Art

Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni

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Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni, 1506-1508. Tremp d’ou sobre taula. 120 cm diàmetre. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. Encàrrec: Agnolo Doni.

Plantejament de preguntes

Aquest tondo[1] de Miquel Àngel ens mostra un tipus de paisatge, un tipus d’història, una manera de presentar els personatges, un ús del color i del dibuix molt diferents dels que es troben en el Quattrocento, és a dir, en l’etapa central del Renaixement italià. Observem aquesta marededéu masculinitzada i uns nus que són qualsevol cosa menys «bells», «equilibrats» i «ben dibuixats». On queda el llenguatge de la raó, de les figures ben definides, del gest elegant, de la composició equilibrada…? On és el classicisme que, sovint, s’associa a Miquel Àngel?

Fitxa tècnica

Conegut també com La Sagrada Família, és una de les primeres obres pictòriques de Miquel Àngel, realitzada amb motiu del baptisme –com ho fa suposar l’al·lusió a la teologia baptismal– de la primogènita Maria (8 de setembre del 1507) del mercader Agnolo Doni, un ric teixidor, i de Maddalena Strozzi, la filla de l’home més ric de Florència. Altres consideren, però, que és va fer amb motiu de les noces entre Agnolo i Maddalena (a les que al·ludirien les mitges llunes del marc). En tot cas, és posterior al gener del 1506 –però abans d’iniciar els frescos de la Capella Sixtina el 1508–, data en què a Roma es va trobar el Laocoont en el qual Miquel Àngel es va inspirar per a la posa del nu rere sant Josep. Sembla que per al segon nu de l’esquerra es va inspirar en l’Apol·lo del Belvedere.

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Grup del Laocoont [2] i els seus fills                                     Apol·lo del Belvedere

La referència més propera anterior al Tondo Doni és probablement la Marededéu amb el Nen nu de Luca Signorelli, que té algunes similituds en la composició i, probablement, la interpretació. De fet, pertanyia a Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Mèdici, que en aquells anys estava molt a prop de Miquel Àngel: en els noranta li havia encarregat dues escultures, ara perdudes, un Sant Joan Baptista i un Cupido dormint. Sobre la seva composició també se sol donar, com a referència, un camafeu amb la figura d’Hèrcules vençut per Eros (al Museu Nacional de Nàpols), i un relleu amb un sàtir i Dionís del taller de Donatello (Palau Mèdici).

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Luca Signorelli: Tondo amb Marededéu i Nen, cap el 1490. Tremp sobre taula. 170 x 117,5 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. Encàrrec: possiblement Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Mèdici.

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Taller de Donatello: Sàtir amb el nen Dionís,   Hèrcules vençut per Eros. Camafeu d’àgata.
cap el 1460-1465.    Marbre.Palazzo Medici    Museu Nacional de Nàpols.
Riccardi, Florència.

Vasari explica que, acabada l’obra, l’artista va enviar un nen per lliurar-la, però a la petició de setanta ducats com a pagament, Doni, que estava molt atent a la seva economia, va dubtar a «gastar tant en un quadre», oferint-li només quaranta. Miquel Àngel va fer retornar el quadre i va dir que no el lliuraria si no li pagaven 140 ducats, és a dir, el doble[3]. A part de l’anècdota, segurament exagerada, és un molt bon exemple de com un artista va anar prenent consciència del valor de la seva obra, trencant amb la lleialtat al client com era típic a l’època medieval, en la qual la pintura era considerada com un art mecànic, vinculada al treball manual i inferior a les arts especulatives o liberals. En aquest moment, Miquel Àngel ja començava a ser conegut per l’èxit del seu David (1501-1504).

Segons Vasari, l’origen d’aquest Tondo seria el següent: «Va voler el seu amic Agnolo Doni, ciutadà florentí, que apreciava molt les obres belles, tant d’artistes moderns com antics, tenir alguna obra de Miquel Àngel, per la qual cosa aquest va començar la pintura d’un tondo amb la representació de la Marededéu, que, agenollada, té en braços al Nen, i el passa a Josep que l’està rebent. Miguel Àngel mostra, en el gir del cap de la mare de Crist amb els ulls fixos en la suma bellesa del Fill, la seva meravellosa alegria i afecte, dels quals en fa partícip al sant ancià».[4]

És l’única mostra pictòrica de Miquel Àngel que es conserva a Florència i que, a més, se li pot atribuir amb certesa. Probablement el marc també va ser dissenyat per Miquel Àngel.

Descripció

A primer pla hi trobem la Marededéu amb el Nen –que no el té a primer pla sinó que es gira per a donar-lo a sant Josep (o és Josep qui el dóna a Maria?)– que està al seu darrere, de grandioses proporcions. Té forma de tondo, és a dir, rodona, que s’associava en el Renaixement amb el matrimoni. Maria és la figura més important en la composició, ocupant gran part del centre de la imatge. Està asseguda directament al terra, per tal de fer palesa la seva relació amb aquest món, en actitud de Mare de Déu de la Humilitat i es recolza en la figura viril de san Josep, ubicat al seu darrere. Una Marededéu d’aspecte atlètic es regira, recolzant el seu musculós braç dret sobre el genoll de Josep mentre està pendent del Nen, que està passant o rebent de Josep.

El nen està en un segon pla, respecte la mare, a mans del pare i de la mare, en actitud seriosa i postura inestable; el lactant herculi puja com si fos un esgraó al braç dret de la seva mare, agafant-se als seus cabells trenats.

Sant Josep té una posició més alta en la imatge en comparació amb Maria, potser com a cap de família, encara que aquesta és una característica poc comuna en les composicions de la Sagrada Família. Maria es troba entre les seves cames, com si l’estigués protegint.

Més enllà del grup sagrat una balustrada de pedra polida defineix un canvi de nivell, i des de la zona inferior s’aixeca un infantil Joan Baptista, mirant cap a Crist. Sant Joan Baptista, el patró de Florència, s’inclou amb molta freqüència en les obres florentines que representen la Marededéu amb el Nen, i està ubicat entre la Sagrada Família i el fons. Aquest llindar també marca un canvi de perspectiva de l’àrea abruptament escorçada a primer pla d’una recessió més lenta en la distància. Aquesta balustrada horitzontal crea un espai per a la Sagrada Família i un altre per als cinc nus i sant Joan Baptista, tanca l’efecte perceptiu de rotació creat per la postura dels personatges principals i explicita la diferència entre les perspectives i els significats.

Al centre, una construcció arquitectònica semicircular forma un mirador o lloc de descans d’un grup de joves nus[5] que s’empenyen o miren fixament o semblen mirar a la llunyania, un paisatge a penes descrit d’un mar blau i uns turons que mostren, a la falda, una certa verdor.

La pintura porta el seu marc original, ricament tallat, amb cinc caps que sobresurten tridimensionalment en l’espai, que poden estar inspirats en un motiu similar que es troba a la Porta del Paradís de Ghiberti, les portes de bronze del baptisteri de Florència que Miquel Àngel coneixia i admirava. Igual que en els nus dels fons, els significats d’aquests caps ha estat objecte d’especulació. El marc també conté talles de mitges llunes, estrelles, vegetació, i caps de lleó. Aquests símbols són, potser, les referències a les famílies Doni i Strozzi, atès que les llunes estan unides amb cintes que s’entrellacen amb els lleons, possiblement fent referència al matrimoni de les dues famílies.

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El significat dels ignudi és objecte de debat, perquè no hi ha cap relació òbvia ni precedents bíblics que els relacionin amb l’escena que transcorre a primer pla. Les figures d’aquests cinc joves nus s’han volgut interpretar com a símbol de la innocència disposada a rebre el baptisme, o bé el nexe entre la fe cristiana i la tradició neoplatònica, segons les idees de l’humanisme renaixentista rebudes per Miquel Àngel a l’escola de Llorenç el Magnífic. Tornarem a trobar aquestes figures nues en la volta de la Capella Sixtina. Es creu que poden ser àngels àpters, és a dir, sense ales.

La Sagrada Família és molt més gran de dimensió que els nus del fons, i sembla que hi hagi aigua davant del terra on hi ha els nus. Tota la Sagrada Família mira a Crist, però cap dels nus el mira directament.

La Marededéu té un llibre damunt dels genolls, i com a personificació de l’Església simbolitza l’activitat teològica i divulgativa dels continguts doctrinals, i és l’hereva privilegiada per a difondre la paraula de Déu a la humanitat.

La planta davant de Joan Baptista té aspectes tant d’hisop com de blauet, però és més probable que sigui un hisop, ja que creix en una paret. El blauet és un atribut de Crist i simbolitza el cel, mentre que l’hisop simbolitza la humilitat de Crist i el baptisme. Hi ha un llimoner al fons, el que representa el cedre del Líban[6] (simbolitza tot el que és digne per al cristià) . Miguel Ángel utilitza l’hisop i l’arbre com una representació visual d’un comentari de Ràban Maur (780/784-856) a una cita bíblica[7]: «des del cedre del Líban fins a l’hisop que creix en una paret rocosa tenim una explicació de la Divinitat que Crist té en el seu Pare i de la humanitat que es deriva de la Verge Maria». El trèvol a primer pla representa la Trinitat i la salvació. La planta anemone («filla del vent» en grec antic perquè dura tan poc com una ràfega de vent, va ser creada per la deessa Venus per honorar el cadàver del seu estimat Adonis) representa la Trinitat i la Passió de Crist.

El punt de vista que Miquel Àngel escull per a representar els nus és frontal, a diferència del que adopta per al grup central, que està vist des de baix. Aquesta forma de representació està lligada a la voluntat, per part de l’autor, de conferir monumentalitat a la Sagrada Família, però també per a diferenciar les zones figuratives contraposades pel significat.

Miquel Àngel va emprar dos mitjans per a aquesta obra, pintura al tremp i pintura a l’oli. En aplicar l’oli en capes successives des del color més intens fins el més lleuger, de la manera que li va ser ensenyada quan era un aprenent, Miquel Àngel va crear un efecte colorista força diferent del dels pintors flamencs de l’època. L’escola flamenca usava la tècnica a l’oli oposada, d’il·luminar des de la brillantor fins els tons més obscurs del pigment. L’efecte colorista de Miquel Àngel s’anomena cangianti[8] i és típic del seu estil pictòric i prefigura la seva tècnica a la Capella Sixtina. Els plecs de les robes estan fortament modelats, i la pell dels personatges és tan suau, que sembla com si fos de marbre. El tractament superficial de les figures s’assembla a una escultura més que a una pintura. Les figures nues del fons tenen el modelatge més suau i l’aspecte de ser precursors dels ignudi, els nus masculins en els frescos del sostre de la Sixtina. La forma d’aplicar el pigment crea un efecte de «fora de focus» (desenfocat) en el fons i de detall enfocat a primer pla. El color més vibrant es troba en les peces de vestir de la Mare de Déu el que significa la seva importància dins del conjunt. La masculinitat de Maria podria explicar-se per l’ús de Miquel Àngel de models masculins de figures femenines, com es va fer per a la Capella Sixtina.

Criden l’atenció les imatges tractades com a escultures dintre d’una disposició circular de 120 cm de diàmetre i amb una composició en forma piramidal de les tres figures principals. La base de la línia triangular és la marcada per les cames de la Mare de Déu de genolls, que té el cap girat cap a la dreta, on es troba el Nen sostingut per sant Josep, amb el cos inclinat cap a l’esquerra; aquesta part superior de la pintura, juntament amb la línia que marquen els braços, denota un moviment en forma d’espiral.

L’articulació de l’espai i dels volums, la tensió i el moviment són forts elements anticlàssics. Les figures monumentals semblen estar esculpides amb pintura en lloc de marbre, el seu mitjà preferit, i d’aquesta manera sembla que tenen un autèntic pes.

Per tot plegat, es considera el punt de partida del manierisme.

Anàlisis

S’han anat comentant els diversos problemes que presenta la interpretació d’alguns elements d’aquest tondo: la pròpia disposició de la Sagrada Família, molt allunyada d’altres models iconogràfics, el fet que la Marededéu estigui rebent o donant el Nen a sant Josep, el significat dels cinc ignudi, així com el dels cinc caps del marc, la relació entre el primer terme i els ignudi… Davant d’aquests interrogants, com s’han anat construint les diferents interpretacions del conjunt i per a les diverses parts de l’obra?

Des d’un punt de vista formalista, Heinrich Wölfflin considera el tondo com una reacció de Miquel Àngel al cartró, perdut, de Leonardo per a la pintura de Santa Anna,la Verge i el Nen exposat a l’església de l’Annunziata,a Florència, el1501. Suggereix que el tondo podria veure’s com una peça de la competició(en la qual Sant Josep substituiria a Santa Anna), destinat a desenvolupar el màxim moviment en un espai força reduït, una pintura el significat real de la qual radicava en la seva concentrada plasticitat[9]. Aquest enfrontament entre Miquel Àngel i Leonardo també és recollit per Sydney Freedberg[10] que analitza la pintura com l’intent de Miquel Àngel per a millorar l’estructura clàssica de Leonardo mitjançant els seus propis termes escultòrics (intens modelat, unió de les parts com si fossin peces interdependents d’una mateixa massa de pedra, ús del color a l’estil de Ghirlandaio)[11].

Miquel_Angel_Tondo6Miquel Àngel: Vierge à l’Enfant et sainte Anne, un homme nu, une tête de profil, cap el 1504-1505. Dibuix, ploma i tinta, estilet. 325 x 260 cm. Musée du Louvre, París.

Charles de Tolnay va destacar l’extraordinària claredat del modelat i la força dels contorns vermells perfilats de les parts nues, donant la impressió de plasticitat escultòrica. També comenta la nova manera d’il·luminar, tant la falta d’atmosfera envoltant com la llum difusa i la presència de taques de llum que emfasitzen l’engruiximent de les formes, produint l’efecte de marbre polit[12]. Interpreta el contingut religiós del tondo com una síntesi global de l’evolució espiritual de la humanitat, com la successió de les diverses èpoques de la història de l’home: els ignudi representarien la civilització pagana anterior a la instauració de la llei divina (ante legem), habitat pels joves efebs de la paret, el món sublege o de l’era mosaica (de Moisès) estaria representat per Maria i Josep, que personifiquen a la humanitat de l’època hebraica, i el món sub gratia, l’era de la redempció, que simbolitza la Humanitat protegida per la Gràcia divina, personificada per l’encarnació de Jesús,aixecat per damunt de tot[13]. Sant Joan nen seria l’element de transició i unió entre les tres edats. A partir d’aquesta lectura de Tolnay de Crist com un atleta olímpic, Colin Eisler[14] interpreta tan ta Crist com a la Marededéu com els atletes victoriosos de la virtut.

Aquesta interpretació s’estén també als caps esculpits sobre el marc original: dues sibil·les (representant l’edat pagana), dos profetes (representant l’edat mosaica) i el cap de Crist (representant l’era de la redempció), amb frisos intermedis d’animals, màscares de sàtirs i l’emblema dels Strozzi.

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Paul Barolsky[15], basant-se en el text de Vasari, considera el Tondo Doni com una imatge devocional. Maria i Josep semblen presentar al Nen a l’espectador: Crist es presenta en el quadre com un regal. Aquesta composició de presentació podria estar referint-se al nom del comitent de la peça, Doni, en italià «regals», i ajuda a fonamentar la tesi que fos ell qui el va encarregar. Basant-se en aquesta metàfora de Crist com a regal, la participació de Maria en la pintura estaria relacionada amb l’elevació de la hòstia durant la missa.

Roberta Olson[16] posa en relació el Tondo Doni amb la importància de la família i amb l’esperança dels Doni cara a tenir fills: representaria el desig del comitent de tenir un fill com a producte del bon matrimoni exemplificat per la Sagrada Família. Per això en la pintura s’hi veu l’acció recíproca entre Josep i Maria en relació al Fill, i considera que Miquel Àngel assigna molta importància a Josep a través dels colors de la roba: groc, que indica l’aspecte diví de la família, així com la veritat, i porpra, pel llinatge provinent de la Casa de David.

Per la seva banda, Leo Steinberg [17]va subratllar la posició de Maria entre les cames de Josep com a inquietantment propera, tenint present la convenció visual clàssica d’associar aquesta relació espacial entre els adults amb l’acoblament amorós. I va intentar salvar la virginitat de Maria,reinterpretant Josep com a Déu Pare (valent-se de la comparació de Bernardino da Feltre de Josep com a representant de Déu a la terra) i el seu «matrimoni» comuna unió còsmica de la Mare de Déu de la Humilitat com a deessa de la terra amb el déu del cel.

Mirella D’Ancona [18] considera que la imatge reflecteix la visió de Miquel Àngel sobre les funcions dels membres de la Sagrada Família en la salvació de l’home i de la immortalitat de l’ ànima. El Tondo Doni mostraria a Crist en el moment de la seva encarnació, sortint del cos de la Mare de Déu per aprendre la forma humana, empenyent cap amunt amb la seva cama dreta, emergint de l’esquena de Maria, i el gest de l’infant seria una benedicció amb la qual Maria esdevindria immaculada.

Formula aquesta interpretació a partir de l’observació que la ubicació de la Marededéu i la seva emfasització haurien de respondre al seu paper en la salvació de l’home. Ella és la mare de Crist i la millor intercessora davant d’ell. Miguel Ángel, que havia estat fortament influenciat pel dominic Fra Girolamo Savonarola a Florència, estaria utilitzant la pintura per a defensar el punt de vista dels maculistes[19], una filosofia de l’orde dels dominics que rebutja la idea de la Immaculada Concepció de Maria. La concepció dels maculistes és que la Marededéu no va rebre la seva santificació en néixer, sinó en el moment de l’encarnació de Crist, de manera que la imatge representa el moment de la santificació de Maria, mostrant al Nen Jesús beneint-la. Per això el nen està representat com si estigués emergint de les espatlles de Maria per a prendre forma humana, formant part de Maria, però al mateix temps afirmant la seva superioritat sobre ella.

D’ altra banda, argumenta que els nus s’han d’interpretar com a pecadors que tenen treta la roba per a la neteja i la purificació per mitjà del baptisme. Per tant, l’aigua, que separa els pecadors de la Sagrada Família, més enllà de la franja horitzontal de la balustrada, es pot veure com les «aigües de separació» que s’esmenten en la Bíblia. També sosté que les cinc figures poden representar les cinc parts de l’ànima: l’ànima superior (ànima i l’intel·lecte) a l’esquerra i l’ànima inferior (la imaginació, la sensibilitat i la facultat nutritiva) a la dreta, una representació visual dels punts de vista de Marsilio Ficino, que Miquel Àngel referencia en altres obres. Suggereix també que les dues figures a la dreta de Maria representen la naturalesa humana i divina de Crist, mentre que els tres de l’esquerra representen la Trinitat. Connecta, doncs, el signudi amb la Sagrada Família a través de les al·legories neoplatòniques formulades en la Teologia platònica i en el Comentari sobre el Simposi de Ficino [20].

Andrée Hayum [21] contextualitza la pintura en la societat florentina de l’època, recordant que tondos com La Madonna de la Humilitat de Luca Signorelli eren originalment pintats per a adornar els palaus florentins. El 31 gener del 1504 Agnolo Doni, de 31 anys, es casava amb Maddalena di Giovanni Strozzi, de quinze anys. El 1503 i 1504 Agnolo també havia començat la renovació del palau familiar al Corso dels Tintori prop de la Santa Croce, un barri de classe obrera dels teixidors i tintorers de la llana, on Miguel Ángel s’havia criat [22]. Se sol datar el tondo en els primers anys del matrimoni de Doni, associant-lo, com hem vist, ja sigui amb l’esdeveniment en si, o amb l’esperança de la parella de tenir fills [23]. Descendent d’una antiga família popolano de teixidors de la llana, Agnolo passava, amb aquest matrimoni, a estar connectat amb una de les famílies més il·lustres de Florènci a[24]. Hayum interpreta la destacada presència de Sant Josep en el tondo de la Madonna de la Humilitat, tant en termes religiosos com socials. D’una banda, subratlla la creixent elevació de l’estatus teològic de Josep durant el segle XV, d’una altra les paraules de lloança per al pare de família com s’esdevé en el tractat Della Famiglia de Leon Battista Alberti[25].

Regina Stefaniak [26], prosseguint la línia de Hayum, considera que el Tondo Doni és una manifestació florentina del sagrament del matrimoni segons l’epístola als Efesis del Nou Testament: «Que les mullers se subjectin als propis marits, com al Senyor, perquè el marit és el cap de la muller, com el Crist és el cap de l’Església, el seu cos, del qual és també salvador. Ara bé: així com l’Església se subjecta al Crist, també les mullers s’han de subjectar als marits en tot. (…) Per això l’espòs deixarà el pare i la mare i s’ajuntarà a la seva esposa, i seran una sola carn.» (Epístola als Efesis 5, 22-31). Ho anomena l’enigma famós que considera que es pot desvetllar en termes dels dos aspectes del sagrament cristià del matrimoni: la unió en una sola carn de marit i muller i la unió espiritual entre Crist i una ànima humana individual.

Seguint la teologia del segle XV, Miguel Ángel retrata Maria com una dona humil dominada i posseïda pel seu viril guardià Josep, la parella unida com si fossin «dos en una sola carn». Per a compensar el seu parentiu simbòlic, el pintor li atorga el paper de model de virginitat, una musculosa «mulierem fortis»: «De dona ideal, qui en pogués trobar! Val incomparablement més que cap perla. El cor del seu marit confia en ella, i no deixa de treure’n profit» (Proverbis, 31:10). Miguel Ángel, doncs, tenint presents les necessitats polítiques i socials de la nova república florentina, pren com a punt de partida dues importants representacions de la feminitat, que pel que sembla el van impressionar negativament (la Judit de Donatello i Santa Anna, la Verge i el Nen de Leonardo), i s’hi oposa mostrant a Maria com a mulier fortis (dona forta), l’esposa ideal dominada i posseïda pel seu marit, i ho fa amb la introducció d’una temuda dona masculinitzada en el grup familiar, però intenta conciliar la Marededéu amb el seu paper d’abnegació a través d’una neoplatònica mistificació de la seva relació amb Crist en termes de possessió divina a través dels comentaris de Ficino i Sant Pau. I en aquest procés de remodelació de la Sagrada Família com un ideal per a la societat florentina republicana, el jove Miquel Àngel refà i ennobleix tant al patró com a ell mateix com a pintor en el seu estil escultòric recentment inventat, l’aspro stile [27].

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Bibliografia

Stefaniak, Regina (2008). Mysterium Magnum: Michelangelo’s Tondo Doni.  Brill Academic Pub. 159 pàgs.

Fossi, Gloria (1998). Michelangelo. Il Tondo Doni. Florència. Giunti. 33 pàgs.

Tondo Doni – Michelangel, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8ScQ3qWldE,   https://www.pinterest.com/pin/549720698242011124/,                                    http://vidooly.com/video/4HWAF63n-Zk

Firenze. Galleria degli UffizI. Spostato il tondo Doni di Michelangelo, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrI_83vUv7I

“Tondo Doni” di Michelangelo, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WuinMoyzBCk

Tondo Doni carved frames, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CppEPy3ing8

[1] Tondo: composició pictòrica que està realitzada en forma de disc, i no en rectangle com és tradicional. El terme prové de l’italià rotondo, rodó.

[2] Es va trobar el 14 de gener del 1508 a l’emplaçament Esquilí, a la Domus Aurea de Neró a Roma. Va ser l’arquitecte Giuliano da Sangallo qui va identificar l’escultura com la descrita per l’autor romà Plini el Vell, en la seva enciclopèdica Història Natural. En ella va deixar escrits uns comentaris laudatoris en relació a l’obra que va veure en el palau de l’emperador Titus cap a l’any 70:

«Ha de ser situada per davant de totes, no només de l’art de l’estatuària sinó també del de la pintura. Fou esculpida en un únic bloc de marbre pels excel·lents artistes de Rodes Agesandre, Polimdor i Atenodor i representa Laocoont, els seus fills i les serps admirablement enroscades».

Va ser adquirida pel papa Juli II i actualment es troba en un nínxol del jardí del Palau Belvedere que ara forma part dels Museus Vaticans.

[3] Giorgio Vasari (2002). Las Vidas de los más excelentes arquitectos, pintores y escultores italianos desde Cimabue a nuestros tiempos. Madrid. Cátedra. 2ª ed. pàg.748.

[4] Ibidem, pàg. 748.

[5] Aquests ignudi han estat interpretats, entre d’altres coses, com a pastors, com a gent a l’espera del baptisme, com els atletes de l’Església, com a àngels sense ales que sostenen el sudari de Crist, com els cinc grans profetes de l’Antic Testament, com les diverses edats l’home.

[6] «El just florirà com la palmera; creixerà com cedre en el Líban». Salm 92:12. El cedre també simbolitza la Saviesa divina (Eclesiàstic 24:17) i s’interpreta com emblema de l’eternitat de Déu.

[7] «Va tractar de les plantes, des del cedre del Líban fins a l’hisop que creix a les parets». 1 Re 5:13.

[8] Que canvia el color quan canvien la direcció dels raigs lluminosos i l’angle des del qual s’observa l’obra.
[9] Wölfflin, Heinrich (1994). Classic art: An Introduction to the Italian Renaissance. Nova York. Phaidon Press. 5ª impr. pàgs. 44-45.

[10] Freedberg, Sydney J. (1983). Pintura en Italia, 1500-1600. Madrid. Cátedra. (Col. Manuales arte Cátedra, 4). 3ª ed. 760 pàgs.

[11] Ibidem, pàgs.34-35.

[12] Tolnay, Charles de (1969). The Youth of Michelangelo. Nova Jersey. Princeton University Press. Pàgs. 110, 163-168.

[13] Ibidem, pàg. 165.

[14] Ibidem, pàg. 110.

Veure també Eisler, Colin (1960): «The Athlete of Virtue: The Iconography of ascetism». De Artibus Opuscula, XL, Essays in Honor of erwin Panofsky. Zuric. Millard Meiss. Pàgs. 82-84.

[15] Barolsky, Paul (2003). «Michelangelo’s Doni Tondo and the Worshipful Beholder». Notes in the History of Art 22 (3): pàgs. 8–11. En línia a http://www.jstor.org/stable/23206720.

[16]Olson, Roberta J.M. (2000). «Painted Devotional Tondo: Michelangleo Buonarotti’s Doni Tondo». The Florentine Tondo. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 219–226.

[17] Leo Steinberg (1970). «The Metaphors of Love and Birth in Michelangelo’s Pietàs». Studies in Erotic Art. New York: Basic Books 1970, pàgs. 231-284. 263 En línia a http://projects.ecfs.org/fieldston272/Readings/SteinbergMichelPietas.pdf.

[18] D’Ancona, Mirella Levi: «The Doni Madonna by Michelangelo: An Iconographic Study». The Art Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Mar., 1968), pàgs. 43-50. En línia a http://www.jstor.org/stable/3048510.

[19] El problema teològic es pot resumir amb la següent pregunta: la mare de déu té el pecat original o és immaculada des de sempre? Si té el pecat original, com podia infantar a Crist? O va ser Immaculada des de l’instant de la gestació o del naixement de Jesús?

Per a molts la creença en la Immaculada Concepció de Maria era una llegenda sense fonament i sense raó de ser . Al segle XII es va establir la seva festa el 8 de desembre, data no casual, ja que resulta ser 9 mesos abans de la festa de la Nativitat de Maria ( 8 de setembre). En aquest debat hi va intervenir Tomàs d’Aquino defensor de la doctrina santificatio in utero, que absolia però no lliurava a Maria del pecat original . Aquesta teoria va ser defensada pels dominics. Duns Scoto, per contra, assumeix la defensa de la Immaculada Concepció, és a dir, que la Marededéu havia estat preservada del pecat des del mateix instant de la seva concepció. Seran els franciscans els que defensaran aquesta postura durant molt de temps. En el fons, doncs, és un altre episodi de la lluita entre dominics i franciscans (lluita que, en part, venia donada pel control de la Inquisició). Al segle XVIe el potent orde jesuïta s’aliarà del costat immaculista i al costat dels franciscans i faran front comú contra els dominics. El conflicte entre partidaris i detractors va persistir durant els segles XIV i XV, en el qual Roma es va mantenir al marge, fins que Sixt IV (franciscà) , va publicar la constitució Cum praeexcelsa , establint un ofici i una missa de la festivitat (1477) però no es va definir un dogma com a tal. El Renaixement no va fer sinó augmentar les polèmiques. Luter i els reformadors protestants es van manifestar totalment en contra de la definició de la Immaculada Concepció i, de retruc, al costat catòlic va triomfar l’afirmació immaculista. El Concili de Trento crearà tota una nova teologia, que si bé està basada en la pròpia tradició catòlica, serà una teologia i una doctrina oposades als protestants. Però entre els catòlics seguia la discussió. Pius V, dominic, el 1570, es va veure obligat a prohibir els aldarulls en els sermons sobre la qüestió immaculista. El dogma de la Immaculada Concepció, també conegut com a Puríssima Concepció, afirma que Maria, mare de Jesús, a diferència de tots els altres éssers humans, va estar exempta del pecat original i, per tant, des del primer instant de la seva concepció, va estar lliure de tot pecat. Aquest concepte va ser afirmat com a dogma pel papa Pius IX el 8 de desembre de 1854 en la butlla Ineffabilis Deus.

[20] Blanckenhagen, Peter H. von (1976). Die Ignudi der Madonna Doni. Tübingen. Wasmuth. Pàgs. 205-214.

[21]Hayum, Andrée: «Michelangelo’s Doni Tondo: Holy Family and Family Myth». Renaissance Quarterly (Renaissance Society of America). 33, (Spring 1980) No. 1 (1). Pàgs. 209–249.

[22] Ibidem, pàgs 210-211.

[23] Hartt, Frederick (2010). History of Italian Renaissance Art. Londres. Pearson. 7ª ed. Pàg. 466.

[24] Hayum, Andrée, pàg. 211.

[25] Hayum, Andrée, pàg. 213-221.

[26] Regina Stefaniak (2008). Mysterium Magnum: Michelangelo’s Tondo Doni. Leiden. Brill Academic Pub. 159 pàgs.

[27] En Dante, hi ha una distinció entre el dolce stil nuovo (per a passatges amorosos i lírics) i el stile aspro (per a temes polítics).

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

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  92. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  93. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  94. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  95. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  96. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  97. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  98. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  99. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  157. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  158. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  167. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  168. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  169. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  170. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  171. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  172. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  173. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  174. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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  198. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  202. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  203. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  205. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  206. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  207. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

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