Humanitats

El cervell ens enganya. Som les nostres connexions (1)

 Reflexió inicial

Tot és mentida. Aquesta és la incòmoda realitat que cal afrontar quan analitzem el funcionament del cervell [1]. El nostre crani és un búnquer que alberga la gelatinosa massa rosada de menys d’un quilo i mig de pes amb la qual creiem entendre el moviment de les marees, expliquem la caiguda de l’Imperi romà, ens emocionem escoltant un poema o mirant un quadre, jutgem la conducta dels altres, ens imaginem un futur millor, sentim que ens fa mal el genoll, desitgem un amor etern o reflexionem sobre el coneixement i el propi cervell.

El cervell, bàsicament, és un dispositiu fruit de la selecció natural i dedicat al servei de la supervivència d’un organisme viu; per això, és capaç de suplir informacions que li manquen amb fabulacions, fantasies, creences, mistificacions…, per tal de garantir i assegurar aquesta supervivència (els sentits no existeixen per a reflectir la realitat exterior, sinó per a la preservació de l’espècie). Per al cervell és millor tenir una informació completa, encara que sigui falsa, que cap; per això omple buits amb irrealitats i informacions falses per tal que tot sigui coherent (podria ser aquesta la base de les creences religioses, supersticions, mites…?).

Al cervell li és igual com és la realitat: el que li interessa és com pot utilitzar-la per a la supervivència de l’organisme (no té cap interès, doncs, plantejar-se «la cosa-en-sí» dels idealistes perquè el cervell mai la percebrà «tal com és»). [2]

La primera decepció que ens emportem és que la major part de la informació exterior que coneixem prové de la llum, un fragment de la radiació electromagnètica que inunda l’univers i que sempre està disposada a enganyar-nos. De fet, ni tan  sols percebem la major part de la radiació, que viatja a través nostre en forma de microones, ones de ràdio, llum infraroja, raigs X o raigs gamma (una gran part del cervell està dedicada a la visió, i una altra al moviment, no al pensament i la reflexió).

Exemple 1.

Els colors, per exemple, no existeixen: són la manera com el nostre cervell descodifica la reflexió d’una radiació electromagnètica de determinada longitud d’ona. El color és una construcció del nostre cervell (evolutivament va servir per a seleccionar la fruita madura, distingir els animals perillosos…) i està condicionat pels colors que l’envolten; a més, el cervell corregeix els colors en funció de la quantitat de llum que els arriba.

colors1

Segurament tothom hi veu una espiral verda i una de blava sobre un fons rosa. Però en realitat, la verda i la blava són el mateix color.

colors2

Tenim un cervell que construeix, mitjançant artificis  electroquímics, la sensació de continuïtat i coherència que ens permet adaptar-nos a un entorn que nosaltres interpretem com una realitat. La prioritat del nostre cervell no és conèixer la veritat subjectiva –si és que existeix o té algun sentit–, sinó garantir la nostra supervivència com a individus i com a espècie. Al cervell li és igual si una cosa és veritat o no; i si no té prou informació, se la inventa. Tot sigui per a mantenir l’equilibri intern i extern.

El cervell crea l’experiència de realitat virtual més creïble. Tot el que veiem, sentim i toquem, creiem estar-ho experimentant exactament com és, sense mediació ni censura. Però no és cert. La veritat és que només captem indicis de la realitat física. Utilitzant aquesta pobra informació sensorial com a punt de partida, el cervell omple els espais en blanc. Suposa, anticipa, omple els buits. Això vol dir que no percebem el món com realment és, sinó com una versió creada pel nostre cervell que només en part es basa en la realitat.

D’entrada, cal reconèixer tot el que ens perdem simplement pels nostres limitats recursos d’atenció. Si haguéssim de processar absolutament tota la informació sensorial que ens arriba del nostre entorn immediat, quedaríem paralitzats per una sobrecàrrega de dades. Per aquest motiu, el cervell porta a terme un procés d’atenció selectiva. De fet només parem atenció a la informació i als esdeveniments que cauen sota d’aquest focus.

Experiment 1.

En la investigació de Christopher Chabris i Daniel Simons, publicada el 1999 [3], els participants havien de contemplar un petit videoclip en què dos equips de bàsquet es passaven la pilota; havien de comptar el nombre de passades que es feien els jugadors vestits de blanc i ignorar les passades que es feien els jugadors vestits de negre. Allò en el que estaven interessats Chabris i Simons era en quants participants s’adonarien d’una dona disfressada de goril·la que passava per entre els jugadors mentre aquests es passaven la pilota. Sorprenentment, van constatar que la majoria dels participants estaven tan absorts comptant les passades que van fer totalment cas omís del goril·la, un fenomen que els investigadors van qualificar de «ceguesa per falta d’atenció».

Podem experimentar, personalment, aquest fet per exemple, a http://www.theinvisiblegorilla.com/gorilla_experiment.html.

Experiment 2.

L’any 2012, una investigació al Royal Holloway de la Universitat de Londres, a Anglaterra, va mostrar que un principi similar és aplicable al que (no) sentim [4]. Polly Dalton i Nick Fraenkel van idear i van gravar una escena real en la qual dues dones conversaven sobre una festa en un dels costats d’una habitació, i dos homes feien el mateix a l’altra banda, i a més hi havia una mena de goril·la. Es va fer escoltar la gravació als participants i se’ls va demanar que se centressin només en una de les dues converses. El setanta per cent dels que es van centrar en la conversa de les dues dones no es van adonar en absolut d’un estrany home que travessava l’habitació pel centre dient repetidament «Sóc un goril·la». Resumint, Dalton i Fraenkel van explicar que l’absència d’atenció pot deixar a les persones sordes davant d’un estímul auditiu sostingut i dinàmic que és clarament perceptible en circumstàncies normals.

Aquestes limitacions atencionals poden tenir conseqüències greus en la vida real; pensem només en els treballs que depenen de l’habilitat humana per adonar-se del que passa, com és el cas dels controladors del trànsit aeri.

Experiment 3.

La ceguesa per falta d’atenció en la professió de radiògraf (o tecnòleg de radiologia) va ser il·lustrada en un estudi [5] de l’any 2008 en què un grup de radiòlegs experimentats i un grup de no experts havien d’examinar una sèrie de radiografies de pulmó buscant uns nòduls circulars clars que indicaven la presència d’un càncer de pulmó. Trafton Drew i els seus col·legues van trobar que 20 dels 24 radiòlegs no es van adonar de la sorprenent presència en cinc de les radiografies d’un goril·la de la mida d’una caixa de llumins. Al costat positiu, els experts van tenir un rendiment millor que el dels participants que no eren metges, cap dels quals va notar la presència del goril·la. L’equip de Drew va dir que aquests resultats no eren una crítica a la impressionant habilitat dels radiòlegs, sinó que «el missatge implícit en aquests resultats és que fins i tot aquest elevat nivell de perícia no els immunitza davant les limitacions inherents de l’atenció i percepció humanes».

radiografia            Es pot veure un goril·la a la part superior dreta de la zona negra

Punts cecs

Fins i tot quan estem parant tota la nostra atenció, estem aïllats de bona part de la realitat. Pensem en els sons de to agut que estan fora de l’abast de la nostra detecció, o en les ones infraroges que passen, invisibles, davant nostre. Fins i tot en el cas de la informació que sí que podem detectar, hi ha llacunes en la nostra percepció. L’exemple més obvi és el punt cec visual.

punt_cec

El punt cec de la retina. Els vasos sanguinis (vermell, morat) es veuen aquí irradiant des del disc òptic (groc), a través d’un microscopi electrònic. El disc òptic és l’àrea de la retina -el «punt cec» – on el nervi òptic i els vasos sanguinis entren a l’ull. No hi ha cèl·lules fotosensibles en aquesta part de la retina, el que significa que som efectivament cecs a qualsevol llum que incideixi allà.
No podem processar cap llum que incideixi en la part de la retina en què es troba aquest forat, el que ens deixa amb un punt cec en cada ull.

La major part del temps ni ens adonem d’aquest fet a causa que el nostre cervell «omple» la informació que falta. No obstant això, seguint uns quants passos senzills podem experimentar aquest punt cec nosaltres mateixos.

Experiment 4.

Agafem un tros de paper i dibuixem una X a la banda esquerra i una O al costat dret (o fem servir la X i la O impreses en aquesta mateixa pàgina). Ara tanquem un ull, centrem l’atenció en la X i apropem i allunyem el paper de la cara. A certa distància descobrirem que l’O desapareix perquè ha caigut de ple en el nostre punt cec. Però en comptes de veure un espai en blanc on hauria d’estar l’O, hi veurem una extensió de paper. Això és degut a que el nostre cervell utilitza l’entorn per predir el que hi ha en el lloc que correspon al punt cec. Aquest és un bon exemple de com el nostre cervell construeix activament part del que percebem com la realitat.

                             X                                                       O

Experiment 5.

Una altra forma senzilla de posar de manifest les nostres limitacions sensorials és fent la prova de la discriminació dels dos punts. Demaneu a un amic que us punxi amb les puntes de dos llapis separats entre si uns quinze centímetres a l’esquena (on la sensibilitat és relativament pobra comparada, per exemple, amb la que tenim al dors de la mà). Després demanem-li a l’amic que vagi aproximant gradualment els dos llapis, i  li haurem de dir si podem notar una o dues punxades. Finalment, a mesura que els llapis es van apropant, arribarà un moment en què ens estaran punxant en dos llocs però sentirem com si només ens estiguessin punxant en un. Això es deu al fet que el nombre de cèl·lules cerebrals dedicades a representar la nostra pell és finit, quan els dos llapis estan massa a prop no tenim la sensibilitat suficient per distingir-los.

Exemple 2.

El nostre cervell sembla anticipar la nostra sensació subjectiva de durant quant de temps porten els objectes en la seva ubicació actual. Si dirigim ​​la mirada a un lloc concret de l’habitació on ens trobem, per exemple, a un llum, el nostre cervell té en compte la pèrdua temporal d’input visual assumint que la llum estava en la seva posició actual, no només des del moment en què els nostres ulls la varen veure, sinó també quan no la veiem [6].

Una altra limitació dels nostres sentits és el temps que triga a arribar als centres nerviosos. Encara que a nosaltres ens sembla que percebem el món instantàniament, de fet la informació sensorial triga un temps a arribar (aproximadament una dècima de segon en el cas de la visió). La major part d’aquesta dilació es compensa mitjançant una sèrie de processos d’anticipació. El cervell està constantment predient com és probablement el món ara basant-se en com era fa un moment.

La lentitud de les nostres sendes sensorials és un problema particular quan es tracta de seguir la pista d’un objecte en moviment. En el moment en que un objecte és percebut conscientment com estant en un lloc, ja s’ha desplaçat a un altre. Una part de la solució que adopta el cervell és ubicar un objecte mòbil per davant de la seva posició actual. Dit d’una altra manera, no el percebem on està, sinó on estarà, amb la qual cosa contribueix a anul·lar la dilació en el processament.

Exemple 3.

Això pot demostrar mitjançant una il·lusió coneguda com el «efecte flash-lag» [retard de flaix]. És més fàcil experimentar-lo que descriure’l (vegeu, per exemple, http://www.youtube.com/v/xA_0Dr3r-Q4?hl=es_ES&version=3″/ ). La il·lusió es produeix quan un objecte estacionari és il·luminat amb una espurna al costat d’un objecte mòbil. Tot i que els dos objectes estan en realitat alineats, l’objecte estacionari és percebut com endarrerit. Això es deu al fet que l’objecte en moviment ha estat percebut com avançat respecte a la seva posició real en el moment en què apareix l’objecte estacionari. S’ha dit que l’efecte flash-lag pot fins i tot ser el responsable de decisions arbitrals discutibles sobre possibles fores de joc en el futbol (aquestes decisions es basen en part en un judici sobre si un jugador està davant de la pilota o no). [7]

Les il·lusions

Les situacions il·lusòries que exposen la desconnexió entre la realitat i la percepció que en tenim no només són una gran font de diversió, sinó que també les utilitzen els investigadors per esbrinar més coses sobre com funciona el cervell. Les il·lusions es poden experimentar mitjançant qualsevol dels sentits, i varien en funció de en quina part del camí sensorial és enganyat el cervell.

Algunes il·lusions són experimentades a causa de processos fisiològics bàsics que es produeixen a nivell de receptors sensorials individuals.

Exemple 4.

La “il·lusió de la cascada”, que es produeix quan un passa uns minuts mirant una cascada (hi ha versions en línia, com a: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLDKcZB8Eaw). Si després d’estar una estona mirant la cascada, un mira la paret de roca que està al seu costat té l’estranya sensació que aquesta s’està movent cap amunt, en la direcció oposada al flux de l’aigua. Es creu que aquesta il·lusió es produeix a causa de l’adaptació o de la fatiga dels receptors sensorials sensibles a la direcció concreta del moviment de la cascada. Quan un passa a mirar la paret de roca, l’activitat de base d’aquestes cèl·lules roman momentàniament alterada. La confusió perceptual es produeix a causa que la seva senyal suprimida es compara amb l’activitat de les cèl·lules que codifiquen el moviment en altres direccions, fent que el sistema visual conclogui incorrectament que les roques s’estan movent cap amunt.

Exemple 5.

Altres il·lusions depenen de processos cognitius relacionats amb les suposicions que fa el cervell respecte del món. Tenim la «il·lusió del tauler i l’ombra» desenvolupada pel científic de la visió del MIT Edward Adelson [8]. Dues caselles d’un tauler d’escacs semblen ser de tons de gris completament diferents quan de fet són exactament del mateix color. La majoria de les persones reaccionen amb incredulitat quan els diuen la veritat, el que confirma l’adagi segons el qual “veure és creure”, encara que de fet el que veiem és sovint molt diferent del que és real. Un pot destruir la il·lusió cobrint el tauler amb un tros de paper especialment preparat per deixar, només a la vista les dues caselles en qüestió, de manera que es veu que són exactament del mateix color.

escacs

La il·lusió del tauler i l’ombra. Resulta difícil de creure, però les caselles marcades com A i B són de fet del mateix to gris. Aquesta il·lusió proporciona una magnífica demostració de la forma en què la nostra percepció del món és sovint espectacularment diferent de com és en realitat el món.

La il·lusió del tauler i l’ombra es produeix enganyant als processos mentals implicats en la «constància del color». En interpretar la llum reflectida per una superfície, el cervell reajusta les coses en funció de les ombres i de les variacions de les fonts de llum de l’entorn. Per posar un exemple, això és el que ens permet reconèixer que l’herba és verda de dia i de nit, una tarda assolellada o sota un cel gris i ennuvolat.

A la il·lusió del tauler i l’ombra, una de les caselles objectiu està envoltada de caselles més clares, i l’altra ho està de caselles més fosques. Aquesta segona casella també està en la penombra. Combinats, aquests factors porten a fer que la segona casella sigui percebuda com més clara del que és en realitat. Aquest efecte demostra l’èxit, més que el fracàs, del nostre sistema visual.

Gairebé res del que passa en la nostra vida mental està sota el nostre control conscient

Experiment 6.
Es demana a un grup d’homes que classifiquin fotos de diferents cares de dona segons el seu atractiu físic. En la meitat de les fotografies les dones tenien els ulls dilatats. La majoria dels homes es van sentir més atrets per les dones d’ulls dilatats, i cap d’ells es va adonar que això havia influït en la seva decisió. El cervell ho sabia, els homes no.

Exemple 6.

El 20 d’agost del 1974, en un partit entre els Califòrnia Angels i els Detroit Tigers, el Llibre Guiness dels Rècords va registrar la bola més ràpida de Nolan Ryan a una velocitat de 100,9 milles per hora (44,7 metres per segon ). Si es calcula, ens adonarem que el llançament de Ryan surt del monticle i creua la base meta, que està a una distància de 27,4 metres, en quatre dècimes de segon. Això dóna temps suficient a que els senyals lluminosos de la pilota de beisbol arribin a l’ull del batedor, recorrin el circuit de la retina, activin la successió de cèl·lules que hi ha al llarg de les intricades autopistes del sistema visual de la part posterior de la cap, creuin ingents territoris fins a les zones motors, i modifiquin la contracció dels músculs que mouen el bat. Tota aquesta seqüència és possible en menys de quatre dècimes de segon; d’una altra manera, ningú podria colpejar una pilota ràpida. Però la part sorprenent és que la consciència triga més: al voltant de mig segon més. De manera que la pilota viatja massa de pressa perquè els batedors en siguin conscients.

Plantejament teòric: l’inconscient en Freud

Freud va començar a sospitar que les varietats del comportament humà eren explicables només en termes de processos mentals invisibles, de la maquinària que actuava entre bastidors. Freud va observar que, sovint, en la ment conscient dels pacients no hi havia res evident que impulsés el seu comportament, i així, en concebre el cervell com una maquinària, va concloure que devien existir causes subjacents a les que no podíem accedir. Des d’aquesta nova perspectiva, la ment no era tan sols equivalent a la part conscient amb la qual convivim familiarment; més aviat era com un iceberg, la major part de la seva massa quedava oculta.

Freud va insistir a buscar la causa en el cervell físic. Com Freud va viure diverses dècades abans de les modernes tecnologies cerebrals, només podia recollir dades des «fora» del sistema: parlant amb els pacients i intentant inferir els seus estats cerebrals a partir dels seus estats mentals. Des d’aquesta perspectiva, va prestar molta atenció a la informació que contenien els lapsus de la llengua, els lapsus de l’escriptura, les pautes de comportament i el contingut dels somnis. Va postular la hipòtesi que tot això era el producte de mecanismes nerviosos ocults, un maquinària a la qual el subjecte no hi tenia accés directe. En examinar els comportaments que apuntaven per sobre de la superfície, Freud confiava a poder fer-se una idea del que s’hi amagava sota.

Deixava que parlessin, sense inhibicions, de les primeres manifestacions dels seus símptomes. Freud va ampliar la tècnica a altres neurosis, i va suggerir que les experiències traumàtiques sepultades d’un pacient podrien ser la base oculta de les seves fòbies, paràlisi histèriques, paranoies, etc. Va intuir que aquests problemes quedaven ocults per a la ment conscient. La solució consistiria a atreure’ls al nivell de la consciència per a poder enfrontar-s’hi directament i suprimir la seva capacitat de provocar neurosis. Aquest enfocament va servir com a base de la psicoanàlisi durant el segle següent.

El testimoni dels sentits: ¿com és «en realitat» l’experiència?

Exemple 7.

Els sentits ens enganyen. Les bandes de Mach: tot i ser de color uniforme, es veuen més clares a la banda esquerra i més fosques en la dreta.

bandes_mach

Problema: què és la consciència? A través de què som conscients?

Creiem que veiem el  món perfectament fins que algú ens diu que no és així. Com és en realitat la nostra experiència conscient, i com no és?

Quan mirem, escoltem… podem tenir la sensació que la nostra percepció és exacta, que no hi ha diferència entre els ulls i una càmera de vídeo. Però no és així.

Exemple 8.

Quan movem el braç, en el nostre cervell hi té lloc una immensa activitat nerviosa (milers de fibres nervioses enregistren estats de contracció i estirament), però no en som conscients, no ens n’adonem: només som conscients que el braç es mou i ha canviat de posició.

L’activitat nerviosa i muscular queda enregistrada en el cervell, però el que arriba a la consciència –que el braç està en una altra posició– és una cosa totalment diferent.

La consciència és la manera de projectar tota l’activitat del sistema nerviós d’una manera més senzilla. La consciència ens n’ofereix un resum útil.

La funció del cervell és reunir i processar amb efectivitat informació rellevant per
determinar una conducta adaptativa (sobreviure, reproduir-se i subsistir amb el major confort) idònia en les circumstàncies ambientals, però no representar fidelment la realitat. El cervell no és una «burocràcia» lineal on les sensacions travessen successius nivells de procés i integració fins a una consciència decisòria, sinó un sistema de xarxes amb múltiples bucles de retroalimentació mútua, que operen en paral·lel d’acord a una dinàmica pròpia.

Experiències com els fenòmens d’agnòsia (és possible veure sense ser-ne conscient) i anosagnòsia (és possible haver perdut la vista i no ser-ne conscient: pèrdua de la consciència de la malaltia), entre d’altres, mostren que la major part del funcionament cerebral és inconscient, i que és més eficaç i eficient que així sigui. La consciència és un mecanisme de reforç de l’atenció pel que determinades informacions elaborades ràpidament i inconscientment, siguin elaborades de forma més lenta i formal per tal que la conducta conscient que se’n derivi tingui una més gran precisió i seguretat. La gran funció de la consciència és servir com a mecanisme de determinació de metes i assignació de recursos per a l’auto aprenentatge reforçat de noves perícies –que guanyen en eficiència i redueixen el seu cost com més s’aconsegueixin automatitzar.

Veiem per cervell, no pels ulls

L’acte de «veure» sembla natural però és molt complex. Un terç del cervell humà es dedica a la visió. El cervell ha de dur a terme un ingent treball per a interpretar sense ambigüitat els milers de milions de fotons que inunden els ulls (és l’ambigüitat la que permet, entre altres, els jocs de màgia).

Exemple 9.

Una imatge de la torre de Pisa en petit pot ser deguda a que la veiem des de 500 m o a que es tracta d’una miniatura a mig metre.

Els qui recuperen la vista després de dècades de ceguesa, no hi veuen de cop: han d’aprendre a veure-hi de nou. El cervell ha d’interpretar les dades.

Per tal d’adonar-se’n que la visió és una construcció només ens cal observar com de sovint el nostre sistema visual s’equivoca. És un error molt estès el pensar que el nostre sistema visual ofereix una representació fidel del que hi ha «fora». Existeix una «ceguesa al canvi» (subratlla la importància de l’atenció: per veure com canvia un objecte cal estar atent).

Experiment 7.

Algú que fa de turista demana a un transeünt una adreça en un plànol; mentre el mira, passen uns operaris pel mig amb una porta, i es reemplaça el turista per una altra persona. Molta gent no se n’adona que la persona que li estava preguntant és una altra.

Nomes codifiquem una petita quantitat de la informació que arriba als nostres ulls. La resta és suposició. Mirar cap a una cosa no garanteix que la veiem (en això es basen molts trucs de màgia).

Exemple 10.

De què està format ׀׀׀׀׀׀׀׀׀׀?   De línies verticals; però quantes? Cal fer un esforç per a respondre. Puc conèixer algunes coses d’una escena sense conèixer-ne d’altres.

Només ens adonem del que ignorem quan se’ns pregunta.

La visió no consisteix només a mirar. El cervell no utilitza un model 3D per a reconstruir el món. El cervell sap molt poques coses: només sap com recuperar les dades. Funciona sobre la base del què necessita saber. No som conscients de gran cosa fins que ens ho preguntem. [Formular preguntes és una manera de convertir en conscient allò que no havíem vist o considerat]. Abans d’aplicar la nostra concentració, el que sol passar és que no som conscients de que no som conscients. Només veiem el que necessitem veure. El cervell necessita saber on anar a buscar la informació. I d’aquí la necessitat de formular-se preguntes.

Experiment 8.

Alfred Yarbus (1967) va mesurar els llocs exactes que mirava la gent fent servir un rastrejador ocular. Un grup de gent havia de mirar el quadre. Segons el que es demanava als enquestats (què feia la gent, quina edat tenien, si eren rics, quan temps havia estat absent…), movien els ulls seguint pautes totalment diferents, recorrent la pintura d’una manera que proporcionava la màxima informació per a la pregunta formulada.

quadre

Ilya Repin: Visitants inesperats (They Did Not Expect Him), 1884-8. Oli sobre tela. 160.5 x 167.5 cm. The State Tretyakov Gallery.

Per tant, el cervell extreu del món el tipus d’informació que necessita, i no necessita veure tot el que s’esdevé, ni necessita emmagatzemar-ho tot; l’únic que necessita saber és on anar a buscar la informació: optimitza la seva estratègia a la recerca de dades.

Exemple 11.

cub_gerro

Si mirem aquest cub, de vegades la cara el davant sembla que sigui la del darrera, i ni el dibuix ni la pàgina han canviat: el canvi té lloc en el cervell.

La visió és activa, no passiva. El sistema visual té més d’una manera d’interpretar l’estímul (és l’exemple típic de dues cares enfrontades que poden veure’s com una gerra –gerra de Rubin, 1915), però no es poden veure al mateix temps la cara i la gerra.

No percebem, doncs, el que hi ha fora, sinó el que ens diu el cervell. Aquest fa suposicions sobre les dades d’entrada, i aquelles es basen en les nostres experiències anteriors.

Experiment 9.

Com els jugadors de beisbol que fan d’exteriors agafen la pilota quan aquesta cau de molt amunt? Com decideixen cap on córrer per atrapar la pilota? No és perquè el cervell es representi on està la pilota a cada moment, ni perquè calculi la velocitat de la pilota, ni l’acceleració. Mike McBeath (1995) va descobrir que els jugadors utilitzen un programa inconscient que els diu no on parar-se, sinó que segueixin corrent; es mouen de tal manera que el trajecte parabòlic de la pilota sempre avança en línia recta des del seu punt de vista (segueixen una trajectòria peculiarment corba), i aquesta estratègia no ens proporciona cap informació sobre on estarà el punt d’intersecció, sinó només que cal seguir movent-se, i per això xoquen contra la paret perseguint pilotes impossibles d’agafar.

Exemple 12.

Mike May va perdre la vista als tres anys; als 46 va ser operat i la va recuperar: els ulls li funcionaven amb normalitat però el seu cervell no «entenia» les dades que li arribaven (ex. quan estava cec les parets del passadís eren paral·leles; ara les veia en perspectiva, en moure el cap cap a l’esquerra l’escena es desplaça cap a la dreta…).

Per tant, l’experiència conscient de la visió es dóna només quan existeix una predicció exacta de conseqüències sensorials. Cal aprendre a veure.

Exemple 13.

Pot reemplaçar el cervell un sentit per un altre? Sí. Per exemple, convertint les imatges de vídeo en vibracions a l’esquena.

Eric Weihenmayer és escalador (ha pujat a l’Everest) i cec. Escala amb una xarxa de 600 diminuts elèctrodes a la boca (BrainPort): veu amb la llengua mentre escala.

Tinguem present que el cervell «no veu res», està a les fosques dins del crani. El sentit de la visió obeeix a milions de senyals nervioses que viatgen per cables diferents: al cervell li és igual d’on provinguin les senyals. Veiem amb el cervell, no amb els ulls (aspecte important en l’estudi de l’art: on està la bellesa, la proporció, l’estètica…?).

Lectures de referència

Eagleman, David (2014). Incógnito. Las vidas secretas del cerebro. Barcelona. Anagrama. (Col. Argumentos, 449), pàgs. 13-58

Jarrett, Christian (2015). Grandes mitos del cerebro. Vilassar de Dalt. Ediciones de Intervención Cultural. pàgs. 277-284

Rial, Antoni (2015). Descobrint el cervell. València. Universitat de València Servei de Publicacions. (Col. Sense fronteres, 38). Pàgs. 15-24

Rubia, Francisco J. (2010). El cerebro nos engaña. Madrid. Ed. Temas de Hoy. Planeta. (Col. Booket. Divulgación, 3023). 2ª impr. 445 pàgs.

Notes

[1] Rial, Antoni (2015). Descobrint el cervell. València. Universitat de València Servei de Publicacions. (Col. Sense fronteres, 38). pàgs. 15-24.

[2] Rubia, Francisco J. (2010). El cerebro nos engaña. Madrid. Ed. Temas de Hoy. Planeta. (Col. Booket. Divulgación, 3023). 2ª impr. Pàgs. 30-34.

[3] Simmons, D. J. y Chabris, C. F. (1999). «Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events». Perception-London, 28(9), 105?-1074. En línia a http://www.chabris.com/Simons1999.pdf

[4] Dalton, O. y Fraenkel, N. (2012). «Gorillas we have missed: Sustained inattentional deafness for dynamic events”. Cognition, 124(3), 367-372. En línia a http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027712001047

[5] Drew, T., Vö, M.L.H. y Wolfe, J.M. (2013). «The invisible gorilla strikes again: Sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers». Psychological Science. Sep; 24(9): 1848–1853. En línia a http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964612/

[6] No solem mirar una escena de forma estàtica. Els ulls es mouen, buscant parts interessants d’una escena i construint un mapa mental del conjunt. En l’ull humà, només la part central de la retina, la fòvea, té una alta concentració de cèl·lules fotoreceptores sensibles al color, els cons. La resta de la retina està entapissada bàsicament per bastons, cèl·lules fotosensibles monocromàtiques, especialment bones en la detecció del moviment. Per això, la fòvea és la part de la retina encarregada de la visió en alta resolució. Movent l’ull de manera que petites parts de l’escena puguin ser advertides amb major resolució, es poden optimitzar els recursos del cos. Si tota l’escena fos vista en alta resolució, el diàmetre del nervi òptic seria fins i tot més gran que el del propi globus ocular. Per això, un processament de tota l’escena en alta resolució requeriria a més un cervell molt superior a l’actual.

[7] Baldo, M. V. C., Ranvaud, R. D. Y Morya, E. (2002). «Flag errors in soccer games: The flash-lag effect brought to real life». Perception-London, 31(10), 1205-1210. En línia a http://www.icb.usp.br/~vinicius/publications/Baldo_Ranvaud_Morya%202002%20.pdf

[8] Adelson, Edward H. Checkershadow Illusion, en línia a http://web.mit.edu/persci/people/adelson/checkershadow_illusion.html

Dr. Joan Campàs   Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

Curs Som les nostres connexions
Material en format pdf

Tema 0. Presentació i justificació
Tema 1. El cervell ens enganya

Tema 2. El cervell també enganya l’autopercepció del cos
Tema 3. Anatomia cerebral bàsica
Tema 4. Mite: Només utilitzem el 10 % del nostre cervell 

Tema 5. Mite: L’homosexualitat (l’hetero, la bi, la trans) és una elecció
Tema 6. Mite: Els fills hereten la intel·ligència dels pares
Tema 7. Mite: Internet i els videojocs són addictius
Tema 8. Mite: El cervell és un ordinador
Tema 9. La memòria
Tema 10. Com definir el «jo»? El cervell i la «joïtat»
Tema 11. L’evolució del cervell (1)
Tema 12. L’evolució del cervell (2)
Tema 13. L’evolució del cervell (3)
Tema 14. L’evolució del cervell (4)
Tema 15. Cervell humà i evolució

Conjunt dels posts amb les introduccions fetes al facebook
Som les nostres connexions

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  85. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  86. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  87. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  88. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  89. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  90. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  91. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  92. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  124. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  146. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  147. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

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  156. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  157. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  158. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  159. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  160. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  161. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  162. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  163. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  164. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  183. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  184. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  186. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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  189. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  190. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  191. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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