Art

Cinquecento

 Visió general

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Sovint hom ha considerat el segle XVI com la culminació del classicisme alhora que l’enfonsament de l’home del Renaixement en una crisi profunda, visió que ha influït la historiografia a partir de Vasari. La Reforma i la ciència nova originaren una transformació de tots els valors i determinaren, dins un medi profundament dramàtic i ple de contrasts, una alteració desigual de la cultura figurativa de l’etapa anterior. La crítica moderna assenyala el fet que, si el classicisme representà una concepció unitària del món, hom no pot considerar artistes com Leonardo, Miquel Angel, Tizià, el darrer Rafael…, representants de l’equilibri i la ponderació del classicisme prototípic, ans els grans problemes del segle XVI es troben ja formulats en la seva obra. El Renaixement havia estat una fita que, a penes atesa, era superada pels grans mestres actius a començament del Cinquecento.

Així, doncs, en els darrers anys del segle XV i primers del XVI (fins el 1527 en que Roma fou saquejada per les tropes imperials) es desenvolupa el que sovint hom considera el model de classicisme pel seu equilibri, claredat de la composició i sentit monumental de les formes, placidesa impassible i serena senzillesa. És un món de bellesa, equilibri, grandiositat i ordre; al detallisme del Quattrocento s’hi oposa la recerca de formes severes i monumentals, i una sensació de rigor, plenitud i unitat ho omple tot. Però una anàlisi més profunda fa palès que les citades característiques no es donen en les grans figures, que només de manera convencional podem denominar clàssiques.

A les ciutats ja no són els gremis i l’alta burgesia els qui realitzen les comandes, sinó nuclis molt més tancats de l’aristocràcia. L’art s’«abstreu» («se ensimisma») i es fa capriciós, imaginatiu i estrany; perd la claredat renaixentista i es fa tortuós i difícil d’entendre per la seva càrrega intel·lectualitzada, que tradueix sovint un evident pessimisme. Tot plegat desembocarà en el Manierisme. Només Venècia, que manté el seu predomini econòmic, continua amb un art recolzat en la realitat visible i en la fruïció dels sentits, que per la seva càrrega d’immediata sensualitat serà de gran importància quan, amb el naturalisme barroc, es pretengui tornar a la conformitat amb la realitat.

Des del punt de vista formal, el que es produeix amb el Classicisme és una perfecció i selecció dels elements del llenguatge que permeten que el sistema creat durant el Quattrocento assoleixi uns nivells màxims de regularització i normalització; és ara quan les relacions entre art i ciència arriben al punt més alt. Els anomenats «homes universals» representen la relació interdisciplinar dels coneixement; i de les relacions i equilibri entre teoria i pràctica és d’on es dedueix la nova activitat dels artistes, científics, enginyers i humanistes del Renaixement.

Des del punt de vista teòric, la culminació de la tendència a la unió entre teoria i pràctica es produeix en Leonardo: en ell conflueixen tant el racionalisme de Piero della Francesca, com el neoplatonisme de Botticelli. Aquest equilibri entre idea i pràctica, entre pensament i realització, és la base del Renaixement clàssic.

Un dels instruments essencials que permeten la selecció del llenguatge clàssic és la perspectiva; aquesta es fonamenta en el coneixement exacte dels mecanismes de la visió. La perspectiva és per al classicisme una demostració racional aplicada a considerar com els objectes posats davant de l’ull li transmeten llur pròpia imatge per mitjà de piràmides lineals. La perspectiva és el mètode racionalitzador de la visió. Característic de les obres del classicisme és l’adopció d’un únic punt de vista ideal des d’on abastem tota l’obra. La clau teòrica del nou sistema perspectiu en la dóna Leonardo, que en assenyalar l’existència d’una atmosfera interposada entre l’ull i l’objecte, mostra com es produeixen aquests contorns confusos.

L’estudi de la llum és una de les grans aportacions del classicisme; i és a Venècia on s’introdueixen els principis de la composició tonal i lumínica. L’altra idea en la que culminen diferents teories i pràctiques del XV, és la de proporció. La teoria de les proporcions és, segons Panofsky, el sistema que estableix relacions matemàtiques entre els diversos membres d’un ésser viu, en particular de l’home, en la mesura en què aquests éssers són pensants com objectes d’una representació artística. La filosofia i la cosmologia del Renaixement operaven mitjançant comparacions; per això es va pretendre establir una relació harmònica entre l’home i l’arquitectura i entre aquesta i l’univers. Els principis generals de les matemàtiques i de la geometria estan a la base d’un llenguatge normalitzat que proporciona un fonament racional a les especulacions de teòrics i filòsofs. Així, el Renaixement italià utilitza la teoria de les proporcions com la realització de postulats ideals. La teoria de la proporció està molt lligada a l’estudi del moviment: els moviments del cos alteren les seves dimensions objectives, segons siguin les actituds de les figures i llurs sentiments. Aquesta teoria de la proporció, que té present els diferents moviments del cos humà, ens explica les obres pictòriques i escultòriques de Leonardo on, a la seva perfecta i simètrica ordenació, s’afegeix un gran moviment orgànic que introdueix en l’obra les emocions subjectives de l’artista, sense, però, arribar a un irracionalisme total com esdevindrà en el manierisme. Serà Dürer l’artista que continuarà i desenvoluparà aquests postulats fonamentals del classicisme.

Aquest nou llenguatge classicista es vincula a un nou tipus de societat que, sorgida d’una burgesia comerciant, s’integra a la noblesa en el XVI, i que entén l’art com un dels principals instruments per afirmar el seu prestigi i ennobliment. La noblesa i grandiositat del classicisme era un llenguatge idoni per a la configuració de la seva imatge. El retrat esdevé, ara, autònom, deslligat de la imatge religiosa; a la visió simple del personatge, s’hi afegeix un to de majestat, serenitat i sublimació respecte la realitat. Un cas a part és el de Leonardo, amb la seva insistència en aspectes misteriosos i inassolibles del personatge; la serena majestuositat de la Gioconda, que en altres pintors és imposició del client, és en Leonardo el resultat de les seves especulacions filosòfiques sobre l’ànima humana. No recorre ni a l’actitud sofisticada, ni al luxe dels vestits, sinó, simplement, a l’aprofundiment de la idea de bellesa, a través del joc de llums i ombres en suau transició i de la disposició serena de l’actitud. El retrat del classicisme deixa de ser descriptiu i esdevé dramàtic: l’expressió del rostre es contempla amb el gest i l’actitud; la disposició de les mans, una inclinació del cap, el valor expressiu del vestit, així com un ús determinat del color que accentua elements dramàtics, són la base formal que els pintors del classicisme utilitzen per a mostrar-nos la societat aristocràtica de principis del XVI.

L’habitatge d’aquesta classe social és el palau. Els gran arquitectes del classicisme elaboren una nova tipologia de palau que insisteix més en aspectes de l’antiguitat romana. La societat cortesana assoleix la seva millor expressió arquitectònica en la tipologia de la vila suburbana. Els elements que configuren el llenguatge d’aquest classicisme arquitectònic són: l’antiguitat com a referència de seguretat, la mediació literària, la naturalesa com a partícip de l’organització arquitectònica, l’ambient com estil de vida, la mitologia i els misteris, la simultaneïtat de la visió des de diferents perspectives, la importància de la decoració.

Per altra banda, la concepció de l’art com instrument de prestigi social fa que aquesta aristocràcia comenci a preocupar-se per a formar una col·lecció d’objectes artístics. S’inicia, doncs, el col·leccionisme, tema encara no prou estudiat.

La idea d’integració de les arts és una conseqüència natural en les produccions artístiques de l’Antic Règim; en no tenir l’obra d’art un valor de canvi (les relacions de producció no exigien un intercanvi d’aquests productes) no és necessària la categoria de mobilitat que més endavant tindran. A l’Antic Règim, la categoria del que és sumptuari i del gust per l’aparatositat és fonamental. Aquesta és la raó de l’aparició dels grans conjunts cortesans que exigeixen per a la seva comprensió una visió unitària, una visió en la que pintura, escultura i arquitectura es fonen de manera indissoluble.

Durant el XVI es consolida el fenomen de la cort estable, amb el consegüent centralisme i burocràcia; i aquest centre ha de ser grandiós i majestuós, degut a la idea de prestigi social tan important en l’estructura mental del Renaixement. El que es produeix, doncs, a principis del XVI és un nou concepte de mecenes principesc; els encàrrecs ja no tenen un caràcter municipal o gremial: els principals mecenes seran ja els prínceps, preocupats per la seva imatge exterior. Esmentem-ne dos de molt importants: Ludovico Sforza a Milà, i el papa Juli II a Roma.

El classicisme esdevé el llenguatge triomfal dels programes pontificis com a símbol i mite del seu valor ecumènic; la idea de la “restauració” romana es verificà a través de la recuperació d’un llenguatge arquitectònic que, sense contradiccions ni ambigüitats, fes ostensible aquesta idea. Juli II no només vol ser el successor de sant Pere –com acredita el projecte de la seva tomba damunt de la del sant– sinó el successor dels mateixos emperadors romans, és a dir, ser un nou cèsar cristià i un papa emperador. Amb ell, el classicisme esdevé la cultura oficial del papat, i Roma la seu d’aquesta etapa del Renaixement, on convergiran les diferents opcions i alternatives resultants de la crisi del llenguatge florentí, arran de les contradiccions entre cristianisme i cultura clàssica. Aquestes diferents opcions s’integren, però, en una alternativa unitària en un intent de “concordatio” entre cultura clàssica i cultura cristiana, en la que l’art assumeix una funció doctrinal, emblemàtica i simbòlica del prestigi i el poder.

 Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

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Leonardo da Vinci: (probable) Autoretrat, cap el 1513. Dibuix a la sanguina. Torino, Biblioteca Reale

Fill il·legítim d’un notari i una pagesa, va entrà, a Florència, al taller de Verrocchio (1469), on aviat excel·lí amb la seva participació en el Baptisme de Crist i l’Anunciació (1474, Uffizi). Des del 1478 treballà en importants encàrrecs: Retrat de Ginevra dei Benci (1478-79, Washington), Adoració dels reis (1481, Uffizi), Sant Jeroni (1482, Roma), obres on Leonardo plasmà els seus estudis sobre els efectes de llum i manifestà una tendència vers les fantasies nòrdiques mitjançant una invenció seva: el sfumato o fusió de la llum i l’ombra en tons de color molt difusos. El 1480 anà a Milà, i es posà al servei de Lluís I de Milà. Allí féu projectes per al cimbori de la catedral i estudis per a introduir modificacions en la catedral de Pavia (1490), i decorà amb temes vegetals i entrellaçats els Camerini, la Saletta Nera i la Sala delle Asse (1495-99), al castell dels Sforza. La producció pictòrica més important de l’etapa milanesa és el retrat de Cecília Gallerani (Cracòvia), La mare de Déu de les roques (1483-93, Louvre; el 1506 en féu una rèplica, avui a la National Gallery, Londres) i la Santa Cena per al refectori del convent de Santa Maria delle Grazie (1499). Com a escultor, Lluís I li encarregà una estàtua colossal de bronze del seu pare Francesco Sforza, la qual, tot i que Leonardo hi treballà molt temps, mai no arribà a fondre’s. En ésser ocupat Milà pels francesos (149), inicià un període errabund: anà a Màntua, on féu el retrat d’Isabella d’Este (Louvre), a Venècia i a Florència, on fins el 1506 treballà en el fresc de la Batalla d’Anghiari per al Palazzo Vecchio, del qual resten dibuixos preparatoris i la cèlebre còpia de P.P. Rubens (Louvre), féu el cartó per a la Santa Anna (1501, Londres) i pintà la Gioconda (1503, Louvre); és també d’aquesta època Leda i el cigne, obra que hom coneix a través de còpies i que es convertí en el principal model de la composició serpentinata, regla que restà com a mòdul preeminent en la pintura durant el XVI. A Roma inicià el seu Trattato della pittura, que no fou publicat fins el 1561. Anà a Le Clos-Lucé, cridat per Francesc I de França, on morí; allí la seva activitat havia estat d’ordre especulatiu i científic.

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Leonardo da Vinci: Sant Jeroni, cap el 1480 . Oli i tremp sobre fusta. 103 × 75 cm. Museus del Vaticà, Roma

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Leonardo da Vinci: La marededéu, el nen i santa Anna, entre el 1500 i el 1513. Oli sobre taula. Museu del Louvre, París

Com a matemàtic, s’interessà especialment pels problemes que podria resoldre amb mètodes geomètrics, descoberts quasi sempre per camins empírics. Coneixedor indirecte de l’obra d’Arquímedes, descobrí la manera de trobar el centre de gravetat de la piràmide i les transformacions recíproques de cossos sòlids. Com a astrònom afeccionat, la seva concepció cosmològica anunciava la de Copèrnic (“il Sole non si muove” havia escrit), però no acceptava totalment l’heliocentrisme. Escriví molt sobre mecànica, que considerava una ciència aplicada i no pas pura teoria. Acceptà les nocions fonamentals de l’estàtica aristotèlica i basà la seva dinàmica sobre el concepte medieval de l’impetus. Estudià el moviment dels projectils, la caiguda dels sòlids i el xoc o percussió entre ells, i enuncià el principi de l’acció i la reacció. Fou un dels creadors de la hidrodinàmica. Molt interessat per l’òptica, s’equivocà en la fisiologia de la visió (creia que el fenomen bàsic tenia lloc al cristal·lí i no pas a la retina), però precisà encertadament l’acció de les lents esfèriques. Féu una explicació dinàmica del relleu terrestre, considerant l’erosió fluvial, pluvial i eòlica i la sedimentació. S’interessà pels fòssils, que cercava i col·leccionava amb delit, com també per tota classe de restes animals, que utilitzà en estudis d’anatomia comparada.. El seu interès bàsic per l’anatomia humana l’induí a practicar moltes disseccions i amb els croquis obtinguts volia il·lustrar un monumental tractat d’anatomia humana, que també restà incomplet i inèdit. Reeixí, però, en altres projectes científics d’utilitat més immediata: construcció de màquines de guerra i d’aparells destinats a la investigació, com higròmetres, anemòmetres… Intentar de volar, però no ho aconseguí, per manca de força impulsora.

La imatge que ens han fornit d’un Leonardo perfecte coneixedor dels autors clàssics i medievals, compendi vivent de tota la ciència coneguda del seu temps, no sembla pas del tot correcta. Tenia un gran talent, però, en definitiva, era el que llavors en deien un «uomo senza lettere».

Leonardo va afirmar el valor exclusiu de l’experiència, basada en una contínua i concreta recerca dels sentits sobre els més amagats aspectes i sobre les múltiples facetes de la naturalesa; va concebre aquesta naturalesa com un sistema dinàmic “global” de fenòmens i forces, perceptibles i susceptibles d’investigació. L’espai no es construeix geomètricament: es mesura segons la densitat i color de l’atmosfera, que difumina els contorns i fon les formes unint naturalesa i figures de manera íntima. També enfront dels concepte heroic de l’home, determinat en el primer renaixement, defensa l’estudi directe del fenomen humà expressant el furor o la naturalitat de sentiments com a participació de l’home en la variació constant del cosmos.

La sistemàtica observació dels fenòmens físics porta a Leonardo a degradar els colors per a marcar la llunyania progressiva del paisatge i a suavitzar el dibuix difuminant els perfils com efecte de l’atmosfera que embolcalla figura i naturalesa, de manera que ambdues queden harmònicament unificades. La perspectiva atmosfèrica és el resultat de la transmissió directa de l’experiència òptica i naturalista a la pintura. Investigador en el camp de l’òptica i de la física atmosfèrica, aconsegueix la perspectiva i la gradació infinitessimal de la llum, el que s’ha denominat sfumato. Així, mentre que pinta les figures i els objectes situats en primers terme amb una precisió més gran, va suavitzant i matisant el traç a mesura que els objectes s’allunyen, de manera que queden difuminats per la massa d’aire interposada, donant-nos la sensació d’una autèntica llunyania.

El nou sentit de seguretat que de sí mateixes tenen les noves classes aristocràtiques es palesa també a través de les obres religioses que s’encarreguen. En línies generals, el camí que segueix la imatge religiosa és el següent: abandonament de tot intent de patetisme, superació de la “maniera suau” del Quattrocento i, consecució d’imatges grandioses que expressin el poder de la nova Roma cristiano-imperial. Per altra banda, les aportacions del neoplatonisme ens expliquen el sentiment més profund de la religió, unit a una visió panteista de la naturalesa, de Leonardo, i la interpretació de la història humana i de la Salvació, d’un Miquel Angel. Aquestes dues línies confluiran en la síntesi romana en la que la religió, història i naturalesa donaran com resultat l’anomenada època de les “certituds romanes”.

A L’Anunciació (104 x 217) el delicadíssim rostre de la Verge (amb expressió d’infinita dignitat i alta consciència) recorda Verrocchio, de la mateixa manera que la puresa lineal del perfil de l’àngel invita a comparar-lo amb Botticelli. Però en l’ambient ja es respira el triomf de la ciència de la naturalesa i de la llum, segons els principis que Leonardo seguirà investigant fins a la fi de la seva vida. La increïble exactitud, cromàtica i gràfica, de la representació del prat florit, ha fet suposar un cert interès per l’art flamenc, sobretot pel ressò desvetllat a Florència pel Tríptic Portinari d’Hugo van der Goes; però també és cert que l’experiència directa i l’anàlisi naturalista de Leonardo –comparable a la de Dürer– són diferents de la minuciositat il·lusionista, analítica i mai universalitzant dels flamencs. El prat és tan objectiu i “vitalitzat” com el fastuós i monumental faristol de davant la Verge (recorda la tomba de Giovanni i Piero de Mèdicis a Sant Llorenç de Florència, 1472, de Verrocchio). Però la funció coordinadora essencial no és deguda a l’estructura gràfica i a la perspectiva, segons la tradició florentina, ni tampoc a la llum universal de Piero della Francesca: el quadre procedeix per un sistema ritmat de plans horitzontals en profunditat, amb formes i superfícies lluminoses sobre fons fosc i viceversa. El bust de la Verge campeja sobre la fosca paret de la villa a la dreta, la cantonada de la qual de carreus clars és subratllada pel verd fosc del xiprès; aquest forma part d’una seqüència, quasi com si es tractés d’un catàleg naturalista dels arbres toscans de tronc alt, que constitueix en conjunt un dels darrers plans, retallat sobre la infinita netedat i polidesa del cel en el que es perd atmosfèricament el paisatge del fons.

La mateixa alternança constructiva de tons cromàtics clars i foscos, ritmats en profunditat —en substitució de la perspectiva lineal— la trobem al retrat de Ginevra Benci (42 x 37), en el que la figura ressalta en colors clars en ésser cenyida per una fosca mata de ginebró, el dens colorit de la qual es fa palès per la lluminositat del fons del cel. La relació entre clar i fosc cromàtic esdevé una delicadíssima graduació de valors lumínics (sfumato), el que dóna també una íntima vibració psicològica al rostre.

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Leonardo da Vinci: Retrat de Ginevra Benci, 1474-78. Oli sobre taula. 42 × 37 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington

La “concordatio” duta a terme a Roma per Juli II, té les seves primeres manifestacions en obres com Adoració dels reis (Uffizi). En ella es fa palès l’adoració de la Ciència, de la Saviesa Antiga —els reis venien d’Orient— a la nova fet i a la religió cristiana, personificada en el grup de la Verge i el Nen; aquest estén la seva mà cap a un dels dons que se li ofereixen, símbol de la unió de les dues mentalitats. La composició està plena de continguts simbòlics, els cavalls que es mouen al fons, les runes…, són un compendi o imitació del món clàssic que entra en moviment amb l’adventiment del Salvador. Els dos personatges, a dret i esquerra, adquireixen un valor filosòfic i simbòlic: hom hi veu en el contrast entre joventut i vellesa, el de la bellesa física i la bellesa moral, la contemplació i l’acció i una representació de la dualitat de l’esperit leonardesc.

Si en aquesta obra Leonardo ens mostra la seva manera d’entendre les relacions entre dues maneres diferents de pensament, a la Verge de les roques, o a Santa Anna, la Verge i el Nen ens indica la resolució del problema de les contradiccions entre naturalesa i religió, història natural i història religiosa. L’esglaonament que es produeix en el segon quadre entre les tres figures és una còpia de la història religiosa en el seva progressió vers la salvació, personificada en el Nen. La naturalesa no actua només com a marc naturalista sinó com a partícip d’aquesta marxa vers el Salvador, com un estadi en el que les forces encara no han assolit una concreció definitiva.

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Leonardo da Vinci: Marededéu de les roques, cap el 1483. Oli sobre tela (taula transferida a tela el 1806). 199 × 122 cm. Museu del Louvre, París.

Leonardo concep la naturalesa com una cosa misteriosa i en perpetu moviment; quan s’hi refereix en els seus escrits, del que ens parla és de tempestes, diluvis… Sobre aquesta visió de la naturalesa insereix Leonardo la figura humana com a La Verge de les roques, concebuda en la seva arquitectònica disposició com a símbol de la salvació que, a través de la Verge mitjancera, realitza Crist. El contrast entre el jardí del primer terme, dibuixat com un lloc de delícies, i la indefinició del fons de la balma i del paisatge rocós i marí, pintat com naturalesa en destrucció i moviment continu, se suavitza amb les figures religioses que simbolitzen la transició entre una naturalesa sense dominar i la certesa del Paradís. La del Louvre posseeix un indescriptible equilibri existent en la penetració òptica del fenomen natural, des de la llum fins les roques i els vegetals, un definitiu classicisme volumètric de l’estructura piramidal (determinada per la Verge, sant Joan i l’àngel, i entre els quals es col·loca l’episodi luminístic i mímic del nen, que s’ha fet expressivament fonamental gràcies al gest de benedicció), i el profund simbolisme “mistèric” de la visió desmaterialitzada per l’sfumato, entès com la capacitat simultàniament òptica i pictòrica d’interposar entre l’espectador i les formes del quadre el vel immaterial, encara que perceptible, de l’atmosfera. Precisament, a través del sfumato i de l’estudiada relació entre la mistoriosa llum de la visió sagrada del primer terme i la llum natural que es filtra des del fons a través de les roques, arriba a realitzar-se aquesta mena de sagrat misteri de la naturalesa.

El punt d’arribada de la reflexió religiosa de Leonardo el trobem a la Santa Cena (460 x 880) de Milà. El moviment de les figures mortals dels Apòstols subjectes a la contingència de les coses terrenals es resol en la figura triangular de Crist en perfecte repòs i estabilitat que, mitjançant els artificis de la perspectiva monofocal, ens indica el punt d’arribada de les idees religioses de Leonardo. Des de la seva inicial Anunciació fins a la Cena, el pintor recorre els misteris de la Redempció en la que mitjançant la inserció de la naturalesa inclou de manera simple i sense forçaments totes les criatures que, com en l’Adoració dels reis assisteixen, entre sorpresos i emocionats, en estat d’èxtasi, a l’adveniment del Salvador.

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Leonardo da Vinci: Sant Joan Baptista, 1513-1516. Oli sobre taula. 69 × 57 cm. Museu del Louvre, París

Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520)

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Raffaello Sanzio: (probable) Autoretrat, 1506. Oli sobre taula. 45 x 33 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florència.

Artista precoç, rebé la primera formació en l’ambient de la cort d’Urbino: s’inicia amb el seu pare, Giovanni Santi, rep les influències d’un tal Timoteo Viti, primer deixeble del pintor bolonyès Il Francia, que havia estat deixeble de Leonardo. Vers el 1500 anà a Perusa, on aprengué la tècnica i col·laborà amb Il Perugino. Resta encara imprecisa la filiació exacta dels seus primers assaigs: Coronació de San Nicola de Tolentino (1500, Capodimonte, Nàpols), Coronació de la Mare de Déu (1502-3, Pinacoteca Vaticana). No obstant això, l’Esposori de la Mare de Déu (1504, pinacoteca de Milà) mostra la seva vinculació als dictats d’Il Perugino i el respecte a la tradició d’Ombria, que es tradueix en una composició d’estructura equilibrada i en una simplificació formal, característiques que juntament amb la claredat de la llum defineixen les obres del subsegüent període florentí.

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Raffaello Sanzio: L’Esposori de la Mare de Déu,1504. Oli sobre taula. 170 x 117 cm. Pinacoteca de Brera, Milà

Sota la inicial influència d’Il Perugino realitzà, doncs, obres de suaus moviments, colors purs, actituds equilibrades, figures de rodonesa mòrbida, i fervorosa devoció. Entre el 1504 i el 1508 romangué a Florència a excepció d’esporàdics sojorns a Perusa. Aquí va assimilar diferents particularitats del llenguatge formal leonardesc, com les composicions piramidals, l’estudi científic del cos humà i la manera retratística. Però allunyat de l’empirisme (l’experiència com a base del coneixement humà) de Leonardo i fidel neoplatònic, Rafael clarifica i fa intel·ligibles les ambigüitats i hermetismes del seu inspirador fins arribar sovint a la manca de contingut, quedant les seves pintures en mers exercicis acadèmics que, com a molt, permeten admirar el seu virtuosisme formal. Equilibri de composició, contorn difuminat (sfumato) dels personatges que emergeixen d’un fons ombrívol, intensitat de l’expressió del rostre, harmonia sàvia dels colors, minuciositat en els detalls dels vestits i ornamentació, un cert to monumental i grandiloqüent heretat de Miquel Àngel, en són els aspectes formals més rellevants. De l’etapa florentina hem d’esmentar: Somni del cavaller, Sant Jordi, Les Tres Gràcies, Mare de Déu del gran duc, Mare de Déu amb l’Infant i Sant Joan, la Madonna del caderner, la Sagrada Família del be, la Bella jardinera, la Verge Colonna, i els retrats d’Agnolo i Madalena Doni. Les darreres obres d’aquests moment, Enterrament de Crist (1507) i Mare de Déu del baldaquí(ambdues a la Galleria Borghese, Roma), assenyalen una evolució vers la representació del moviment.

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Raffaello Sanzio: Marededéu del Prat, cap el 1506. Oli sobre taula. 113 × 88 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Viena.

Per recomanació de Bramante, el 1508 se n’anà a Roma, on va residir fins a la seva mort (als 37 anys). Havia de col·laborar en la decoració de les Estances Vaticanes que, per fer d’elles la seva habitació, preparava Juli II. Les Estances són tres habitacions, de forma aproximadament quadrada, amb un sostre cobert amb volta d’arestes i molt mal il·luminades. El 1508 hi pintaven, alhora, Lucas Signorelli, Bramantino, Pinturicchio, Perugino, Lorenzo Lotto, Jean Ruysck, Sodoma i Rafael. Autor dels fresc de les sales de la Segnatura (1508-11), on sobresurt el fresc de l’Escola d’Atenes i la Disputa del Santíssim Sacrament, i d’Heliodor (1511-14), amb el pretenebrista Alliberament de Sant Pere, deixà a mans dels seus col·laboradors i deixebles la realització dels restants (la de l’Incendi del Borgo) i la decoració de les Logge, on la seva participació es limità solament al disseny, per una causa de les nombroses ocupacions i de la quantitat d’encàrrecs que rebé. Les composicions de les Estances han servit de model durant segles per a les pintures decoratives de caràcter històric; assenyalen el principi de l’estil acadèmic, proporcionat, equilibrat i intel·lectual. En aquesta etapa romana, Rafael planteja una ordenació ideal de la cultura humanista dins de conceptes cristiano-platònics en que el saber humà apareix com a complementari de la revelació. Així, el cicle dels frescs de l’Stanza della Segnatura està consagrat a la celebració de les idees de Veritat, Bellesa, Bé; a la Disputa del Sacramento és la Veritat revelada per la religió cristiana la que és exaltada, a la Scuola di Atenes ho és la Veritat racional de l’especulació filosòfica.

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Raffaello Sanzio: L’incendi del Borgo, 1514, Stanza dell’incendio del Borgo, pintada pel taller de Rafael sobre un disseny de l’artista. Fresc. 457 cm amplada. Stanze di Raffaello, Ciutat del Vaticà.

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Raffaello Sanzio: El Parnàs, 1511. Fresc. 670 cm amplada. Stanza della Segnatura, ciutat del Vaticà.

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Raffaello Sanzio: L’Escola d’Atenes, 1509-1510. Fresc. 500 × 700 cm. Stanza della Segnatura, ciutat del Vaticà.

Convertit en el protagonista absolut de l’escola romana i després d’haver projectat l’església de Sant’Eligio degli Orefici (1509) o la capella Chigi (1513), el 1514 succeí Bramante en la direcció de les obres de Sant Pere del Vaticà. També fou nomenat conservador d’antiguitats romanes, executà cartons per a tapissos i pintà una sèrie innombrable de teles com Mare de Déu de Foligno (1512), Mare de Déu de la cadira, i els retrats de Baldasare Castiglione i de Lleó X (1518), obres que representen la culminació de l’universalisme històric de la Roma classicista i la consolidació d’una nova tendència, el manierisme, els principis de la qual Rafel formulà en la Transfiguració (1519, Pinacoteca Vaticana), obra que deixà inacabada i que pel simbolisme i la complexitat estructural determinà un viratge en la direcció de l’art italià i europeu posterior.

Un dels elements formals del Classicisme és la simetria com a correspondència de parts. En Rafael és constant la relació entre arquitectura i pintura. La idea de circularitat, de planta central, es transposa de manera subtil en obres com l’Esposori de la Mare de Déu, on el temple central del fons normalitza tota la composició les figures de la qual s’organitzen en cercle. S’estableix una dialèctica figura humana-arquitectura que en definitiva, és la mateixa que en Leonardo. També a l’Escola d’Atenes la simetria bramantesca i la grandiosa arquitectura organitza i dóna lleis per a la disposició de les figures humanes. Repòs i perfecta grandiositat són característiques paral·leles entre arquitectura i les figures. El que a Rafael li interessa és l’ordenació expressiva, la relació entre moviments divergents, la simplicitat decorativa i la claredat absoluta.

Un altre aspecte de Rafael que per sí sol l’acredita com a gran pintor, és el retrat. Rafael parteix, en la seva concepció del retrat, de Leonardo. La seva Magdalena Doni repeteix el model formal de la Gioconda, encara que abandonant tota pretensió especulativa. La gent retratada per Rafael són els membres de l’alta burgesia florentina o romana, que ara adquireix el rang de noblesa, com és el cas de Fedra Inghirani. La retratística de Rafael culmina en personatges tan significatius com Baldasare Castiglione, que en el seu Cortesano havia fixat les normes del prototipus de l’home del Classicisme, o en el Cardenal del Prado, model de personatge de la cúria papal del moment. En ells Rafael evidencia una consciència del problema específic del gènere, en accentuar els elements reals en clara contraposició amb els desenvolupaments idealitzants de la seva pintura religiosa.

La decoració de la Stanza della Signatura constitueix la definició d’un autèntic programa doctrinal. En cada una de les tres estances es desenrotlla un programa la significació del qual no assoleix el seu ple sentit si no és en relació amb la integritat argumental de la sèrie: el “mirall doctrinal” de la veritat; l’acció de Déu a favor de l’Església; i la intervenció de l’Església en els assumptes temporals.

Les pintures de la Stanza della Signatura, probablement la seu de la Signatura Gratiae, contenen un veritable “speculum doctrinae” basat en una visió de l’Humanisme cristià. El cicle parteix de la visualització del principi de veritat, tant en el seu aspecte racional, filosòfic o científic (L’Escola d’Antenes) com en el de la revelada o teològica (El triomf del Sagrament), en relació amb el , a través de les virtuts, la llei (Gregori IX aprova les Decretals) i el civil (Tribonià lliura les Pandectes a Justinià), i la bellesa (Parnàs). Es tracta del punt de partida doctrinal de la concordatio entre el Cristianisme i cultura clàssica i de la historicitat del present. El programa desenvolupa la idea de la no contradicció entre la ciència, el pensament de l’Antiguitat i la doctrina de l’Església, com a símbol dels nous temps, i de la legitimació del paper assumit pel papat en els assumptes temporals.

Les claus dels significat de la Signatura es troben en les diferents representacions al·legòriques de la volta: la Veritat revelada (Teologia i Adam i Eva); la Veritat racional (Filosofia i Creació); el Bé (Justícia i Judici de Salomó); i la Bellesa (Poesia i Apol·lo i Màrsies), tema aquest darrer que, per als neoplatònics florentins, simbolitzava el triomf de l’harmonia sobre les passions. Alhora, hi ha representacions dels quatre elements en relació amb les al·legories principals: aire (Teologia), terra (Justícia), aigua (Filosofia) i foc (Poesia).

Totes les al·legories de la volta tenen la seva projecció en la Història a través de les quatre representacions inferiors de les parets. La relació entre al·legoria i història se subratlla a través de la “cita” de quatre putti amb els corresponents emblemes, situats en les claus dels emmarcaments de les composicions inferiors. Aquestes cites al·ludeixen a la correspondència d’El Triomf del Sagrament amb la Teologia, de l’Escola d’Atenes amb la Filosofia, del Parnàs amb la Poesia i de les Virtuts amb la Justícia.

El triomf del Sant Sagrament representa en un espai celeste l’Església triomfant, amb personatges de l’Antic i el Nou Testament al voltant de la Trinitat, sobre la terra en la que es troba l’Església militant amb personatges històrics (filòsofs, Dante i, probablement, Bramante i Rafael) i eclesiàstics. L’espai és una estructura ambigua que situa els personatges en un espai terrenal idealitzat mitjançant un sòl en perspectiva que contrasta amb la visió imprecisa del cel; és a dir, en un lloc no identificat entre el cel i la terra.

A l’Escola d’Atenes, en canvi, l’espai s’ofereix com un escenari identificable. En aquest sentit, la composició permet establir una altra lectura que la de la simple exaltació de la veritat racional. No és només la concordatio doctrinal sinó la referència a la historicitat del fenomen. L’escenari constitueix una al·lusió al projecte de Bramante per a Sant Pere del Vaticà i a la basílica constantiniana. Els pilars aixamfranats del creuer remeten a la idea de Bramante; tanmateix, aquesta arquitectura ideal que representa una reconstrucció del temple de la saviesa evocat per Ficino, és un replantejament imaginatiu i simbòlic del nou llenguatge arquitectònic desenvolupat a partir d’elements molts diversos. Així, la nau que uneix l’escenari amb el creuer del temple té en els seus murs una combinació de figures i nínxols que al·ludeixen al projecte de Miquel Àngel per al monument funerari de Juli II. La introducció d’aquestes cites constitueix una referència històrica al present i el desenvolupament de la idea de concordatio entre la filosofia i la ciència antigues i la cultura renaixentista.

La configuració arquitectònica del temple de la saviesa com espai renaixentista i la representació dels savis de l’Antiguitat com homes contemporanis de Rafael subratllen aquesta idea de continuïtat entre el present i el món antic. Per altra banda, la representació d’artistes com a filòsofs i savis de l’Antiguitat sorgeix en relació amb el nou valor amb què s’entén l’activitat de pintors, escultors i arquitectes elevada a la condició d’”art liberal”. A més, els artistes apareixen com la representació en el present de les doctrines i concepcions de l’Antiguitat. Així, Leonardo representa Plató, Bramante a Euclides i Miquel Àngel a Heràclit. El propi Rafael s’ha retratat a la dreta, al costat dels astrònoms.

Igualment El Parnàs desenvolupa la idea de continuïtat i correspondència entre el passat i el present. Són nou muses, nou poetes antics i nou poetes moderns.

El programa doctrinal desenvolupat a l’Stanza della Signatura dóna pas a la justificació de l’Església i de les accions temporals del papat. L’estança d’Heliodor comporta una temàtica de legitimació de la política de l’Església i, per analogia, de la de Juli II. Com a la Signatura, les claus de la lectura es troben en els temes bíblics de la volta dedicats a evocar l’acció protectora de Déu sobre el poble d’Israel. I aquesta “cita” d’autoritat bíblica serveix de suport als temes representats a les parets: L’expulsió d’Heliodor del temple, com exemple del càstig del profanador, La Missa de Bolsena —miracle en relació amb la incredulitat d’un sacerdot que veu brollar sang de l’Hòstia— o L’alliberament de Sant Pere, sorgeixen com exemples “objectius” de la intervenció divina. L’estança d’Heliodor constitueix l’al·legoria del suport diví a les accions de l’Església, servint de preàmbul i legitimació a la intervenció del Papa en assumptes temporals a què fan referència les pintures de l’estança de l’Incendi del Borgo.

Partint de Leonardo, Rafael elabora en el seu sojorn florentí tot un seguit de verges, en les que, utilitzant el codi lingüístic del Classicisme i els seus records peruginescs de la Umbria, ens donarà una visió de la religió caracteritzada per un aproblematicisme i un estar per sobre les discòrdies del temps i de l’espai que culminaran en els prototipus clàssics de la Madonna Alba o La Verge de la cadira. Aquest tipus d’obres, per la seva claredat compositiva i la idea de mostrar una Humanitat reconciliada amb sí mateixa, i no només amb la naturalesa i la història, responen plenament als principis de l’humanisme cristià i són expressives del moment religiós-cultural italià de l’època, com ho mostra l’èxit que aquests sistemes compositius i temàtics assoleixen.

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Raffaello Sanzio: La Transfiguració, 1520, inacabada a la seva mort. Tremp i oli sobre fusta. 405 x 278 cm. Museus Vaticans, Ciutat del Vaticà.

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)

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Daniele da Volterra: Retrat de Miquel Àngel, 1551-52. Dibuix. Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Figura rellevant de l’escultura, art que considerava el seu, encara que es dedicà també a l’arquitectura i la pintura; per això, la seva pintura concedeix primordial importància al dibuix anatòmic i al volum, menyspreant el paisatge i el colorit, i atenent sobretot a construir figures poderoses en actitud sovint difícil, que li permetien grans ostentacions d’escorços i de moviments. La seva qualitat excepcional, la seva amplitud de concepció, quasi gegantina, i la seva extraordinària saviesa enfront les formes del cos i les complexitats de l’esperit, fan de Miquel Àngel el prototipus universal de l’escultor capaç d’expressar en marbre qualsevol concepte, idea o propòsit.

  • 1r sojorn a Florència (1488-1495): A 13 anys entrà al taller de Ghirlandaio i desenvolupà la seva actitud principal dins el camp de l’escultura; estudià els clàssics, conegué l’obra dels Pollaiuolo i rebé, a l’escola de San Marco, una àmplia formació humanística i els ensenyaments de Bertoldo, deixeble de Donatello. Esculpí dos relleu: Centauromàquia (1490-2), on, influït pels sarcòfags del període romà tardà, per G. Pisano i Donatello, introduí la novetat del moviment; i la Mare de Déu de l’escala (1492), exquisit relleu donatellià de caràcter pictòric. Un viatge a Bolonya (degut a la mort del seu protector Lorenzo de Mèdici el 1492) li donarà l’oportunitat d’estudiar la impetuositat dramàtica i la síntesi formal dels relleus de Iacopo della Quercia, a la porta de la basílica de San Petronio.
  • 1r sojorn a Roma (1496-1501): Mentre Florència, d’ençà de la caiguda dels Mèdici, era colpida per desordres i convulsada per les prèdiques de Savonarola, anà a Roma on executà la cèlebre Pietat (1498-9) dins la influència del formalisme i la tècnica delicadíssima de l’escultura quattrocentista, de perfecte equilibri entre una concepció monumental, de volums purs i tancats, i un acabat refinadíssim i delicat.
  • 2n sojorn a Florència (1501-1505): A partir de 1501 el seu estil evolucionà vers un nítid classicisme i concilià, segons les idees neoplatòniques, la bellesa clàssica amb l’espiritualisme cristià. D’aquesta època és el David (1501-4) símbol del poder de les famílies poderoses florentines i de la ciutat-estat. Utilitzà un bloc de marbre que hi havia al pati d’obres de la catedral, i la seva forma allargada i estreta l’obligà a fer una obra quasi plana, a concebre-la com la figura d’un relleu, a concentrat tota la tensió dinàmica. El David és un paradigma de l’home renaixentista, de la bellesa de l’anatomia humana i dels sentiments de passió i pietat que s’amaguen sota un gest terrible. La figura, d’uns 5 metres d’alçària, està en tensió: la cama dreta en la que es recolza, el peu esquerre que s’allunya, la mà amb la fona, el colze doblegat, el coll girat… cap membre està estàtic i relaxat; tanmateix es trenca qualsevol sensació simètrica (equilibradora) amb una més gran tensió del braç i cama esquerres. El moviment és contingut, centrípet, amb línies de força que retornen al bloc (a diferència del moviment centrífug del barroc). El cap ens permet d’apercebre la passió del rostre, amb la seva intensa sensació de vida interior, de figura que respira, quasi bleixant, a l’expectativa d’un esdeveniment culminant. És la mateixa expressió patètica, forta, dramàtica, del Moisès, de l’Esclau…És la terribilità miquelangesca.
  • 2n sojorn a Roma (1505-1513): Fou cridat a Roma pel papa Juli II, que li encarregà el seu sepulcre. Concebut com una muntanya de marbre exempta sota la cúpula de sant Pere, amb més de 40 figures de dimensió colossal, s’anà reduint per pressions econòmiques i polítiques i per la pròpia evolució ideològica de l’artista que el menà des de la concepció d’un monument de tipus pagà a un monument religiós contrareformista, com és palès en el Moisès (1513), colossal escultura de marbre que expressa el dramatisme contingut i el furor de l’ànima, i en els Esclaus o Captius (1513 i 1534-36), lluitadors contra l’hostilitat del destí, lluita de la matèria per assolir la forma, que és símbol també de l’opressió de l’esperit per la matèria.

Hom considera el conjunt pictòric de la Capella Sixtina –el Judici Final (1535-41) al mur de l’altar fou executat per l’artista durant la darrera estada a Roma–la culminació del seu ideal universalista, on tots els elements figuratius són integrats en una síntesi de les tres arts majors i representats, des de la Creació de la Humanitat fins a la visió escatològica del Judici Final, segons la més pura concepció de la tècnica florentina i del monumentalisme romà. Dintre de la inspiració bíblica que presideix el conjunt cal remarcar com a característica: novetat i grandiositat del conjunt, complet estudi de la figura humana en anatomia i expressió, varietat i saviesa compositives, domini virtuosista de la perspectiva, potència del dibuix, enquadrament i simulació arquitectònics de total atreviment que confereix per la seva disposició una especial tensió i dramatisme del que és colossal, que embolcalla l’espectador i l’inclou en el dinamisme de les forces desencadenades. És un veritable i enlluernador cant al cos nu.

En el Judici Final totes les possibilitats de moviment, actitud, esforç i agrupació de la figura humana són assajades. En la composició es valoren igualment espais buits i les masses que es presenten amb independència, encara que segons el ritme i un sentit no clàssic de la perspectiva; el gest de Crist posa en moviment irresistible el conjunt tumultuós. La perfecció clàssica i l’equilibri del sostre dóna pas aquí a un desbordament dramàtic i a una violència pessimista que pot considerar-se ja manierista, pel seu menyspreu de la claredat i la seva complaença en el que és capriciós; les figures es cargolen sobre sí mateixes, els músculs s’emboteixen i es dóna un sentiment general de retorçament en un espai que, voluntàriament, no queda definit. Arran del Concili de Trento (1545-1563), un deixeble seu, Daniel de Volterra, va cobrir les “excessives” nueses del fresc.

  • 3r sojorn a Florència (1513-1534): l’elecció del papa Lleó X, un Mèdici, posà novament l’artista en contacte amb Florència; projectà la façana i construí la Sagrestia Nuova (1520) de l’església de San Lorenzo, convertida després en capella funerària dels Mèdici pel papa Climent VII, amb els sepulcres de Giuliano i Lorenzo Mèdici, on el programa iconogràfic, de caire neoplatònic, és molt complex: l’ànima humana es estat de llibertat (Victòries), el poder destructor del temps (Aurora, Crepuscle, Dia, Nit), l’acció (Giuliano) i la contemplació (Lorenzo). Climent VII li encarregà la construcció de la Biblioteca Laurentiana (1525), l’escalinata de la qual, dins d’un espai reduït, dóna la impressió de gegantina majestat amb la sàvia alternança de dinàmiques superfícies corbes i estàtiques rectes.
  • 3r sojorn a Roma (1534-1564): de la seva darrera etapa a Roma, on fixà definitivament la residència, són les tres versions inacabades del tema de la Pietat, Pietat Rondanini i Pietat Palestrina, on substituí la bellesa corporal de les figures per esquemes geomètrics d’una gran expressivitat. A partir de 1546 consagrà la seva activitat principal a l’arquitectura (cúpula del Vaticà, cornisa del palau Farnese, ordenació del Campidoglio romà, capella Sforza, església de Santa Maria degli Angeli, basílica de Santa Maria la Major i la Porta Pia).

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Miquel Àngel: La pietat, 1498-99. Marbre. 174 d’altura x 195 cm de longitud a la base. Basílica de sant Pere, Ciutat del Vaticà.

Les obres religioses inicials de Miquel Angel estan encara sotmeses als cànons compositius del classicisme, i els temes oscil·len entre la Verge amb Nen i Els misteris de la Passió —del Crist de la santa Croce a la Pietat vaticana—. Però si Leonardo atenia a les relacions naturalesa-història, Miquel Àngel indagarà sobre la relació entre Antiguitat clàssica i història cristiana. Fins arribar a la complexitat de la volta de la Sixtina, on el que es recull és tota la Història de la Salvació a través d’episodis significatius de l’Antic Testament, ens donarà en les seves obres anteriors la seva idea de la continuïtat entre les successives etapes històriques de la Salvació. Així, la Verge de l’escala s’inspira en relleus funeraris clàssics, i en el Crist del Sancto Spiritu, enlloc de la posició típica de l’art gòtic (ziga-zaga) o la frontalitat del Quattrocento, l’artista elegeix el “contraposto” clàssic. Però la relació amb l’antiguitat no s’aconsegueix només a través de procediments formals; al Tondo Doni, obra fonamental en aquest aspecte, els nus posteriors representarien el món pagà a l’espera de la salvació; sant Joan se situa entre els dos móns com a mitjancer, i la disposició de la sagrada Família adquireix un caràcter simbòlic: el nen damunt la Verge, indica com supera a la seva mateixa Mare que el contempla en èxtasi. L’obra de Leonardo i de Miquel Àngel romandrà, en definitiva, aïllada pel que fa als seus més profunds continguts filosòfics i ideològics. Només Miquel Àngel, i a nivell formal, es constituirà en punt de referència de generacions d’artistes.

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Miquel Àngel: Sepulcre de Juli II, 1513-15. Marbre. 235 cm la figura de Moisès. San Pietro in Vincoli, Roma.

Paradigma del canvi cultural, ideològic i religiós que s’opera a principis del XVI és la figura de Miquel Àngel, en la trajectòria plàstica del qual podem seguir l’evolució de la crisi religiosa del segle. Miquel Àngel demostra en obres com la Capella funerària dels Mèdici una concepció de la mort encara que en clau neoplatònica. Els Prínceps —Lorenzo i Giuliano— s’aboquen després de la seva mort a la capella i contemplen el pur món de la Idea de la que la capella n’és una imitació. Tot el programa respira ideologia neoplatònica: des dels quatre Déus Rius que havien d’estar a la zona inferior, personificació dels quatre rius de l’Hades i símbol del món material, de la Regió de la Naturalesa, a les representacions de l’Aurora, el Dia, el Crepuscle i la Nit, record dels quatre modes de vida sobre la Terra, de les quatre estacions … Les actituds dels prínceps són les de l’ànima neoplatònica, el “vir activus” i el “vir contemplativus”: són les ànimes dels difunts que sorgeixen a la llum de la Idea que culmina a la cúpula, tota ella d’una diàfana il·luminació incolora.

És Miquel Àngel qui desborda completament la relació entre arquitectura i figura en la composició de la volta de la Sixtina: l’arquitectura deixa de ser marc ideal de les escenes per a convertir-se en opressió de les figures que tendeixen a alliberar-se de l’ordenació imposada pel marc. Aquesta tensió figura-marc arquitectònic obre ja les vies del manierisme dels anys 30.

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Miquel Àngel: L’esclau moribund 1513-15. Marbre. 229 cm     L’esclau rebel.  215 cm. Museu del Louvre

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Miquel Àngel: Volta de la Capella Sixtina, (parcial), 1512.

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Miquel Àngel: Judici final, 1537-41. Fresc. 1370 x 1220 cm. Capella Sixtina. Ciutat del Vaticà.

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Miquel Àngel: Pietat del Duomo, cap el 1547-1555 . Marbre. 226 cm.Museu dell’Opera del Duomo, Florència.

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Miquel Àngel: Pietat Plaestrina, 1555? Marbre. 153 cm. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florència

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Miquel Àngel: Pietat Rondanini, 1552-1564. Marbre. 195 cm. Castello Sforzesco, Milà.

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 L’escola veneciana

El segle XVI constituí el període culminant d’aquesta escola. En un context polític i social divers de la resta dels estats italians, la producció artística veneciana assolí una síntesi vibrant entre la il·lustració i l’experiència sensible, sobretot per mitjà de la llum i el color. Davant les construccions intel·lectuals dels florentins, Venècia va emprendre el camí de la sensibilitat, de força serena, equilibrada sensualitat i fruïció immediata de la realitat; i els seus artistes basaren la seva concepció en el que és pictòric (exaltació dels valors cromàtics i lluminosos) i no en el és plàstic (exaltació del volum), en el cromatisme i no en la línia com a determinant de les formes i de l’espai.

Giorgione, Palma el Vell i, sobretot, Ticià són els principals exponents de la força creativa veneciana davant el formalisme acadèmic dels manieristes de Roma i Florència. D’altra banda, les experiències que Lorenzo Lotto recollí d’Albert Dürer durant el sojorn d’aquest a Venècia (1505-7), la crítica artística que Pietro Aretin encetà a partir de 1527, la darrera obra del Ticià i les aportacions d’Il Tintoretto i de Paolo Veronese marcaren una renovació constant fins a la darreria d’aquell segle.

Si durant el Quattrocento Venècia presenta unes molt clares pervivències gòtiques que, només al final, i de manera sorprenent, evolucionen vers el Classicisme, durant el XVI, la pervivència i desenvolupament del classicisme constitueix l’eix des d’on s’estableixen les discussions i polèmiques arquitectòniques. L’obra de Palladio, 1508-1580, el principal arquitecte venecià del XVI, és una reflexió sobre el classicisme de la seva pròpia especificitat. Les heterodòxies del manierisme mai assoliran el caràcter de contestació exasperada que adquireixen a Roma, Florència, Gènova o Milà: als retorçaments i sofisticacions es respon a Venècia amb les innovacions tipològiques (vila, palau, església o teatre).

Aquesta peculiar posició de Venècia troba dos tipus d’explicacions. Per una banda, es produeix un desenvolupament teòric d’un Humanisme diferent del florentí; a Venècia mai s’abandona l’aristotelisme paduà que es fon amb el neoplatonisme que aleshores s’estenia per Itàlia. El punt de partida del manierisme pot situar-se en la crisi del model cultural neoplatònic a finals dels anys 20 a Roma i Florència; doncs bé, a Venècia no hi ha un tall brusc del seu sistema cultural degut a l’allunyament de les guerres i els conflictes político-religiosos de l’època. La intervenció imperial, decisiva en altres llocs d’Itàlia i Europa, a penes es nota a Venència, Només la pintura d’Il Tintoretto expressa el sentiment profund de crisi intel·lectual i religiosa de certes capes de la societat veneciana; però la seva figura roman apartada en mig de les realitzacions classicistes de Palladio, Tizià o Il Veronese.

La segona explicació de l’auge del classicisme a Venècia la podem trobar en el tipus especial de societat que domina políticament i cultural la regió. És una classe social burgesa i comerciant, de cultura laica, que propugna unes estructures cíviques flexibles i que no necessita crear-se cap imatge oficial distanciada o sofisticada, com en el cas de Florència o Roma, ni molt menys un llenguatge imperial, com en el cas de les Corts Catòliques. Aquesta burgesia ennoblida, que de comerciant esdevé conreadora de terres, troba en el classicisme i en l’antiguitat un model de vida cívic moral, aliè a la pretensió d’un llenguatge que s’imposi, per la seva grandiositat, als súbdits. Palladio trobarà en la renovació tipològica el camí adient, mentre que Tizià i Il Veronese canten els fasts de la República i Il Tintoretto esdevé la seva consciència religiosa.

L’aristocràcia veneciana, en tancar-se les rutes comercials del Mediterrani, efectua una reconversió per la que passa de ser comerciant a agrícola. Troba en la “terraferma” el lloc d’expansió d’una economia rural, per a la que es necessitava un nou tipus d’habitatge diferent del palau urbà. La inexistència pràctica de viles romanes fa que la inspiració se cerqui en models literaris llatins. La Vila Rotonda de Palladio serà la culminació d’aquesta nova tipologia.

De la tradició paduana, aristotèlica i racional, i de l’incipient esoterisme, sorgirà el primer gran artista del Cinquecento venecià: Giorgione (1478-1510), el qual, a la interpretació realista de la naturalesa afegirà, en forma dialèctica i indissoluble, una visió on el que és esotèric i amagat adquireixen una importància cabdal. Deixeble de Giovanni Bellini, s’aparta decididament de les composicions del seus antecessors venecians en donar una gran importància al paisatge. A la Pala de Castelfranco (1505) ens dóna un exemple de construcció clàssica basada en un rígid esquema triangular i en la monumentalitat de les figures, creant una situació abstracta i irreal, però basada en una emotiva harmonia cromàtica; el paisatge, com en la tradició belliniana, adquireix una gran importància, augmentant la sensualitat i emoció de la pintura. Amb ell desapareix el to quattrocentista detallista, minuciós, precís. Assolí un grau més gran de perfecció dins el paisatge d’atmosfera en “La tempesta” i en el “Concert campestre”, una de les obres mestres per a estudiar l’aspecte, el color i el concepte pictòric de la seva obra, car hi potencia el colorit venecià, en contraposició al sfumato leonardesc, i aconsegueix una interrelació figures-paisatge que no fou superada fins a l’impressionisme. En la seva obra “Venus adormida” (1509) assoleix plenament, a través de la relació del un femení i del paisatge, allò que hom pot classificar com a pintura de ritmes. Va posar les bases d’una retratística basada tant en la solemnitat de l’actitud com en la insistència en la qualitat de les teles i els objectes, aconseguida a través de l’estudi de les tonalitats.

Ticià (1490?-1576) rebé els primers ensenyaments als tallers de Zuccato i dels Bellini i escollí per mestre Giorgione del que recull valors cromàtics i lluminosos, l’influx del qual és palès en les obres de joventut: frescs de la Scuola del Santo (Pàdua, 1511), Amor sacre i Amor profà (Borghese, 1511), Després d’haver refusat d’anar a Roma, el 1513 obrí un taller i oferí els seus serveis a la Sereníssima. Inicià així una nova etapa, durant la qual conreà el naturalisme i desenvolupà les seves extraordinàries qualitats inventives sota la força plàstica del color i l’audàcia compositiva: Assumpció de la mare de Déu (1518, església de Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venècia), al mateix temps que transformà el tipus de retaule d’altar (políptic Averoldi, a l’església dels sants Nzario i Celso, Bresceia, 15020-22), renovà la iconografia mitològica (Bacanal, 1518, Prado) i, influït per la cultura toscano-romana, plasmà el drama humà a través de monumentals estructures figuratives i de la utilització de la llum contrastada (Retaule Pesaro, 1519-26, Venècia).

D’ençà de l’any 1530 visità sovint les corts de Ferrara, Màntua i Urbino, on connectà amb el corrent manierista. Autor de nombrosos retrats de personatges il·lustres (Carles V, 1533, Prado, Elisabet d’Este, 1536, Viena; Francesco Maria della Rovere, 1536-38, Uffizi), la seva producció d’aquest període es caracteritzà pel refinament i la sumptuositat: Venus d’Urbino (1538, Uffizi), Al·locució del marquès del Vasto (1541, Prado), i els escorços violents i moviments giravoltats (Coronoació d’espines, 1542, Louvre). En les darreres obres assolí límits informals i espectaculars efectes de llum, paral·lelament a les recerques del Tintoretto, alhora que una intensa expressió dramàtica (Coronació d’espines, 1570, Munic; Sant Sebastià, 1570, Lenningrad; Pietat, Venècia) inacabada. Durant aquests darrers 25 anys la pinzellada es fa més àmplia i el toc desunit fins a constituir esborranys fluids i incandescents per efecte de la llum i el color. L’informalisme de les seves últimes obres no és alliberament de la matèria sinó transfusió a la matèria de l’espiritualitat del drama humà. Giorgione havia posat les bases d’una retratística basada tant en la solemnitat de l’actitud, com en la insistència en la qualitat de les teles i els objectes, aconseguida amb l’estudi de les tonalitats; si els primers retrats de Ticià seguiran aquest camí, aviat abandonaran l’aire d’intimisme i misteri dels quadres del seu mestre, per a donar pas a la imatge d’una societat poderosa, segura de sí mateixa i que pretén, amb més insistència que en els quadres de Rafael, i a través de l’ostentació de la seva riquesa, imposar la seva presència a l’espectador. Les actituds, discretes sempre en Rafael, s’exageren en Ticià, convertint-se en autèntiques protagonistes dels quadres. En ells es projecta la imatge de la societat veneciana com un món entre burgès i cortesà, atent a la realitat quotidiana, i que vol se retratat el més realment possible. A la vegada, són patents les pretensions d’una alta societat que desitja una idealització i sofisticació de la imatge a través de dos elements: la nova tècnica colorística i la recerca d’actituds naturalistes. És Ticià qui millor defineix el tipus de retrat reial concebut com “retrat d’aparat”; és qui millor encerta a donar als personatges la característica de “maiestas” que el retrat del Classicisme requereix: serenitat, majestuositat i senzillesa de mitjans expressius en són les característiques dominants.

Cap als anys 20 Ticià s’emancipa de Giorgione; obre com l’Assumpció dei Frari o El Políptic de san nazzaro i Celso a Brescia (1522) abandonen els inicials equilibris compositius per a proporcionar un més gran dramatisme a la imatge. En el Políptic de Brescia, la insistència en el que és purament físic, allunya tota pretensió idealitzadora. Per primer cop el tema de la mort no és vist com a pas d’un món a un altre, sinó com la fi de l’existència física. Aquest canvi fonamental indica que una època, la de les “certeses”, acaba i en comença una altra de lluita i inseguretat religiosa que dominarà fins al final del cinquecento.

Il Tintoretto (1518-1594) es formà dins del cercle dels artistes que introduïren a Venècia el manierisme de tendència romana, toscana i emiliana. Si Ticià es pot considerar un clàssic pel seu equilibri entre sensibilitat i raó, Tintoretto, des de les primeres obres documentades (Sant Sopar, 1547, San Marcuola, Venècia; Lavatori dels peus, 1550,Prado; Miracle de l’esclau, 1548, Accademia, Venècia), es mostra com un decidit manierista: abundor d’artificis compositius i riquesa d’escorços i de perspectives sota el denominador comú d’un dinamisme trepidant, expressat amb tècnica llampant i, en particular, amb l’ús fogós del color i dels contrastos de llum (Retrobament del cos de san Marc, 1562-66, Brera).

Autor de cartrons per a mosaics i de nombrosíssimes obres tant murals com de cavallet, treballà d’ençà l’any 1564 en la decoració de la Scuola di San Rocco, la seva obra cabdal, i, després del 1588, en el fresc del Paradís del palau Ducal de Venècia, on es palesa un to enèrgic i de grandiosa monumentalitat que recorda Miquel Àngel. Dota a la seva pintura d’un contingut religiós en què el cristianisme es mostra ple de misteris incomprensibles per a la raó, com a vivència no problemàtica però sí visionària i fantasmagòrica; exalta l’esperit cristià i cívic de Venècia amb una visió obsessiva i inquietant. Va exercir una gran influència en El Greco.

Il Veronese (1528-1588) es formà a Verona i rebé aviat la influència de Ticià i del corrent manierista romà, particularment de G. Romano (Jesús entre els doctors, 1548, Prado; Temptació de sant Antoni, 1552, Caen). El 1553 s’establí a Venècia; juntament amb Tintoretto, es convertí en el principal decorador del Palazzo Ducale. Amb una producció abundosa, sobresortí com a realitzador de grans composicions, en les quals es desenvolupen escenes festives d’un caràcter sacre o profà dins d’ampul·losos ambients arquitectònics (Noces de Canà, 1562, Louvre; Sopar a casa de Leví, 1573, Accademia; Noces de santa Caterina, 1575, Accademia; Epifania, 1573, National Gallery, Londres).

El seu estil, escenogràfic i luxós, es caracteritzà pel virtuosisme compositiu, per l’explosió de llum i de color i pel dinamisme formal. Extraordinari dominador de la perspectiva i l’escorç, la seva obra constituí el pròleg de la pintura barroca decorativa. Les seves grans composicions religioses no tenen, tanmateix, l’emoció de les de Ticià, ni el dramatisme d’Il Tintoretto; la seva veritable vocació és la de cantor de les glòries de Venècia o la narració d’episodis de la mitologia, entesos com al·legories de virtuts o vicis.

Si Ticià és el pintor de les grans monarquies europees, Il Veronese limitarà el seu camp a les esglésies, palaus i viles de la regió veneciana, a les que proporciona una adient decoració. Il Veronese crea un nou sentit espacial en la decoració d’interiors; l’originalitat del seu sistema consisteix en una adequació pintura-arquitectura en el sentit de crear sistemes continus, en els que els jocs de destresa il·lusionística no són idees enginyoses, sinó elements d’un tot concebut coherentment. L’arquitectura constitueix l’element definitori dels escenaris de la pintura d’Il Veronese; la seva presència és sempre un element actiu de la composició. El classicisme venecià subministra un entorn, no un mer teló de fons, i serveix per a exposar l’ideal de ciutat que un urbanisme com el de Venècia feia impossible. L’entorn urbà de les pintures religioses d’Il Veronese és el que ens denota una interpretació de les seves composicions en clau laica i ciutadana.

L’escola de Parma

Correggio, 1489-1534, format a Màntua, rebé la influència de l’obra tardana de Mantegna, suavitzada pel sentimentalisme religiós de Lorenzo Costa i Francesco Francia. La seva obra s’enriquí també amb el sfumatto de Leonardo i amb el colorisme venecià, i aconsegueix dissoldre les figures en l’espai i la sensació d’ingravidesa i de vol. El fresc de la cúpula de l’església de san Giovanni Evangelista, a Parma, fou un precedent de les perspectives il·lusòries de les cúpules barroques i manifestava la influència de Miquel Àngel. A la mateixa manera de concebre la composició responien les pintures de l’assumpció de la catedral de Parma: núvols i teixits es mesclen amb nus, en estudiats escorços. Amb les seves pintures murals, Correggio presentà la novetat de la composició lliure de vincles arquitectònics. En la composició de la seva pintura de cavallet, de tema religiós o mitològic, domina una línia obliqua. Són dignes d’esmentar Noli me tangere(1522-23, Prado), la Marededéu de sant Jeroni (1527-28, Parma), Adoració dels pastors(1530, Dresden). Els darrers anys de la seva vida feu una sèrie de pintures sobre els amors de Júpiter, entre les quals sobresurten Dànae (1530-32, Borghese), Leda i el cigne(1530, Berlín), Júpiter i Io (1530, Viena).

És el pintor de la gràcia: els seus nens i adolescents, de somriures insinuants, i les seves figures femenines de tova sensualitat, reflecteixen un món de plaer refinat. L’extremada elaboració formal de la pintura d’Il Correggio és temperada per la vivesa del color i per un clarobscur que suavitza formes i tons. La seva obra constituí un important precedent del barroc, pel seu dinamisme i sentit de la profunditat espacial.

La crisi de la filosofia neoplatònica té una de les seves més significatives inflexions en l’aparició, cap a la meitat de segle, d’un tipus de cultura màgica, esotèrica i alquímica; després de les afirmacions “racionalistes” de certs aspectes del segle XV i del sentit afirmatiu del Classicisme, “el que és amagat” es torna a assumir com un valor. Recordem que el 1533 es publica un llibre tan influent com el De oculta Philosophia d’A. de Nettesheim. En aquest context, les pintures mitològiques d’Il Correggio insisteixen en significats de morbidesa i ambigüitat. Des d’un punt de vista iconogràfic recordem com la sèrie Els amors de Júpiter formaven un cicle complet al palau del Te, a Màntua.. el promotor del cicle proposava, com a elements a seguir, l’estrany, enigmàtic i inusual, concebuts en una rerefons eròtic que exalta l’ambigüitat andrògina (Ganímedes) o les unions contra natura (Leda).

Els suports ideològics de l’obra d’Il Correggio, que inicia el veritable corrent emocional, sensual i popular de la pintura del XVI, el constitueixen els moviments reformistes interiors de l’església, i que, en oposició al món cortesà de la Roma papal, s’inicien a Itàlia a principis de segle. D’aquest moment són les fundacions dels camaldulencs (1522), teatins (1524), caputxins (1525), barnabites (1530), somascs (1537) i jesuïtes (1534). Aquests corrents espirituals, que constitueixen la veritable reforma de l’Església en els països llatins, troben la seva expressió formal en l’art d’Il Correggio.

Parmignianino (1503-1540) format amb Il Correggio, mostrà un formalisme elegant i d’acurada sensualitat; influït per Rafael, es convertí aviat en un dels principals seguidors del corrent manierista: Autoretrat en un mirall convex (1523-24, Viena), Sagrada Família(1524, Prado), i la Visió de san Jeroni (1526, National Gallery), revelen ja la seva inquietud espiritual, que es tradueix en el cànon allargat i l’ondulació de les figures. La sensualitat d’Il Correggio esdevé en ell artificiosa i histèrica; les formes s’allarguen desmesuradament (Madonna del coll llarg, 1534-40, Uffizi) i un to de refinadíssima afectació omple les obres d’elegància cortesana i artifici distanciador, servit amb un colorit exquisit i una tècnica perfecta.

Dr. Joan Campàs Montaner
jcampas@uoc.edu        Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Materials del Curs L’art dels museus: els Uffizi
1. Desconstruint alguns mites del Renaixement
2. Les corts italianes: el context històric del Renaixement italià
3. Milà i el Renaixement: dels Visconti als Sforza
4. L’Urbino de Federico de Montefeltro
5. La Ferrara dels Este
6. La Màntua dels Gonzaga
7. El regne de Nàpols d’Alfons I
8. La Venècia dels dogo
9. Forència en el Renaixement: bases polítiques i econòmiques

10. Florència en el Renaixement: política i mecenatge
11. Els Mèdici, senyors de Florència
12. Giorgio Vasari: els Uffizi, 1560-1581
13. Maestro della Sant’Agata: Madonna de Pisa
14. Cimabue: Maestà di santa Trinità
15. Duccio: Palla Rucellai
16. Giotto: Madonna Ognissanti
17. Simone Martini: L’Anunciació
18. Gentile da Fabriano: Adoració dels mags
19. Lorenzo Monaco: La coronació de la marededéu
20. Fra Angèlic: Coronació de la marededéu
21. Paolo Uccello: La batalla de san Romano
22. Domenico Veneziano: Sacra conversazione
23. Piero della Francesca: Díptic del duc d’Urbino
24. Filippo Lippi: Coronació de la marededéu
25. Hugo van der Goes: Tríptic Portinari
26. Sandro Botticelli: Judit
27. Sandro Botticelli: L’adoració dels mags
28. Sandro Botticelli: La marededéu del magníficat
29. Sandro Botticelli: El naixement de Venus
30. Sandro Botticelli: Al·legoria de la primavera
31. Sandro Botticelli: Minerva i el centaure
32. Sandro Botticelli: L’anunciació Cestello
33. Sandro Botticelli: La calúmnia d’Apel·les
34. Leonardo da Vinci: L’anunciació
35. Leonardo da Vinci: Adoració dels reis
36. Giovanni Bellini: Al·legoria sacra
37. Miquel Àngel: Tondo Doni
38. Rafael: Madonna del cardellino
39. Ticià: La venus d’Urbino
40. Parmigianino: La maredéu del coll llarg
41. Bronzino: Leonor de Toledo
42. Bronzino: Cosimo I amb armadura
43. Trecento

44. Quattrocento
45. Cinquecento

794 comments

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  219. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  220. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  223. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  224. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  241. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  242. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  243. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  244. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  245. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  246. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  247. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  248. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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  260. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  296. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  317. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  318. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  319. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  320. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  321. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  355. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  356. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  357. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  358. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  359. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  360. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  361. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  362. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  368. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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