Art

Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure

Botticelli_Minerva1

Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510): Pal·les i el centaure, cap el 1482. Tremp sobre tela. 207 x 148 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi. Florència. Encàrrec: (potser) Llorenç di Pierfrancesco de Mèdici

Plantejament de preguntes

Algunes de les qüestions que s’han plantejat en les dues obres anteriors de Botticelli, es poden aplicar també a aquesta Pal·les i el centaure. Quasi amb seguretat es pot afirmar que el comitent és un Mèdici, però Llorenç el Magnífic o Llorenç di Pierfrancesco? Es tracta d’un regal per a les noces de Llorenç il Popolano amb Semiramide Appiani (1482) o per al de Giovanni il Popolano amb Caterina Sforza (1497) amb el missatge de fons de la bellesa femenina com a «domesticadora» de la fogositat masculina? Es tracta d’una al·legoria que oposa raó i instint, castedat i luxúria, humilitat i supèrbia, com afirmen els qui segueixen els plantejaments neoplatònics? O és més aviat una al·legoria de l’enfrontament entre Florència i Roma i una lloança de l’acció diplomàtica de Llorenç el Magnífic?

Fitxa tècnica

Pal·les i el Centaure, coneguda en italià com Pallade che doma il centauro, és un quadre realitzat al tremp sobre tela per encàrrec, possiblement, de Llorenç di Pierfrancesco de Mèdici. Com que el nom llatí de Pal·les Atenea és Minerva, el quadre és conegut també com Minerva i el centaure, pintada després de la seva estada romana (1481-82).

Sembla ser que la tela va ser pintada per a les noces de Llorenç il Popolano (amb Semiramide Appiani), i va poder portar un missatge matrimonial, entès com la bellesa femenina que doma la fogositat masculina (el triomf de la castedat sobre el vici).

L’inventari de 1499 conté una llista de les propietats de Llorenç di Pierfrancesco i el seu germà Giovanni i confirma que al segle XV aquesta pintura de Pal·les i el Centaure (encara que el títol és convencional ) penjava sobre la porta de la mateixa habitació que La primavera, al palau familiar de Via Larga (actualment via Cavour, 3, Florència). Que es tracta d’un encàrrec dels Médici es mostra en el vestit clar que vesteix, ja que s’hi representen anells entrellaçats amb diamants encastats, un emblema d’aquesta família i la frase Deo amante (devot de Déu) ja utilitzada per Cosme el Vell. Giorgio Vasari esmenta l’existència d’aquesta pintura, però fins el 1895 no es va localitzar, a les golfes del Palau Pitti de Florència, el que evidencia l’escassa estima i valoració que va existir durant segles per l’obra de Botticelli.

Aquesta pintura marca el final del període mediceu de Botticelli, ja que a partir d’ara la temàtica de les seves pintures canvia i esdevé religiosa.

Descripció

Al costat d’una gran roca fragmentada, que deixa entreveure, a la dreta, un paisatge lacustre, Pal·les, és a dir, la deessa Minerva, està dreta armada amb una potent alabarda i agafa amb la mà dreta un centaure pels cabells, armat amb arc i buirac, que sembla amansir-se al gest de la deessa.

Botticelli_Minerva4

Sobre el paisatge del fons, que recorda els de Pietro Perugino i Luca Signorelli amb qui Botticelli havia treballat a la Capella Sixtina, un centaure,  ésser luxuriós, meitat cavall i meitat home, és controlat per una nimfa guardiana armada amb un escut que li penja de l’espatlla i una alabarda, i l’ha agafat pels cabells, identificada com la deessa Pal·les Atenea (equivalent a Minerva)[1].

Botticelli_Minerva5

Anàlisis

A favor de la tesi d’un regal de noces de Llorenç el Magnífic a Llorenç di Pierfrancesco es subratllen dos elements: el símbol dels tres anells entrellaçats que pertanyia a la branca principal dels Mèdici i no a la secundària de Pierfrancesco, i les fulles dels vestit de Pal·les que no són d’olivera, sinó de murta, símbol no de pau sinó de Venus. Seria, doncs, un regal del Magnífic al seu cosí amb motiu de la seva boda amb Semiramide Appiani, i podria significar la primacia de la ment sobre els sentits, invitació directa a no descurar els studia humanitatis, o bé el control de l’amor cast sobre les passions, invitació a una vida matrimonial moderada.

Gombrich[2] està d’acord amb el contingut moral de la pintura: la virtut i la castedat vencen a la sensualitat, a la brutalitat de l’instint, segons els preceptes de Ficino. Seria, doncs, una al·legoria de la raó (Atenea) que triomfa sobre l’instint (Centaure). Les dues parts de l’ànima humana, lluitant entre elles, estan representades per la naturalesa dual del centaure. Aquest últim potser va ser inspirat per algun relleu clàssic o algun sarcòfag romà que l’artista hauria vist durant la seva estada a Roma, encara que l’expressió patètica, entre irritada i trista, és totalment de Botticelli.

Seguint la interpretació política de les obres mitològiques de Botticelli, i vinculada a la interpretació política de La primavera (no oblidem que estaven juntes a la mateixa sala del palau Mèdici), i segons Steinmann[3], es pot considerar que el quadre fa referència a la tasca política de Llorenç el Magnífic de Mèdici com a pacificador. Així, Pal·les seria la senyoria florentina de Llorenç que en aquell període estava a Nàpols per a evitar la guerra, simbolitzada pel Centaure, entre el Papa i el Rei de Nàpols (el fons del paisatge podria ser el golf de Nàpols), en la seva cèlebre funció de «fidel de la balança» dels potentats italians de finals del segle XV. Aquesta interpretació justificaria la corona i la decoració de la roba amb rams d’olivera, el que és notori que simbolitza la pau.

Si La Primavera i Pal·les i el centaure estaven a la mateixa habitació i la segona a l’esquerra de la primera, quina lectura se’n podria fer suposant que es tractés de dues pintures relacionades? Suposem que La Primavera representa l’ideal d’amor de l’època, que concilia el paganisme grec amb el cristià. L’escenari de La Primavera és un jardí en primavera, l’estació de l’amor. Per la dreta irromp Zèfir perseguint Cloris, i a la que posseirà per la força, simbolitzant l’inici de la primavera. Convertida en Flora, és una altra versió d’Afrodita, la creativitat, la fertilitat. La metamorfosi de Cloris en Flora és una metàfora de la reacció alquímica de la passió. Venus, la deessa de l’amor, al centre, es mostra vestida, tot i que es l’única deessa a la que grecs i romans presentaven nua. Cupido, amb els ulls embenats, indicant la ceguesa de l’amor, apunta amb la seva fletxa a una de les tres Gràcies, que representen la joventut, moment en què es desvetlla el desig. La Gràcia que rebrà la fletxa, d’esquenes a l’espectador, mira al personatge situat a l’esquerra del quadre, Mercuri, el qual sembla mirar al quadre que hi hauria al seu costat, Pal·les i el centaure, transmetent un clar missatge a la Gràcia a punt d’enamorar-se i a la pròpia Venus. Minerva és Atenea (Pal·les), deessa de la saviesa i de la guerra, una deïtat verge que es posa al servei del patriarcat. El centaure és l’expressió de la concupiscència, del desig sexual i la luxúria. «El quadre indica la victòria de la castedat sobre la concupiscència, i aquesta és la lliçó que ha d’aprendre tota dona que s’enamora: és el que ha de saber la bona i virtuosa esposa. Potser per això, Venus es mostra vestida en el quadre, atès que és una Venus diferent a la dels poetes grecs i romans, i és un altre l’ideal d’amor que proposa el patriarcat».[4]

Botticelli_Minerva2Botticelli_Minerva3

Sandro Botticelli: Venus i Mart, cap el 1485. Tremp i oli sobre taula. 69.2 x 173.4 cm. The National Gallery, Londres.


[1] Fossi, Gloria (1998). Botticelli. Primavera. Florència. Giunti Editore. Pàg. 71.

[2] E.H. Gombrich: «Las mitologías de Botticelli. Estudio sobre el simbolismo neoplatónico de su círculo», a E.H. Gombrich (1983). Imágenes simbólicas. Madrid. Alianza ed. (Col. Alianza Forma 34). Pàgs. 119-121.

[3] Steinman, Ernst (1901). Botticelli. Bielefeld And Leipzig. H. Grevel & Company. 112 pàgs. En línia a http://archive.org/details/botticelli00steigoog

[4] Goñi Alcelay, Arantxa i Álvarez Garrido, María José (2004). Los rostros de Eva. Madrid. Edaf (Col. Psicología y autoayuda). Pàgs. 130-131.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

79 comments

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  5. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  8. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  10. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  11. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  12. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  14. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  15. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  16. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  17. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  19. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  20. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  21. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  24. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  49. Great blog post. A few things i would like to add is that computer memory is required to be purchased when your computer is unable to cope with whatever you do with it. One can deploy two RAM boards containing 1GB each, as an illustration, but not certainly one of 1GB and one with 2GB. One should look for the maker’s documentation for the PC to be certain what type of storage is necessary.

  50. What I have seen in terms of personal computer memory is there are specifications such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must match up the features of the motherboard. If the personal computer’s motherboard is reasonably current and there are no main system issues, changing the storage space literally takes under an hour. It’s among the easiest pc upgrade procedures one can consider. Thanks for giving your ideas.

  51. Thanks for the suggestions you have contributed here. One more thing I would like to convey is that computer system memory demands generally increase along with other advances in the technological know-how. For instance, as soon as new generations of cpus are brought to the market, there’s usually an equivalent increase in the type calls for of both the computer system memory plus hard drive room. This is because the program operated simply by these cpus will inevitably increase in power to use the new technological innovation.

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