel Frau, mentre arrossega, indiferent al que s’esdevé, a l’indefens calumniat, un home pràcticament nu que ajunta les mans en posat de demanar clemència,  i amb l’altra mà sosté una torxa que no il·lumina, un símbol del coneixement fals. La vella de l’esquerra és la Penitència o el Remordiment amb roba pesada i esparracada, que es gira cap a la figura que està nua al seu darrere, que és la Nua Veritat, mirant al cel i assenyalant-lo amb el dit, com per indicar l’única font veritable de la justícia[3].

L’escena es desenvolupa dins d’una estança l’arquitectura clàssica de la qual, que anticipa les formes del segle XVI, mostra un gran porxo compost de pilars amb nínxols i arcs, que presenten escultures que subratllen l’estudi de l’Antiguitat per Botticelli. Trobem frisos daurats en els sòcols, en els capitells, i a les bases dels nínxols  amb escenes mitològiques; en els relleus hi ha al·lusions a l’antiguitat clàssica. Aquesta arquitectura completament revestida d’estàtues i relleus accentua el to dramàtic i agitat de l’escena[4]. Dins dels nínxols hi ha les estàtues de bust rodó de figures bíbliques i de l’antiguitat clàssica: s’hi reconeix una Judit amb el cap tallat d’ Holofernes a la dreta del tron de Mides i un cavaller, potser el rei David, en el nínxol central, representat a la manera de Donatello. En altres nínxols es representa a Sant Pau, Sant Jordi, i, en els relleus, a personatges com Apol·lo i Dafne, Hèrcules i Licas o Gai Muci Escevola, el que evidencia la barreja de personatges cristians i grecoromans que va incloure Botticelli en aquesta pintura[5]. Aquesta síntesi entre el món clàssic i cristià es refereix a la meditació humanística de l’Acadèmia platònica . Entre els arcs s’hi veuen només un mar verdós i un cel distant i cristal·lí. Potser Bartolomeo di Giovanni va col·laborar en els fingits relleus que decoren l’arquitectura.

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Anàlisis

Comparem aquesta veritat amb la Venus que va pintar Botticelli deu anys abans al Naixement de Venus: les línies del seu cos han perdut la seva fluïdesa, el pèl trenat no baixa més enllà del maluc, la cintura més prima ha perdut la seva gràcia. I cap on assenyala amb el dit? A un dels cassetons de la volta on hi ha representada la mort de Venus que Botticelli va pintar uns anys abans, en els quatre panells de la història de Nastagio degli Onesti. Sembla, doncs, voler mostrar que la veritat nua, separada del desig, només té com a sortida la mort. També s’ha interpretat aquest gest com assenyalant els Poders dels quals s’ha d’esperar el darrer judici sobre la mentida i la veritat. Sense preocupar-se pel que fan els altres, tots en moviment vers el rei i, per tant, aïllada d’ells, palesa d’aquesta manera la seva constància incorruptible.

Just per damunt de la torxa hi ha una espasa, com per advertir-nos contra les reaccions armades que es deixarien ràpidament endur pel foc de la calúmnia.

Des de finals dels 80 del segle XV la producció de Botticelli va començar a mostrar signes d’una crisi interna (crisi personal o reflex de la crisi social i política de Florència?) que va culminar en l’última fase de la seva carrera en un misticisme exasperat, que el va dur a renegar de l’estil pel qual s’havia distingit en el panorama artístic florentí de l’època. El seu estil es va replegar cap a una més accentuada plasticitat de les figures, un ús més fort del clarobscur i una accentuada expressivitat de les postures i els personatges.

Tot i la perfecció formal de la pintura, l’escena es caracteritza principalment per un fort sentit de la dramaticitat; el magnífic escenari ajuda a crear una mena de «tribunal» de la història, on a qui s’està acusant realment és específicament al món antic, del qual la Justícia sembla estar absent, un dels valors fonamentals de la vida civil.

És una constatació amarga, que revela tots els límits de la saviesa humana i dels principis ètics del classicisme, no del tot aliena a la filosofia neoplatònica, però aquí expressada amb tons violents i patètics.

És, per tant, el signe més evident de la ruptura de certa seguretat proporcionada per l’humanisme del Quattrocento, a causa del nou i agitat clima polític i social que caracteritzarà la situació florentina després de la mort de Llorenç el Magnífic en el 1492. A la ciutat feien estralls els sermons de Girolamo Savonarola, que atacaven durament els costums i cultura de l’època, predient la mort i l’arribada de la justícia divina i imposant la penitència i expiació dels propis pecats.

En 1497 i 1498 els seus seguidors van organitzar diverses «cremes de les vanitats», que no només hagueren d’impressionar al pintor, sinó que va despertar en ell un gran sentit de culpa per haver practicat un tipus d’art tan amargament condemnat pel monjo.

Savonarola va ser executat el 23 maig 1498, però la seva experiència havia inferit  cops molt durs a la vida pública i a la cultura de Florència, dels quals la ciutat mai es va recuperar totalment.

Una història apòcrifa està connectada a la pintura. Rudolph Altrocchi[6], el 1921, relata que Apel·les havia estat difamat, acusat per un rival d’ajudar a Teodot d’Etolia de fomentar una revolta a Tir. (Altrocchi assegura als lectors que la història no pot ser certa, ja que Apel·les havia mort feia molt de temps abans de la revolta de la qual se l’acusa). Quan s’estava a punt d’executar-lo, segons segueix la història, un amic  va revelar la veritat i el calumniador va ser venut com esclau. La història d’Apel·les era popular a la Itàlia del Renaixement, i Botticelli no era el primer artista a pintar-la. La calúmnia, acabada el 1494, va ser l’última pintura mitològica que va produir; en endavant, només pintarà temes religiosos. Sovint s’assumeix que Botticelli va passar per una situació similar quan una persona anònima el va acusar de sodomia[7].

La Veritat i el Penediment semblen estar separats de manera explícita de la resta, a més d’estar separats entre ells mateixos. També estan contrastats pel color i el llenguatge corporal. La Veritat és una presència sòlida, de color blanc brillant
i el Penediment està totalment cobert per un mantell negre, creant una distinció visual
entre les dues figures que les fa semblar molt diferents i fins i tot desconnectades
l’una de l’altra. El Penediment està encorbat i el seu cos està tancat en si mateix,
cosa que també crea una barrera entre ell i la Veritat. La barrera que crea el Penediment amb la seva vestimenta i el seu llenguatge corporal serveix per posar de relleu el paper de la Veritat, transmetent el missatge que la veritat està aïllada i sola en el seu esforç per portar la redempció al caos. No obstant això, el fet que el Penediment és l’única figura de l’escena que s’atura i mira a la Veritat suggereix que hi ha una connexió entre els dos i la possibilitat de col·laboració.

Com s’ha dit, la influència de Savonarola sobre l’art florentí cap el 1500 fou considerable. El 2 de novembre de 1494 havia adreçat un fort atac contra els patrons rics, el seu amor pel luxe i el seu desig d’autoglorificació. Criticava les tombes sota els altars, afirmant que només els sants tenien dret a aquesta veneració. Criticava als patrons que gastaven 100 florins en la seva pròpia capella, però es negaven a donar 10 florins als pobres. L’art per a Savonarola era escriptura visual, no una manifestació del poder i prestigi del seu patró. Atacava els pintors que retrataven a la Marededéu com una jove florentina, adduint que hauria de vestir d’una manera senzilla.

Dos altars pintats per Botticelli (1445-1510) per a patrons que no s’han pogut identificar il·lustren bé aquest nou clima. Tot i que era un dels pintors més populars en el cercle dels Mèdici abans del 1494, el caràcter de les seves obres va canviar. Els seus patrons només li encarregaven marededéus serenes i adoracions dels Mags plenes de pagesos florentins.

Botticelli_calumnia7 Botticelli: Natività mistica, 1501. Oli sobre tela. 108,5×75 cm. National Gallery, Londres.

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És l’única obra signada i datada per Botticelli. S’ha suggerit que va ser pintada per a la seva pròpia devoció privada, o per a algú proper a ell. Certament és poc convencional, i no representa simplement els esdeveniments tradicionals del naixement de Jesucrist i l’adoració dels pastors i els reis mags. Més aviat és una visió d’aquests esdeveniments inspirats per les profecies de l’Apocalipsi.

Difícilment interpretable, atès que fuig de tota la iconografia clàssica del Nadal, el tema fa potser referència a la situació florentina d’inicis del segle XVI, la caiguda de Carles VIII, l’expulsió de Pietro de Mèdici de la senyoria de la ciutat i la presa del poder pel partit de Girolamo Savonarola. Potser Botticelli va pintar aquest quadre com a il·lustració dels sermons de Savonarola contra la decadència moral de la Florència dels Mèdici. Encara que no hi ha documents que acreditin que Botticelli fos un dels deixebles de Savonarola, certs temes de les seves obres tardanes, com aquesta Nativitat mística, certament deriven dels seus sermons i de la Renovatio que propugnaven, el que significa que l’artista estava definitivament atret per aquesta personalitat tan central per als esdeveniments polítics i culturals de Florència durant els últims anys del segle XV.

El pathos que es respira en el quadre, el sentiment dels penitents al voltant de la Nativitat, són prou eloqüents per a recordar el cant del partit de Savonarola: Al vaglio, al vaglio, venite tutti quanti e con amari pianti (A examen, a examen, veniu tots amb amarg plor!).

Abandona la perspectiva i el realisme, caient en una conscient regressió cap a un gust arcaïtzant, el que s’adaptava adequadament a la complicada simbologia que requerien els temes sagrats. La manca de realisme ve subratllada per les convencions plàstiques de l’art medieval i per la introducció de textos grecs i llatins dins de la pròpia pintura.

Trets propis de la pintura medieval són la presentació de les figures en actituds forçades i poc naturals i les dimensions dels personatges que no són les naturals, sinó les que corresponen a la seva importància devocional. La Mare de Déu, adorant a un gegantí Nen Jesús, és tan gran que si ella es posés en peu no cabria sota el sostre de palla de l’estable.

L’ombra de l’esperit humanístic encara s’evidencia en detalls com la inscripció en grec amb l’any de la seva elaboració i un versicle de l’Apocalipsi: l’idioma grec havia tingut èxit en la cort de Cosme el Vell i en la neoplatònica del seu nebot Llorenç el Magnífic . Aquesta sorprenent inscripció a la part alta del quadre s’ha traduït com:

Botticelli_calumnia11

« Jo Sandro he fet aquesta pintura a finals de l’any 1500, durant les turbulències sofertes per Itàlia, en el temps mig  després del temps acordat a l’onzè capítol de sant Joan en el segon segell de l’Apocalipsi després de la desaparició del diable durant tres anys abans que no fos encadenat en el dotzè capítol, el veurem [precipitat] com en el present quadre.»

Falten les paraules després de «veurem», que poden ser «precipitat» o «enterrat a si mateix». Les «turbulències d’Itàlia» poden ser la situació de Florència després de la mort de Llorenç el Magnífic, o la invasió francesa. El «temps mig després del temps» s’ha entès generalment com un any i mig abans, és a dir, el 1498, quan els francesos van envair Itàlia, però pot significar mig mil·lenni (500 anys) després d’un mil·lenni (1000 anys): 1500, la data de la pintura. Això pot relacionar-se amb el mil·lenarisme que es va estendre a la fi del segle XV. Com al final del mil·lenni en l’any 1000, el final del mig mil·lenni en 1500 també semblava a molta gent l’anunci de la Segona Arribada de Jesucrist, profetitzada per la Revelació.

Botticelli_calumnia12

Hi ha tres àngels damunt del portal. Els àngels porten branques d’olivera, que dos d’ells han lliurat als homes que abracen en el primer pla. Aquests homes, així com els suposats pastors vestits amb capa de la dreta i els mags amb llargues vestidures a l’esquerra, estan tots coronats amb branques d’olivera, l’emblema de la pau. En els rotllos que hi ha al voltant de les branques del primer pla, combinats amb alguns dels que sostenen els àngels que ballen al cel, s’hi llegeix: Glòria a Déu a dalt, i a la terra pau, bona voluntat cap als homes (Lluc 2:14). Petits dimonis es dispersen per forats a terra. Els rotllos sostinguts pels àngels apuntant al bressol diuen: «Contempleu l’Anyell de Déu, que lleva el pecat del món», les paraules de Joan Baptista presentant a Crist (Joan 1:29). Per sobre del sostre de l’estable el cel s’ha obert per revelar la daurada llum del paradís.

La dansa dels àngels al voltant d’una cúpula daurada sembla una cita teatral. Recorda les màquines de Filippo Brunelleschi per a les representacions sagrades posades en escena a les esglésies florentines a finals del segle precedent. Corones daurades pengen de les branques d’olivera dels àngels dansaires. La major part dels seus rotllos celebren a Maria: ‘Mare de Déu’, ‘Esposa de Déu’, ‘única reina del Món’. Aquests àngels dansaires no tenen ja la serena bellesa dels que apareixen a la Pala de Sant Marc al voltant de la Coronació de la Marededéu.

Botticelli_calumnia13

Botticelli: Crucifixió, cap el 1502. Tremp sobre tela. 73,5×50,8 cm. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Botticelli_calumnia14Botticelli_calumnia15

Aquest quadre ens ha arribar molt danyat, cosa que en fa més difícil la seva interpretació, i, segons els idiomes, el títol oscil·la entre un punt de vista místic, simbòlic, al·legòric o merament descriptiu: en italià, Crocifissione simbolica, en anglès, Mystic Crucifixion o Crucifixion with the Penitent Magdalene and an Angel, i en francès, Crucifixion avec une vue de Florence, més neutre, limitant-se als elements visible de la taula.

Es tracta d’una “Crucifixió amb una vista de Florència”, amb la presència d’alguns dels atributs tradicionals: Jesús a la creu amb la presència de Maria Magdalena, però en aquest cas, complementada per la presència de Déu del cel que mostra el llibre obert, guiant una lluita dels àngels simbolitzada per escuts creuats, i un àngel al terra colpejant a un animal, el que fa que l’escena encara sigui més al·legòrica. D’acord amb alguns historiadors, els escuts serien enviats per Déu per a castigar la ciutat o per socórrer-la, la figura de Maria Magdalena imposant-se pel penediment, i l’àngel vencent el lleó, per la penitència.

Crist a la creu i al fons la ciutat de Florència, més enllà de les seves muralles, amb alguns monuments com la Catedral, amb la seva cúpula i el campanar, el baptisteri, el Palazzo Vecchio… A dalt a l’esquerra en un núvol d’or, Déu envia escuts creuats per fer front a una horda de dimonis que llancen flames des d’un núvol negre situada a la dreta de la composició.

A sota Maria Magdalena penedida abraça desesperadament el peu de la creu, mirant un àngel que està dempeus o que colpeja un animal (potser un lleó, el Marzocco símbol del poder popular de la ciutat).

El quadre s’interpreta sovint com una al·legoria apocalíptica de les vicissituds històriques de Florència després de la mort de Savonarola en 1498, i que va produir un marcat canvi en Botticelli i en l’art del Renaixement.

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Schibanoff, Susan: «Botticelli’s Madonna del Magnificat: Constructing the Woman Writer in Early Humanist Italy», Modern Language Association, Vol. 109, No. 2, Mar., 1994. En línia a http://www.jstor.org/stable/463116

Solana y Ruiz, Ana; Montero Giménez, Lucía i Lombardena, Mara (2009). Botticelli. Valladolid.  Fancy ed. 298 pàgs.

Steinman, Ernst (1901). Botticelli. Bielefeld And Leipzig. H. Grevel & Company. 112 pàgs

Tylus, Jane (ed) (2001). Sacred narratives. Lucrezia Tornabuoni de Medici.. University of Chicago Press. 280 pàgs.

Warburg, Aby (2013). Sandro Botticelli. Madrid. Casimiro Libros. 2ª impr. 96 pàgs.

Wind, Edgar (1997). Los misterios paganos del renacimiento. Madrid. Alianza ed. (Col. Alianza forma, 144). 408 pàgs.

BOTTICELLI, BIRTH OF VENUS

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/early-renaissance1/painting-in-Florence/v/botticelli-the-birth-of-venus-1483-85

Botticelli: Primavera, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwZn852brII

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/early-renaissance1/painting-in-Florence/v/botticelli-la-primavera-spring-1481-1482

Sandro Boticelli (Florencia 1445 — Florencia, 1510) – Grandes Maestros del Arte – Educatina https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_aDipxMyjM

Sandro Boticelli – Visiones De Violencia Y Belleza https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Juxwi7J_AdM

Sandro Botticelli https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5HbXRL9kXM

Documental sobre Sandro Botticelli   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ww5ZU0Edvg

La Primavera, por Sandro Botticelli https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0KoaufVNg4

The Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli, 1486 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdZ85kujTxk

The Adoration of the Child – Sandro Botticelli  https://vimeo.com/60123741


[1] Cast, David (1981).The Calumny of Apelles: A Study in Humanist Tradition. New Haven. Yale University Press. 243 pàgs.

[2] Luciano de Samosata (2000). «Calumniae non temere credendum», a Obras. Vol. 3. Madrid. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Pàgs. 85-87.

[3] Altrocchi, Rudolph (1921). «The Calumny of Appelles». In Modern Language Association of America. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 36. The Association. Pàgs. 454, 456-457.

[4] Arasse, Daniel (2008). Le Détail. Pour une histoire rapprochée de la peinture. Paris. Flammarion. Pàg. 163.

[5] Massing, Jean Michel (1990). Du Texte a l’Image: La Calomnie d’Apelle et son Iconographie. Strasbourg. Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg. 551 pàgs.

[6] Altrocchi, Rudolph (1921). «The Calumny of Appelles». In Modern Language Association of America. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 36. The Association. Pàg. 455.

[7] Chauveau, Sophie (2007). Le rêve Botticelli. París. Gallimard. 481 pàgs.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

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  234. Thanks for revealing your ideas in this article. The other thing is that whenever a problem arises with a laptop or computer motherboard, persons should not have some risk of repairing the item themselves for if it is not done right it can lead to permanent damage to the entire laptop. It’s usually safe just to approach a dealer of your laptop for that repair of its motherboard. They’ve technicians who may have an competence in dealing with pc motherboard complications and can have the right prognosis and carry out repairs.

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  237. The things i have observed in terms of computer memory is the fact that there are specifications such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must fit in with the requirements of the motherboard. If the pc’s motherboard is fairly current while there are no main system issues, modernizing the storage space literally requires under an hour. It’s on the list of easiest personal computer upgrade techniques one can imagine. Thanks for sharing your ideas.

  238. I have really learned result-oriented things by your blog. One other thing I want to say is the fact that newer personal computer os’s are inclined to allow a lot more memory to be used, but they likewise demand more storage simply to function. If an individual’s computer can’t handle far more memory as well as the newest application requires that storage increase, it might be the time to shop for a new PC. Thanks

  239. Thanks for your blog post. Some tips i would like to contribute is that laptop memory needs to be purchased should your computer can’t cope with that which you do along with it. One can mount two good old ram boards having 1GB each, as an illustration, but not certainly one of 1GB and one having 2GB. One should always check the company’s documentation for the PC to be certain what type of ram is essential.

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