Filosofia

Per què el món no existeix

Gabriel, Markus (2015). Por qué el mundo no existe. Barcelona: Pasado & Presente.índex

El mes passat, l’editorial Pasado & Presente va publicar en castellà el llibre de Markus Gabriel Por qué el mundo no existe. Un llibre de bona filosofia que es llegeix com una novel·la negra. He de confessar que em va fer oblidar el menjar, i que si no arriba a ser perquè tinc fills potser no hauria pogut aturar-me fins arribar al final. Tot i així, el vaig llegir en menys de 24 hores. Ho sospitava, però ara estic segur que el món no existeix.

El llibre es presenta com un llibre de filosofia que tracta del món, de la vida i tota la resta; és a dir, es pregunta què som, d’on venim, cap a on anem… I a més, la resposta és clara: venim d’enlloc i ens dirigim, en una gran expedició, cap a l’infinit. Tractem d’entendre alguna de les múltiples dimensions del que podria semblar només una frase ocurrent.

La resposta més terrible (menys reconfortant) que mai no he llegit sobre el sentit de l’existència humana, la posa Nietzsche en boca de Silè responent a lMarkus-Gabriel-007a impertinència de l’ambiciós Mides que volia saber la veritat de la condició humana: “Fills de la misèria i del dolor –li diu Silè a Mides-, el millor per l’home és no haver nascut; però ara, que ja ho saps, el millor és morir el més aviat possible”. Difícilment l’animal humà podrà trobar una resposta diferent si aquesta la cerca mirant cap a l’univers infinit: som pols d’estrelles que durant unes poques respiracions del rutilant univers ens entretenim menjant i reproduint-nos.

És possible que tan atractiva resposta pugui semblar versemblant a qui creu que l’existència és només el sensorialment accessible i confon la realitat física amb tota la realitat del món, com així prediquen que és els científics. “L’univers no és el tot. L’univers és el que és explorable per les ciències naturals, però el món és molt més gran que l’univers…” El món, en cas d’existir, seria el domini de totes les coses i tots els fets que tenen lloc sense nosaltres. És clar que en unes respiracions més del monstre infinit, els éssers intel·ligents –i tota la resta- serem calcinats, diu Nietzsche. Però en el món hi ha també totes les coses i tots els fets que existeixen gràcies a nosaltres. El món ho inclou tot: la vida, l’univers i tota la resta… Gabriel argumenta que això que tot ho abraça no pot existir, però sí tota la resta, és clar. Expliquem com és això i també per què els humans volem saber de què va tot això i on som exactament nosaltres, quin és el nostre lloc en el món. Aquest és l’impuls metafísic que caracteritza la nostra condició. És més, s’afirma que podem satisfer la nostra curiositat, és a dir, conèixer com és el món en si, encara que sigui des del nostre punt de vista humà. No podria ser d’una altra manera. Siguem realistes!

El nou realisme que proposa Gabriel no és ni un món sense espectadors ni és el món de l’espectador (una mena de fantasmagoria imaginada). El nou realisme està interessat en el món-amb-espectadors. Però per entendre què implica això hem de partir d’una nova ontologia. Poca cosa. Refem-la breument.

Caldrà que comencem per acceptar que existeixen les fades. És clar que les “fades” no responen al model de realitat física i no poden ser investigades “científicament”, però, malgrat això, existeixen, com existeixen els somnis, el futur i els números. Com ja hem dit, el món és més gran que l’univers.

De fet, el món està ple de diferents àmbits objectuals, com si fossin petits mons aïllats. L’exemple que ens posa Gabriel és el d’un restaurant on trobem els cambrers, els cuiners, els que mengen en diferents taules i conversen, hi ha les aranyes que viuen en el sostre, els insectes que es belluguen per terra, els milions de bacteris invisibles… junts uns al costat dels altres i, de vegades, sense interactuar. Existeixen realment, encara que puguin no estar “interconnectats” perquè no hi ha una regla que descrigui la totalitat del món.

El món no pot existir. Només pot existir –aquesta és una clau important de l’argument- allò que apareix en el món (i està clar que el món com a totalitat no pot aparèixer, perquè, on ho faria?). En canvi, és evident que els cotxes, els restaurants, els estels, les falses creences, les fades, els somnis… sí que existeixen (se’ns apareixen) encara que no ho facin en els mateixos àmbits objectuals. És important saber on existeixen les coses que existeixen.

Una sala de estar y un planeta no pertenecen al mismo ámbito objetual. Un ámbito objetual es un área que contiene un determinado tipo de objetos y en la que se cumplen reglas que conectan estos objetos entre sí… Los ámbitos objetuales no están delimitados espacialmente (31)… Hay muchos ámbitos objetuales y todos los objetos pertenecen a uno… (salas de estar, planetas, municipios, etc. –que dan cabida a otros objetos-.). En condiciones normales, somos muy capaces de distinguir los diferentes ámbitos objetuales. (32)

Si algú està pensant que en definitiva tot està fet de matèria (també el nostre cervell on passen moltes d’aquestes coses), vull advertir, encara que aquí no ho pugui mostrar, que el materialisme no només no és demostrable, sinó que, com es demostrarà en el llibre, és absolutament fals.

Sabem, doncs, que el món, de ser alguna cosa, és el context de totes les coses que existeixen i dels fets que tenen lloc en els diferents àmbits objectuals (un fet és quelcom que és cert sobre alguna cosa). Sí, algú ja podria estar objectant o pensant que potser tot es podria reduir a un sol àmbit objectual (el de les coses del món físic-material) i que els fets, aquests únics (o els que siguin) difícilment els podem conèixer perquè només hi ha o pot haver interpretacions. No és possible constatar fets en sí. L’objecció és un clàssic de la filosofia (des de Kant fins als nostres dies).

Aquestes objeccions són a judici de Gabriel falses. Si bé és cert que els humans produïm teories (discursos sobre el món) i que les observacions i registres que fem a través de diferents eines poden donar resultats diferents, el fet de fer registres diferents no vol dir que ho produïm nosaltres, i cal distingir les condicions del procés del coneixement de les condicions d’existència d’allò conegut. Som éssers-en-el-món, però no déus creadors del món en el qual som.

El món existeix. Millor dit: existeixen pluralitat de mons o de coses que apareixen. De fet “existir” (nou concepte important) és la circumstància de què quelcom ens aparegui en un camp de sentit. Cal que les coses ens apareguin en un dels àmbits del món, n’hi ha molts i alguns són independents entre si. Pot passar que la papallona mogui les ales desesperadament en la teranyina de l’habitació del costat i ni jo, ni el meu gos, ni Messi, que està jugant un partit de futbol a Sebastpol, ens n’assabentem, ni tingui cap repercussió.

I compte, encara que aquest és un altre tema important que hauré d’obviar, que una cosa aparegui no vol dir que sigui veritat: poden aparèixer pensaments falsos, com per exemple que hi ha bruixes, la qual cosa no vol dir que apareguin els objectes sobre els quals tracten aquests pensaments.

El sentit, per ser breu, és la forma en què apareix un objecte. I no hi ha objectes fora dels camps de sentit. En el pla ontològic, és indiferent si algú ho percep o no. Tot té lloc enlloc, és a dir, tenen lloc infinitat de coses alhora, encara que de moltes no ens n’assabentem. El llenguatge i la cultura és la manera humana de fer significatius alguns d’aquests esdeveniments.

Los campos de sentido son áreas en las que determinados objetos aparecen de una manera determinada. En los ámbitos objetuales, y desde luego en las cantidades, se hace en cambio abstracción de ello. Así, pues, dos campos de sentido pueden referirse a los mismos objetos, que aparecen en ellos de forma diferente (77). [per exemple, depenent del camp de sentit, una mà pot ser un munt d’àtoms, una obra d’art o un instrument per fer alguna cosa]

A hores d’ara, en l’argumentació hauria de quedar clar que només coneixem una part de l’infinit i des de la perspectiva humana. Em remeto a la lectura del llibre perquè es pugui veure clar com malgrat la indiferència d’allò que pugui tenir lloc en un àmbit objectual, els objectes no són indiferents als camps de sentit en què apareixen, per la qual cosa hem de conèixer el sentit d’un camp de sentit per saber en quin camp de sentit ens trobem i els objectes amb els quals ens podem trobar. Alguns camps de sentit només són accessibles per als humans.

Amb això vull dir –interpreto que Gabriel ens està dient, i així ho afirma- que no es pot mirar el món des de “cap lloc” (que si estiguéssim fora). La vida humana, diu a la pàgina 105, és un moviment continu per diferents camps de sentit, les relacions entre els quals anem descobrint o imaginant. Amb això també s’està afirmant que la realitat és molt més àmplia del que coneixem i pot ser distinta de com la coneixem, el que no vol dir que no n’hi hagi o que no la coneguem en si.

La comprensión de que el mundo no existe y de que solo hay campos de sentido que se multiplican infinitamente en infinitas variaciones, nos permite concentrarnos en el ser humano con independencia de cualquier visión particular del mundo. Todas las concepciones del mundo son de hecho falsas porque suponen que hay un mundo del que formarse una imagen. (106)

En el fascinant llibre de M. Gabriel, també es parla del sentit de la religió i de l’art, però ara no ho podem explicar.

El llibre acaba amb una resposta al problema del sentit, com li pertoca a un llibre de filosofia. La resposta, la indicació, no vol obviar la condició humana des de la qual estem en el món per tal que no desaparegui tot sentit humà si només ens fixem en l’univers (que fa quinze mil milions d’anys que s’expandeix a la velocitat de la llum en totes les direccions!).

La respuesta a la pregunta sobre el sentido de la vida está en el sentido mismo. El hecho de que haya infinitos sentidos que podemos reconocer y cambiar, ya es el sentido. O para decirlo en pocas palabras: el sentido de la vida es la vida, la confrontación con el sentido infinito en la que afortunadamente podemos participar. (217)

En la contraportada de l’edició de Pasado & Presente es destaca un afirmació de Slavoj Zizek sobre el llibre de Gabriel de les que poden semblar de compromís i vàlides per a qualsevol llibre de filosofia: “Un ejercicio intel·lectual de primer orden”. Deixeu-me dir que comparteixo la sentència però que, si se’m permet, afegiria que el llibre és molt més que un exercici, és tota una proposta de com fer filosofia i comprendre el món, la vida i tota la resta des d’una nova perspectiva.

78 comments

  1. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  2. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  3. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  4. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  5. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  6. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  7. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  8. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  10. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  11. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  12. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  13. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  14. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  15. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  16. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  17. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  18. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  19. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  20. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  21. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  22. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  23. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  24. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  25. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  26. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  28. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  29. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  30. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  31. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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