Art

Rafael: Madonna del cardellino

Rafael_cadernera1

Rafael (1483-1520): Madonna del cardellino,cap a 1506. Oli sobre taula. 107 x 77 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència. Encàrrec: Lorenzo Nasi.

Plantejament de preguntes

Sabent que aquesta tela obre la sèrie de les Madones de Rafael durant el seu sojorn a Florència, quins elements denoten la influència de Leonardo? Com aquesta marededéu és paradigmàtica dels retaules devocionals privats encarregats a Rafael? Com s’emfatitza més la pietat que la riquesa dels seus patrons?

Fitxa tècnica

Aquesta Marededéu de la cadernera va ser un regal de noces de Rafael al seu amic Lorenzo Nasi, un ric comerciant de teixits de llana, casat amb Sandra Canigiani que pertanyia a l’alta burgesia florentina. El 17 novembre del 1548 la casa de Nasi va quedar destruïda per un terratrèmol, i la pintura es va partir en disset fragments. Llegim a Giorgio Vasari: «Rafael es va fer molt amic de Lorenzo Nasi, que acabava de casar-se i li va demanar que li pintés un quadre de la Marededéu per al seu dormitori; va col·locar entre les seves cames un nen a qui un sant Joan minyonet li passa un ocell per a solaç i joc de tots dos. En els seus gestos hi ha una simplicitat pueril i amorosa, a part d’estar ben acolorits i executats amb una polidíssima diligència, que més semblen, en realitat, de carn i ossos que realitzats amb colors i dibuix, i el mateix es pot dir de la Marededéu, amb un aspecte ple de gràcia i divinitat, del paisatge, de les vestidures i de la resta de l’obra. Lorenzo Nasi va venerar aquesta obra durant tota la seva vida, en memòria dels esforços que havia dedicat Rafael per a realitzar-la amb semblant diligència i art. Però després aquesta obra va acabar malament, quan el dia 9 agost del 1548 casa seva i la dels hereus de Marc del Nero (…) es van destruir juntament amb altres cases veïnes en desplomar-se la muntanya Sant Jordi. Els trossos que van quedar d’aquesta obra, trobats entre la runa, van ser reunits de la millor manera possible per ordre del seu fill Battista»[1]. Va ser restaurada poc després.

Rafael_cadernera2

L’obra abans, durant i després de la restauració (acabada el 2008). Una reflectografia de raigs infrarojos va posar en evidència un dibuix preliminar a escala 1:1, que presenta algunes diferències respecte l’obra acabada: el pont a la dreta és del tot inventat, i a l’esquerra hi havia d’aparèixer una torre i un edifici cilíndric, que en el quadre s’ha transformat en un espai obert, l’escot del vestit de la marededéu no era quadrat i l’orella de Joan Baptista estava en una posició més alta.

Hi ha diverses còpies antigues d’aquesta obra (al Victoria and Albert Museum, i a la sagristia de l’Abadia de Vallombrosa) que palesen el seu èxit.

Descripció

Presenta a dos nens amb una cadernera, símbol de la Crucifixió i del sacrifici de Crist per la humanitat[2]. El fet de presentar els dos nens petits, i no recent nascuts, és per emfasitzar l’aspecte maternal de la seva funció, per a donar una imatge amb la que es poguessin identificar els membres d’una família. La finalitat no és, doncs, estètica, sinó pietosa: ha d’inspirar devoció i pregària.

Els personatges estan immersos en un paisatge fluvial l’horitzó del qual és particularment elevat, esquitxat d’arbustos, amb un pont a l’esquerra.

La composició fluïda de forma piramidal mostra els protagonistes relacionats pel creuament de les mirades i els gestos, cosa que palesa una clara influència dels models de Leonardo, però se’n distancia mitjançant la substitució de la sensació de misteri i la càrrega d’il·lusions i suggeriments per una sensació de calma i una familiaritat espontània. En lloc dels moviments de l’ànima, Rafael opta per una representació de l’afecte que no deixa lloc a la tradicional melangia de la Marededéu que preveu el destí tràgic del seu fill.

Maria té les cames i el pit que efectuen una rotació cap a la dreta, mentre que amb el cap i la mirada, observa la part inferior dreta on està ubicada l’acció dels dos nens, i sosté a la mà esquerra un llibre (d’aquí prové l’epítet de Seu de Saviesa) que sembla que ha deixat de llegir per tal de mirar amb tendresa els dos nens. És un tema típic de la Madonna leggente.

Anàlisis

En aquesta pintura, com en la major part de les marededéus del seu període florentí, Rafael va col·locar les tres figures –la Marededéu, el Nen Jesús (a la dreta) i sant Joan– dins d’un dibuix geomètric. Encara que les posicions dels tres cossos siguin naturals, junts formen un triangle pràcticament regular.

Els colors vermell i blau també són típics: el vermell representa la passió de Crist i el blau s’utilitza per a simbolitzar l’església. La cadernera és un símbol de la futura mort violenta de Crist. Sant Joan ofereix la cadernera a Crist com a premonició del seu futur.

La humanitat de l’escena està reforçada per la representació realista de les diferents textures de la carn, el cabell i la matèria en lloc de fer-ho en els detalls de l’ambientació. A diferència de les imatges de la marededéu i el nen del segle XV, no hi trobem les complexes composicions sovint emmarcades per estructures arquitectòniques, sinó que l’escena té lloc en el marc d’un paisatge evocador.

La influència leonardesca s’evidencia en molts trets de l’obra, com l’estructura piramidal i el clarobscur. També es nota en la foscor del terreny i en el tractament atmosfèric del paisatge del fons, que es perd en les boires de l’horitzó. Els rostres del Baptista i de Crist tenen una empremta inconfusiblement leonardesca en l’esfumat que els envolta i en els trets fisonòmics. En el modelat de les figures, per contra, s’hi veu la influència de Miquel Àngel, per exemple en els genolls de la Marededéu, prominents i voluminosos.

Bibliografia

La Madonna del cardellino restored, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP97HxbmKSU

Madonna del Cardellino dipinto di Raffaello Sanzio 1506 Rinascimento, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvmZ2jSwMpM

Gianna Nannini Incontra Raffaello, https://www.youtube.com/watch?hl=it&gl=IT&v=pN1y8ak34U0

La madonna del jilguero de Rafael, http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/programa/acaban-restauracion-madonna-del-jilguero-rafael/136553/

Marco Ciatti, Antonio Natali, Patrizia Riitano (2008). L’amore, l’arte e la grazia: Raffaello : la Madonna del Cardellino restaurata. Mandragora. 93 pàgs.

Roger Jones, ‎Nicholas Penny (1987). Raphael. New Haven. Yale University Press. Pàgs. 32-38

Perla Gianni Falvo (2013). «La Madonna del Cardellino di Raffaello Sanzio Realizzazione del filmato del restauro in alta definizione». Storicamente. Rivista del Dipartimento di Storia Culture Civiltà Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Art. No. 22, Issue No 9. http://storicamente.org/sites/default/images/articles/media/1767/gianni1.pdf

Valeria Ronzani (2007). «Restauri e polemiche, en attendant la Madonna del cardellino», Il sole 24 ore, 6 octubre del 2007. http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/SoleOnLine4/Tempo%20libero%20e%20Cultura/2007/10/opificio-ronzani.shtml?uuid=5ceb1b0a-726a-11dc-8c1b-00000e25108c

[1]Vasari, obr. cit., pàg. 523.

[2] La llegenda explica que el punt vermell de la cadernera li va aparèixer en el moment de la Crucifixió de Crist: volava vora el cap de Crist per agafar-li una espina de la corona, quan va ser esquitxada per una gota de sang.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino

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  81. Interesting blog post. What I would like to bring up is that pc memory should be purchased should your computer can’t cope with what you do with it. One can put in two good old ram boards of 1GB each, by way of example, but not certainly one of 1GB and one with 2GB. One should check the maker’s documentation for own PC to make certain what type of ram it can take.

  82. Thanks for the ideas you have contributed here. Something else I would like to express is that laptop memory needs generally rise along with other advances in the know-how. For instance, if new generations of processors are introduced to the market, there is usually an equivalent increase in the type preferences of both the pc memory and also hard drive space. This is because the application operated by these processors will inevitably rise in power to make use of the new know-how.

  83. Things i have seen in terms of personal computer memory is the fact that there are technical specs such as SDRAM, DDR or anything else, that must fit the specs of the mother board. If the personal computer’s motherboard is rather current and there are no computer OS issues, modernizing the memory literally takes under one hour. It’s among the easiest computer system upgrade methods one can picture. Thanks for spreading your ideas.

  84. One thing I would really like to say is the fact before acquiring more computer system memory, consider the machine into which it could well be installed. If the machine is definitely running Windows XP, for instance, the particular memory limit is 3.25GB. Applying in excess of this would simply constitute a new waste. Make sure that one’s motherboard can handle the particular upgrade quantity, as well. Thanks for your blog post.

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  89. I have seen plenty of useful factors on your website about pcs. However, I’ve the opinion that lap tops are still more or less not powerful enough to be a good choice if you typically do jobs that require lots of power, for example video modifying. But for world-wide-web surfing, microsoft word processing, and the majority of other prevalent computer work they are just fine, provided you do not mind the tiny screen size. Appreciate sharing your opinions.

  90. Thanks for making me to attain new thoughts about pc’s. I also contain the belief that certain of the best ways to keep your notebook in primary condition is to use a hard plastic-type material case, or perhaps shell, which fits over the top of the computer. These kinds of protective gear will be model unique since they are manufactured to fit perfectly across the natural casing. You can buy them directly from the owner, or from third party places if they are intended for your mobile computer, however only a few laptop will have a shell on the market. Once again, thanks for your tips.

  91. A few things i have observed in terms of laptop memory is the fact that there are specs such as SDRAM, DDR and many others, that must go with the features of the motherboard. If the computer’s motherboard is kind of current while there are no main system issues, upgrading the memory literally takes under sixty minutes. It’s one of many easiest pc upgrade processes one can visualize. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

  92. I have learned some new things through your weblog. One other thing I would really like to say is that newer laptop operating systems are inclined to allow far more memory for use, but they additionally demand more memory space simply to perform. If people’s computer could not handle extra memory plus the newest software requires that storage increase, it might be the time to shop for a new Computer system. Thanks

  93. What I have observed in terms of laptop memory is there are specific features such as SDRAM, DDR and so forth, that must go with the specifications of the motherboard. If the personal computer’s motherboard is fairly current while there are no main system issues, updating the ram literally takes under one hour. It’s one of the easiest computer system upgrade types of procedures one can visualize. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

  94. The things i have observed in terms of computer system memory is that there are technical specs such as SDRAM, DDR and the like, that must fit in with the features of the mother board. If the pc’s motherboard is kind of current while there are no main system issues, upgrading the memory literally takes under one hour. It’s one of many easiest personal computer upgrade treatments one can think about. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

  95. Thanks for the recommendations you have provided here. Something important I would like to say is that computer system memory requirements generally rise along with other breakthroughs in the technologies. For instance, when new generations of processor chips are made in the market, there is usually a corresponding increase in the scale calls for of both laptop or computer memory and hard drive room. This is because the software program operated by way of these processors will inevitably surge in power to make new engineering.

  96. What I have observed in terms of personal computer memory is always that there are requirements such as SDRAM, DDR and many others, that must go with the specific features of the motherboard. If the personal computer’s motherboard is pretty current while there are no os issues, modernizing the ram literally normally takes under one hour. It’s one of several easiest personal computer upgrade treatments one can visualize. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

  97. I have learned new things through your blog. One other thing I would like to say is always that newer laptop os’s usually allow additional memory to be utilized, but they as well demand more memory simply to work. If people’s computer is not able to handle more memory as well as the newest computer software requires that memory increase, it could be the time to shop for a new Laptop. Thanks

  98. I have learned some new items from your web site about computer systems. Another thing I have always believed is that computer systems have become a specific thing that each family must have for a lot of reasons. They supply you with convenient ways to organize households, pay bills, search for information, study, listen to music and in many cases watch tv shows. An innovative way to complete these tasks is a laptop. These computers are mobile, small, strong and convenient.

  99. Thanks for the guidelines you have contributed here. One more thing I would like to express is that computer system memory needs generally increase along with other breakthroughs in the technological innovation. For instance, when new generations of processor chips are brought to the market, there is certainly usually a corresponding increase in the shape calls for of all pc memory as well as hard drive room. This is because the software operated by way of these processor chips will inevitably increase in power to use the new technology.

  100. Thanks for the suggestions you have contributed here. Something else I would like to express is that laptop or computer memory needs generally rise along with other developments in the technological know-how. For instance, if new generations of processor chips are brought to the market, there is certainly usually a similar increase in the shape preferences of all pc memory along with hard drive space. This is because the application operated simply by these cpus will inevitably increase in power to benefit from the new technological know-how.

  101. Great blog post. A few things i would like to add is that computer system memory is required to be purchased in case your computer still cannot cope with everything you do with it. One can put in two RAM boards containing 1GB each, in particular, but not certainly one of 1GB and one with 2GB. One should check the maker’s documentation for one’s PC to make certain what type of ram it can take.

  102. Thanks for the suggestions you have discussed here. Another thing I would like to express is that pc memory specifications generally go up along with other innovations in the technology. For instance, if new generations of cpus are brought to the market, there is certainly usually an equivalent increase in the scale demands of both the pc memory along with hard drive space. This is because the software program operated by simply these cpus will inevitably boost in power to make use of the new technology.

  103. Thanks for your blog post. The things i would like to make contributions about is that personal computer memory has to be purchased but if your computer still can’t cope with whatever you do by using it. One can install two good old ram boards containing 1GB each, as an illustration, but not one of 1GB and one having 2GB. One should look for the car maker’s documentation for one’s PC to ensure what type of storage is necessary.

  104. Thanks for enabling me to gain new suggestions about pcs. I also possess the belief that certain of the best ways to keep your notebook computer in leading condition is by using a hard plastic-type material case, or perhaps shell, which fits over the top of the computer. These kind of protective gear will be model targeted since they are made to fit perfectly over the natural outer shell. You can buy all of them directly from owner, or through third party places if they are for your notebook computer, however not all laptop will have a shell on the market. Once again, thanks for your recommendations.

  105. I’ve learned new things via your blog site. One other thing I’d really like to say is the fact that newer computer system operating systems often allow a lot more memory for use, but they also demand more memory space simply to run. If an individual’s computer can not handle more memory plus the newest software package requires that memory space increase, it could be the time to shop for a new Laptop. Thanks

  106. I’ve learned new things as a result of your blog site. One other thing I’d prefer to say is the fact newer computer operating systems are likely to allow additional memory to be used, but they also demand more memory simply to run. If your computer can’t handle a lot more memory along with the newest software program requires that ram increase, it could be the time to shop for a new Computer system. Thanks

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