Art

Rafael: Madonna del cardellino

Rafael_cadernera1

Rafael (1483-1520): Madonna del cardellino,cap a 1506. Oli sobre taula. 107 x 77 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. Encàrrec: Lorenzo Nasi.

Plantejament de preguntes

Sabent que aquesta tela obre la sèrie de les Madones de Rafael durant el seu sojorn a Florència, quins elements denoten la influència de Leonardo? Com aquesta marededéu és paradigmàtica dels retaules devocionals privats encarregats a Rafael? Com s’emfatitza més la pietat que la riquesa dels seus patrons?

Fitxa tècnica

Aquesta Marededéu de la cadernera va ser un regal de noces de Rafael al seu amic Lorenzo Nasi, un ric comerciant de teixits de llana, casat amb Sandra Canigiani que pertanyia a l’alta burgesia florentina. El 17 novembre del 1548 la casa de Nasi va quedar destruïda per un terratrèmol, i la pintura es va partir en disset fragments. Llegim a Giorgio Vasari: «Rafael es va fer molt amic de Lorenzo Nasi, que acabava de casar-se i li va demanar que li pintés un quadre de la Marededéu per al seu dormitori; va col·locar entre les seves cames un nen a qui un sant Joan minyonet li passa un ocell per a solaç i joc de tots dos. En els seus gestos hi ha una simplicitat pueril i amorosa, a part d’estar ben acolorits i executats amb una polidíssima diligència, que més semblen, en realitat, de carn i ossos que realitzats amb colors i dibuix, i el mateix es pot dir de la Marededéu, amb un aspecte ple de gràcia i divinitat, del paisatge, de les vestidures i de la resta de l’obra. Lorenzo Nasi va venerar aquesta obra durant tota la seva vida, en memòria dels esforços que havia dedicat Rafael per a realitzar-la amb semblant diligència i art. Però després aquesta obra va acabar malament, quan el dia 9 agost del 1548 casa seva i la dels hereus de Marc del Nero (…) es van destruir juntament amb altres cases veïnes en desplomar-se la muntanya Sant Jordi. Els trossos que van quedar d’aquesta obra, trobats entre la runa, van ser reunits de la millor manera possible per ordre del seu fill Battista»[1]. Va ser restaurada poc després.

Rafael_cadernera2

L’obra abans, durant i després de la restauració (acabada el 2008). Una reflectografia de raigs infrarojos va posar en evidència un dibuix preliminar a escala 1:1, que presenta algunes diferències respecte l’obra acabada: el pont a la dreta és del tot inventat, i a l’esquerra hi havia d’aparèixer una torre i un edifici cilíndric, que en el quadre s’ha transformat en un espai obert, l’escot del vestit de la marededéu no era quadrat i l’orella de Joan Baptista estava en una posició més alta.

Hi ha diverses còpies antigues d’aquesta obra (al Victoria and Albert Museum, i a la sagristia de l’Abadia de Vallombrosa) que palesen el seu èxit.

Descripció

Presenta a dos nens amb una cadernera, símbol de la Crucifixió i del sacrifici de Crist per la humanitat[2]. El fet de presentar els dos nens petits, i no recent nascuts, és per emfasitzar l’aspecte maternal de la seva funció, per a donar una imatge amb la que es poguessin identificar els membres d’una família. La finalitat no és, doncs, estètica, sinó pietosa: ha d’inspirar devoció i pregària.

Els personatges estan immersos en un paisatge fluvial l’horitzó del qual és particularment elevat, esquitxat d’arbustos, amb un pont a l’esquerra.

La composició fluïda de forma piramidal mostra els protagonistes relacionats pel creuament de les mirades i els gestos, cosa que palesa una clara influència dels models de Leonardo, però se’n distancia mitjançant la substitució de la sensació de misteri i la càrrega d’il·lusions i suggeriments per una sensació de calma i una familiaritat espontània. En lloc dels moviments de l’ànima, Rafael opta per una representació de l’afecte que no deixa lloc a la tradicional melangia de la Marededéu que preveu el destí tràgic del seu fill.

Maria té les cames i el pit que efectuen una rotació cap a la dreta, mentre que amb el cap i la mirada, observa la part inferior dreta on està ubicada l’acció dels dos nens, i sosté a la mà esquerra un llibre (d’aquí prové l’epítet de Seu de Saviesa) que sembla que ha deixat de llegir per tal de mirar amb tendresa els dos nens. És un tema típic de la Madonna leggente.

Anàlisis

En aquesta pintura, com en la major part de les marededéus del seu període florentí, Rafael va col·locar les tres figures –la Marededéu, el Nen Jesús (a la dreta) i sant Joan– dins d’un dibuix geomètric. Encara que les posicions dels tres cossos siguin naturals, junts formen un triangle pràcticament regular.

Els colors vermell i blau també són típics: el vermell representa la passió de Crist i el blau s’utilitza per a simbolitzar l’església. La cadernera és un símbol de la futura mort violenta de Crist. Sant Joan ofereix la cadernera a Crist com a premonició del seu futur.

La humanitat de l’escena està reforçada per la representació realista de les diferents textures de la carn, el cabell i la matèria en lloc de fer-ho en els detalls de l’ambientació. A diferència de les imatges de la marededéu i el nen del segle XV, no hi trobem les complexes composicions sovint emmarcades per estructures arquitectòniques, sinó que l’escena té lloc en el marc d’un paisatge evocador.

La influència leonardesca s’evidencia en molts trets de l’obra, com l’estructura piramidal i el clarobscur. També es nota en la foscor del terreny i en el tractament atmosfèric del paisatge del fons, que es perd en les boires de l’horitzó. Els rostres del Baptista i de Crist tenen una empremta inconfusiblement leonardesca en l’esfumat que els envolta i en els trets fisonòmics. En el modelat de les figures, per contra, s’hi veu la influència de Miquel Àngel, per exemple en els genolls de la Marededéu, prominents i voluminosos.

Bibliografia

La Madonna del cardellino restored, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP97HxbmKSU

Madonna del Cardellino dipinto di Raffaello Sanzio 1506 Rinascimento, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvmZ2jSwMpM

Gianna Nannini Incontra Raffaello, https://www.youtube.com/watch?hl=it&gl=IT&v=pN1y8ak34U0

La madonna del jilguero de Rafael, http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/programa/acaban-restauracion-madonna-del-jilguero-rafael/136553/

Marco Ciatti, Antonio Natali, Patrizia Riitano (2008). L’amore, l’arte e la grazia: Raffaello : la Madonna del Cardellino restaurata. Mandragora. 93 pàgs.

Roger Jones, ‎Nicholas Penny (1987). Raphael. New Haven. Yale University Press. Pàgs. 32-38

Perla Gianni Falvo (2013). «La Madonna del Cardellino di Raffaello Sanzio Realizzazione del filmato del restauro in alta definizione». Storicamente. Rivista del Dipartimento di Storia Culture Civiltà Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Art. No. 22, Issue No 9. http://storicamente.org/sites/default/images/articles/media/1767/gianni1.pdf

Valeria Ronzani (2007). «Restauri e polemiche, en attendant la Madonna del cardellino», Il sole 24 ore, 6 octubre del 2007. http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/SoleOnLine4/Tempo%20libero%20e%20Cultura/2007/10/opificio-ronzani.shtml?uuid=5ceb1b0a-726a-11dc-8c1b-00000e25108c

[1]Vasari, obr. cit., pàg. 523.

[2] La llegenda explica que el punt vermell de la cadernera li va aparèixer en el moment de la Crucifixió de Crist: volava vora el cap de Crist per agafar-li una espina de la corona, quan va ser esquitxada per una gota de sang.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

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  34. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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