Art

Leonardo da Vinci: L’Anunciació

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): L’Anunciació, cap el 1473-1475. Oli i tremp sobre fusta. 98 x 217 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. Encàrrec: desconegut. El darrer propietari va ser l’església de san Bartolomeo dels Olivetans.

Plantejament de preguntes

Com aquesta obra ajuda a desmitificar la figura del geni Leonardo i a pensar que molt poques obres són d’autoria única? Quina és la tècnica de l’esfumat, tan característica de Leonardo, i com aquesta tècnica permet identificar la seva autoria?

Quina actitud manifesta la marededéu davant l’àngel, de submissió o d’acceptació? Com, doncs, aquesta Anunciació reflecteix les idees dels humanistes, de l’observació directa, de la nova concepció de l’espai i del temps segons la qual ja no calia descobrir en la naturalesa la presència divina?

Fitxa tècnica

Hi ha molt poca informació certa respecte l’origen d’aquesta obra; se sap que és un dels primers encàrrecs que Leonardo va aconseguir mentre era al taller de Verrocchio. Es creu que és obra de col·laboració amb Domenico Ghirlandaio o algun dels deixebles, per alguns traços: la Marededéu està a la dreta i l’àngel a l’esquerra, característica de les pintures florentines; a més a més, el cap de l’àngel no té el típic esfumat[1] de Leonardo. Malgrat tot, l’àngel sembla proper a la factura del que apareix al Baptisme de Crist de Verrocchio, i existeixen dos dibuixos certs de Leonardo, un estudi del braç a la Christ Church d’Oxford[2] i un estudi de draperia al Louvre que fan referència precisa, respectivament a l’arcàngel i a la Marededéu: encara que hi ha dins el quadre simplificació i convencionalisme de composició, aquests traços poden atribuir-se a la relativa inexperiència i a la necessitat de concloure una obra de la qual no podia atribuir-se la plena responsabilitat.

L’obra era desconeguda fins l’any 1867; va arribar als Uffizi des de la sagristia de l’església de San Bartolomeo, annexa al suprimit monestir dels Olivetans[3]. No està clar que el destí originari de l’obra fos aquesta església. Aleshores es va atribuir a Ghirlandaio, qui era, com Leonardo, un aprenent al taller de Verrocchio; també hi ha qui considerava que era obra d’aquest últim. Morelli, Cavalcaselle, Heindereich i Calvi no l’atribueixen a Leonardo, sinó que proposen a Ghirlandaio i al seu fill Rodolfo o a Lorenzo di Credi, en col·laboració amb Leonardo. Especialment per alguns errors desconcertants, com ara el del pla del faristol alineat amb l’espatlla però no amb els peus de la Marededéu.  Actualment se sol atribuir a una col·laboració entre el taller de Verrocchio  i Leonardo.

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Encara es debat sobre la data d’execució de l’obra: les diferents hipòtesis la situen entre principis dels anys setanta, quan l’artista tindria poc més de vint anys, i els començaments de la següent dècada. En particular, es reconeix encara la influència o potser l’homenatge al mestre Verrocchio (sobretot en el suport del faristol, semblant al del Sepulcre de Giovanni i Piero de Mèdici a Sant Llorenç). El braç de la Marededéu, a més, sembla allargat de manera desproporcionada per arribar al llibre damunt del faristol, i l’ombra de l’àngel és excessiva per a l’atmosfera de l’alba, que la restauració ha determinat com l’hora triada per Leonardo per ambientar, potser també de manera simbòlica, l’episodi de l’Anunciació. La datació més consensuada oscil·la entre els anys seixanta del segle XV i el 1475, data de l’àngel del Baptisme de Crist.

Aquesta pintura a l’oli i tremp sobre fusta d’àlber, consta de cinc taulers enganxats de 3,5 cm de gruix que fou restaurada l’any 2000. Una radiografia del quadre va mostrar que, al principi, el cap de la Marededéu estava més inclinat, la mà dreta més curta, i que el seu dit petit no estava ni doblegat ni aixecat. A més, una cadena amb penjolls adornava el seu front. Tots aquests penediments justifiquen la tesi d’una obra de joventut de Leonardo.

La restauració de l’obra ha fet possible l’aparició de noves hipòtesis interpretatives i ha permès recuperar no només una major lluminositat i nitidesa dels detalls, sinó també una perspectiva més marcada per l’escorç arquitectònic de la dreta (la porta, ara visible amb dos brancals, permet veure millor el baldaquí dins de l’habitació).

Destaca l’abundància de flors a la gespa, copiades d’exemplars reals, mentre que en el paisatge, que des dels típics xiprers toscans, a segon pla, es va degradant cap al fons, s’aprecien els petits detalls d’una ciutat lacustre que resta difuminada en les llunyanes muntanyes rocoses blavoses. El paisatge del fons mostra una escena de port que podria ser Roma o un port inventat.

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Descripció

Es representa el tema de l’Anunciació per l’àngel Gabriel, de conformitat amb la tradició cristiana (Evangeli de Lluc, 1:26-38).

En aquesta Anunciació, de manera similar a la petita predel·la sobre el mateix tema que va pintar Leonardo per la mateixa època, ha usat la col·locació, molt formal, que prové de les dues pintures de Fra Angelico sobre el tema, ben conegudes, amb la Marededéu asseguda o agenollada a la dreta de la pintura, a la qual s’acosta des de l’esquerra un àngel de perfil, amb rica vestidura que flota, les ales aixecades i duent una assutzena.

Tanmateix, a diferència de la iconografia clàssica, l’escena es desenvolupa enterament a l’exterior, dintre d’un jardí tancat d’una típica vil·la florentina. Això és un element innovador, ja que en la tradició medieval l’ambientació era sempre a l’interior (el que afavoria la representació del llit), si més no pel cap baix en el que es referia a la Marededéu, mentre que l’àngel podia estar a l’exterior, però en un hortus conclusus, és a dir, en un jardí delimitat per alts murs que al·ludien al ventre de Maria que simbolitzaven la seva virginitat. Per a mantenir la reserva de la trobada, Leonardo pinta a la Marededéu en un palau, però deixant entreveure el llit; a més a més, un petit mur delimita el jardinet. El jardí s’obre, al nivell de la mà de l’àngel, sobre un paisatge fluvial. Daniel Arasse fa notar que és el primer cop que un port és pintat en una Anunciació: podria ser el símbol de Maria com a «port de salvació».

L’àngel està dins dels cànons clàssics de la iconografia, té les ales batent i sosté una assutzena blanca (lilium candidum), símbol de la virginitat de Maria i de la ciutat de Florència. L’àngel revela el seu pes damunt l’herba, i queda representat també el moviment de l’aire que provoca en aterrar. A diferència dels àngels que normalment es representaven, no té ales de paó (considerat animal sagrat i de carn incorruptible en ser exòtic), sinó les ales d’un ocell autèntic, l’anatomia de les quals havia estudiat l’autor. Se suposa que Leonardo va copiar originàriament les ales de les d’un ocell en ple vol. Hi ha una estranya anomalia: les ales originals eren més curtes, però van ser allargades per un artista posterior, sense comprendre que aquí Leonardo va representar l’àngel que està aterrant, i que per tant està tancant les ales, i per aquest motiu manca de sentit el fet de pintar una ala batent. Aquesta «correcció» destrueix tota la feina d’estudi de Leonardo sobre l’anatomia dels ocells, així com la representació realista de l’ala.

La configuració de la posició és clàssicament leonardesca, si tenim en compte les draperies, amb plecs amplis i delicats. Giorgio Vasari explica que l’artista feia sovint models d’argila de les figures, els vestia amb delicats mantells banyats en guix i aleshores reproduïa pacientment la caiguda de les robes.

Leonardo_anunciacio5 Verrocchio: El baptisme de Crist, 1475-1478. Oli sobre taula. 177 x 171 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. La figura d’aquest àngel s’atribueix a Leonardo així com el paisatge que hi ha al darrere de Crist.

Una certa perplexitat causa el cap de l’àngel: les carnacions són pàl·lides i planes, sense les transparències clàssiques de Leonardo, hi ha una gran diferència amb l’àngel del Baptisme de Crist, aquí els cabells no presenten el típic esfumat, sinó que apareixen com una massa de rínxols compacta.

La Marededéu, a diferència del que era habitual, no adopta l’actitud de submisa acceptació del seu destí creuant els braços. La jove, interrompuda en la seva lectura per aquest missatger inesperat, posa un dit de la mà dreta sobre la bíblia per a marcar el punt de lectura, com si volgués evitar que es tanqués, i aixeca la mà esquerra a manera de salutació. Aquesta serena jove accepta el seu paper com a Mare de Déu no amb resignació, sinó amb confiança. En aquesta pintura el jove Leonardo presenta la cara humanista de Maria, una dona que reconeix el paper de la humanitat en l’encarnació de Déu.

Al primer cop d’ull, la Marededéu sembla tenir tres cames, ja que la vora del mantell està sobre el braç de la butaca. Està ubicada rere una mena d’altar o taula de marbre on s’evidencien els ensenyaments de Verrocchio. Aquesta taula de marbre probablement és una cita de la tomba de Giovanni i Piero de Mèdici a la Basílica de San Lorenzo de Florència de Brunelleschi, que va ser esculpida per Verrocchio en aquesta mateixa època. És un sarcòfag amb elements bronzins cisellats que recorden les ornamentacions d’aquest altar.

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Andrea del Verrocchio: Tomba de Giovanni i Piero de Mèdici, 1469-1472. Marbre, bronze i pietra serena. 358 x 601 cm. Basílica de sant Llorenç, Florència.

Utilitza la perspectiva aèria, a la qual Leonardo donava molta importància: pintava els detalls més allunyats com embolcallats en una boira, perquè sabia que entre l’ull i un objecte vist a distància s’interposaven capes de pols atmosfèrica, de partícules i motes molt petites, que fan els contorns menys nítids; Leonardo va ser el primer pintor a preferir aquesta perspectiva atmosfèrica sobre la geomètrica. Els objectes pròxims es representen minuciosament perquè es veuen millor. Es comprèn que aquesta és una obra de joventut pel fet que la perspectiva aèria no està aconseguida gradualment.

Els xiprers estan representats sistemàticament com a columnes, cosa que sembla dividir matemàticament l’escena. Aquest paisatge potser simbolitza que el futur naixement no només afectarà la vida de la Marededéu sinó a la del món sencer. A primer pla, una mena de catifa en flor, on totes les flors estan pintades amb acurada precisió. El prat florit és una al·lusió a la ciutat de Natzaret: sant Jeroni havia donat per etimologia de Natzaret l’hebreu netser que significa flor, sant Bernat ho havia comentat i la Llegenda Daurada de Jacobo de Voragine ho havia popularitzat.

El quadre està caracteritzat per un fet curiós: Leonardo comet una errada de perspectiva. Es tracta del braç de la Marededéu: fàcilment s’observa la desproporció pel que fa a la seva longitud. Això, així com nombrosos penediments, demostrarien unes certes dificultats de l’artista amb l’organització de l’espai escènic. També, però, s’ha apuntat la possibilitat que, segons el punt de vista que s’adopti (a la dreta i des de baix) aquests «errors» podrien ser correccions òptiques o experiments anamòrfics.

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Ubicació en els Uffizi

Anàlisis

Leonardo és un dels grans mites del Renaixement: se l’ha anat considerant un dels més importants pintors renaixentistes i, segons Vasari, és el més gran de tots. Representa l’esperit humanista. De pare notari i mare pagesa es va formar amb Verrocchio; el 1472 va entrar a formar part de la guilda de pintors de Florència, que era la que facultava per obrir un taller, i el 1478 esdevingué mestre independent. Va acabar molt poques obres, algunes de les seves experimentacions no van reeixir (El sant sopar de Milà), les seves màquines no funcionen i al final va trobar feina per al rei de França, que de fet volia a Tizià, però aquest estava ja compromès.

Quins processos sòcio-històrics ens poden ajudar a entendre millor com es va gestar aquesta obra? Peter Burke[4]posa de relleu el fet que a Itàlia es desenvolupés abans que en altres parts un llenguatge polític i un pensament polític, relacionat amb el bon govern, i amb la idea que les institucions polítiques eren un assumpte humà i, per tant, modificables, i tot plegat contribuïa a fer possible la recerca de propostes creatives. El món del Renaixement es va obrir a una nova concepció de l’espai i del temps, un espai mental segons el qual ja no era important descobrir en la naturalesa ni la presència divina ni lleis fixes, cosa que facilitava noves recerques i contribuïa a una més gran autonomia dels artistes.

Liana Cheney[5] considera el context cultural de la Cort de Lorenzo en el segle XV com un esforç per reinterpretar la cultura clàssica, ja que sota el seu govern no només s’intensifica l’emigració d’Orient després de la presa de Constantinoble pels turcs el 1458, sinó que, a més, Marsilio Ficino i Pico della Mirandola tradueixen manuscrits grecs, alhora que es crea l’Acadèmia platònica, cosa que afavoreix l’emergència d’un clima intel·lectual nou. Els studia humanitatis havien assolit a mitjan segle XV un reconeixement social i polític que es va fer extensiu a alguns medis eclesiàstics.

Per a Blunt[6] cal tenir present que Leonardo va viure a Florència quan el neoplatonisme era la teoria filosòfica més important, i quan els vells mètodes científics sobrevivien en alguns estudis, com el de Verrocchio, cosa que li va permetre seguir creient en el valor de l’experimentació i de l’observació directa. Es va oposar a qualsevol tipus d’idealisme i, en aquest sentit, es va distanciar d’Alberti, atès que no estava d’acord amb que fos necessari un procés de selecció de les coses més belles que hi hagués a la natura per a realitzar l’ideal de bellesa. Es va oposar, per tant, a la recerca de les proporcions perfectes per a representar el cos humà. Va desenvolupar també una teoria d l’expressió, ja que pensava que la pintura havia de mostrar les emocions.

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Alessio Baldovinetti: Anunciació, 1466-6747. Panell i fresc. Amplada de la paret 480 cm. San Miniato al Monte, Florència.

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Filippo Lippi: Anunciació, 1450-53. Tremp sobre taula. 68×151,5 cm. National Gallery, Londres.

Brown[7] pensa que l’Anunciació de Baldovinetti de la capella del cardenal de Portugal i la de Filippo Lippi del palau Mèdici, foren dues de les fonts en les quals es basà Leonardo per a pintar aquesta Anunciació, en la qual crea un ampli espai entre les figures que, alhora, estan unides mitjançant el recurs a l’arquitectura. En conformitat amb els ensenyaments d’Alberti, l’escenari és simple i està esglaonat cap a les figures i fa ús de la nova perspectiva basada en la geometria. L’àngel, segons Brown, és el vertader protagonista del quadre. L’entorn reflecteix el coneixement dels jardins de les viles florentines de l’època, així com una determinada concepció de l’aire, l’atmosfera, la naturalesa i de la seva representació, que implica l’aplicació de la tècnica a l’oli, una tècnica relativament desconeguda abans de 1470. Aquesta Anunciació segons Brown reflecteix l’interès de Leonardo per l’arquitectura i la narrativa, palesa la seva tècnica experimental (barrejava els pigments amb oli i clara d’ou i feia servir pinzells i les pròpies mans per a pintar), mostra la superioritat del seu treball si se’l compara amb el dels seus contemporanis, i obre la via a una nova concepció del quadre.

En Maria, a diferència del que s’esdevé a l’Anunciació eclesiàstica, no hi ha una actitud de submissió, sinó que expressa més aviat una certa autonomia: sembla escoltar reflexivament el missatge de l’àngel. Està relacionat aquest equilibri entre ambdues figures amb les teories dels humanistes sobre la relació entre els sexes?[8] Els programes desenvolupats pels humanistes per a l’educació i la formació de la «dona cristiana» diferien sens dubte del dels dominics i franciscans.

Diversos historiadors han remarcat que l’amor cortès fou reinterpretat en connexió amb el neoplatonisme. Kelly-Gadol[9] afirma que a través de la reformulació de la teoria de l’amor cortès la relació entre els sexes es va transformar en una «relació moderna». L’amor cortès, propi d’una època en la quals les relacions socials feien possible l’existència d’una certa paritat entre els homes i les dones nobles, es va transformar en un amor idealitzat, en una relació entre amants, en desaparèixer les relacions socials que el sustentaven. Dante, Petrarca i Boccaccio varen contribuir a aquesta reformulació de l’amor cortès, així com Castiglione. «La dona deixa així de ser objecte d’un amor real, per a passar a ser objecte d’un amor idealitzat». No es deuria a l’atzar que Castiglione proposés a El Cortesàa Elisabetta Gonzaga com a dama ideal, atès que havia estat educada pels humanistes i estava destinada a viure a la refinada Cort d’Urbino.

Foren els humanistes els qui varen convertir el matrimoni monògam indissoluble en una institució «amable», en introduir en ell l’amor i el respecte entre els cònjuges. La Reforma i la contrareforma, tanmateix, així com la formació de les monarquies absolutes, varen promoure una nova redefinició dels sexes molt més «severa» i més propera a la submissió de les dones defensada pels ordes mendicants. 

Bibliografia

Clark, Kenneth (2006). Leonardo da Vinci. Madrid. Alianza ed. (Col. Alianza Forma, 52). 6ª impr. 208 pàgs.

Leonardo da Vinci (2005). Aforismos. Barcelona. Círculo de Lectores. 2ª impr. 288 pàgs.

Leonardo da Vinci i Alberti, Leon Battista (2008). El tratado de la pintura : y los tres libros que sobre el mismo arte escribió León Bautista Alberti. Mairena del Aljarafe. Extramuros. 2ª impr. 386 pàgs.

Leonardo da Vinci (2004). Tratado de pintura. Tres Cantos. Akal. (Col. Básica de bolsillo Akal, 108). 2ª ed. 1ª impr. 516 pàgs.

Kemp, Martín (2011). Leonardo da Vinci : las maravillosas obras de la naturaleza y el hombre. Tres Cantos. Akal. (Col. Akal/arte y estética). 1ª impr. 384 pàgs.

Freud, Sigmund (2007). Leonardo da Vinci. Barcelona. Belacqva. (Col. Documentos, 11). 1ª imp. 112 pàgs.

Friedenthal, Richard (1995). Leonardo da Vinci. Barcelona. Salvat. (Col. Grandes biografías, 44). 155 pàgs.

Eugène Müntz (2011). Leonardo da Vinci.

Tucker, Rebecca i Crenshaw, Paul (2011). Leonardo da Vinci. Barcelona. Lunwerg Editores.1ª impr. 260 pàgs.

Documental sobre Leonardo da Vinci, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kj7Vgtg0JuQ

Leonardo Da Vinci – Documental de la BBC, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tMg1q-ZVHho

Leonardo da Vinci’s Letter to the Duke of Milan, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/leonardo-da-vinci/v/leonarda-da-vinci-s-letter-to-the-duke-of-milan

Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/leonardo-da-vinci/v/leonardo-da-vinci-last-supper-1495-98  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV6_wTrkd70

Leonardo, Mona Lisa, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/leonardo-da-vinci/v/celebrity-art-leonardo-s-mona-lisa

Leonardo da Vinci, The Virgin of the Rocks,https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/leonardo-da-vinci/v/leonardo-da-vinci-the-virgin-of-the-rocks-c-1491-1508

Leonardo da Vinci, Adoration of the Magi, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/leonardo-da-vinci/v/leonardo-da-vinci-adoration-of-the-magi-1481-mov

The Long Game Part 1: Why Leonardo DaVinci was no genius, https://vimeo.com/84022735

The Long Game Part 2: the missing chapter, https://vimeo.com/87448006

Leonardo Da Vinci – El hombre que quería saberlo todo, https://vimeo.com/19561574


[1] L’esfumat (de l’italià sfumato) és una tècnica emprada en pintura amb la que s’aconsegueix un efecte vaporós, que s’obté per la superposició de diverses capes de pintura extremament delicades, proporcionant a la composició uns contorns imprecisos, així com un aspecte de vaguetat i llunyania mitjançant les gradacions del color i la llum. Aquest efecte fa que els tons s’esfumin fins a valors més obscurs com a la Mona Lisa i al Sant Joan Baptista. La invenció d’aquesta tècnica, així com el seu nom sfumato, es deuen a Leonardo da Vinci.

Segons les recerques de Pascal Cotte,basades en una anàlisi multiespectral del quadre Mona Lisa, la tècnica utilitzada per Leonardo podria consistir en els passos següents:

  • · Sobre una planxa de fusta d’àlber, s’aplica una preparació blanca de guix i cola animal (el gesso).
  • · Es traça un primer esbós al pinzell.
  • · Aplicació d’una prima capa de color, a l’oli (la imprimitura), sobre tota la superfície del quadre.
  • · S’afegeixen les ombres i els valors intermedis. En el cas de l’ull esquerre de Mona Lisa, aquesta operació es va fer amb color de terra de Siena, molt diluïda.
  • · S’aplica per damunt de tot el quadre una prima capa translúcida, de color adaptat a cada zona.
  • · Repassada de les zones ombrejades, pintant als diminuts espais entre traç i traç, per homogeneïtzar.
  • · Toc final: graduació tonal mitjançant retocs microscòpics fins aconseguir l’efecte de degradat suau entre les zones d’ombra i les de llum.
  • · Al final no queda en el quadre el més mínim traç de pinzell, fent impossible saber a cop d’ull quina ha estat la tècnica de pintura emprada.

P. Brambilla, P. Moracchini, A. Martignoni, M. Cianchi, P. Brioist, A. Chastel, L. Fagnart, R. Huygue, J. Franck, C. Giorgione, R. Valléjo (2007). La passion Léonard, comprendre et créer .  Ars Latina. París. 128 pàgs.

[2] El 1907, Sydney Colvin va identificar un dibuix a la ploma de Leonardo conservat a Oxford, com un estudi per a la màniga de l’àngel de l’Anunciació dels Uffizi.

[3] Els Olivetans són els religiosos que pertanyen a l’actual Congregació Benedictina de Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto, anomenada abans Orde de Monte Oliveto. Els nobles de Siena sant Bernat Tolomei (1272-1348), Patrizio Patrizi i Ambrogio Piccolomini van retirar-se a un lloc apartat, el Deserto di Accona (a uns trenta km de Siena), per a dur-hi vida eremítica i instituir «una escola del servei diví».

Posteriorment, i a petició del bisbe d’Arezzo, van fundar al mateix lloc un monestir, l’Abadia de Monte Oliveto Maggiore, fundada el 6 de març de 1319, que seguiria la Regla de Sant Benet, intentant tornar-ne al rigor original, i seria la casa mare del nou orde. En poc temps, van sorgir nous monestirs de la congregació arreu d’Itàlia: al segle XV, el nombre de monjos va passar de 900, en 53 monestirs, durant el segle XVI van fundar-s’hi 30 monestirs més, i durant el XVII, deu més, sempre a Itàlia.

Fins a mitjan segle XVII, la Congregació Olivetana va tenir un gran impuls i va arribar a comptar amb uns mil membres; després va decaure. Va començar a renéixer en 1876, amb la fundació del monestir de Settignano, prop de Florència.

[4] Peter Burke (2001). El renacimiento italiano. cultura y sociedad en Italia. Madrid. Alianza. (Col. Alianza Forma, 117 ). 3ª ed. pàg. 101.

[5] Liana Cheney (1985).Quattrocento neoplatonism and Medicis humanism in Botticelli’s mythological paintings. Maryland. University Press of America. 154 pàgs.

[6] Anthony Blunt (1987). Teoría de las artes en italia, 1450-1600. Madrid. Cátedra. (Col. Ensayos arte Cátedra, 6). 7ª ed. 176 pàgs.

[7] David A. Brown (1998). Leonardo da Vinci: origins of a genius. Haven/Londres. Yale University Press, especialment cap. IV.

[8] Margaret L. King (1991). Women of the Renaissance (Women in culture and Society). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.. 350 pàgs.

[9] Kelly, Joan (1986). Women, History & Theory The Essays of Joan Kelly. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 19–50.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

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  156. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  157. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  160. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  162. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  163. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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