La influencia de la cultura griega en el ámbito doméstico del mundo romano.

Jordi Beltran Andreu
Graduado en Humanidades por la UOC, sobre su trabajo final de grado La influencia de la cultura griega en el ámbito doméstico del mundo romano


La influencia de Grecia en la arquitectura doméstica romana
Domus romana

A lo largo de sus diez siglos de historia, Roma fue recibiendo influencias muy diversas de todas aquellas culturas con las que se relacionó, especialmente de la griega. La influencia del mundo griego provocó que el ciudadano romano tradicional, pragmático y austero, soldado y campesino, fiel a las costumbres y tradiciones de sus antepasados y defensor de la dignidad del trabajo vinculado a la tierra, pasase a convertirse, a partir del siglo ii a.C., en un nuevo tipo de romano que podríamos denominar helenizado. Se trata de un hombre enriquecido y ansioso por exhibir y malgastar su fortuna en lujos y excesos, una fortuna que no procede ya de la tierra, sino del comercio o de la especulación inmobiliaria; un hombre que exhibe influencias culturales griegas como muestra de su refinamiento.


Esta llegada de la cultura griega influye en muchos aspectos del mundo romano, y uno de los más destacados es la vivienda y su contenido, particularmente en las casas de las élites. Para entender cómo se manifestó esta influencia, es necesario analizar las fases históricas que condicionan el proceso de adopción de la cultura griega, valorar las fuentes literarias y los testigos de la cultura material para elaborar un discurso sobre la recepción de Grecia en Roma, examinar cómo la historiografía actual contempla el proceso de transmisión cultural aquí planteado, considerar el impacto que supuso la llegada de la cultura griega en el mundo romano e investigar, por último, cómo se manifiesta exactamente la influencia del universo helénico en el ámbito doméstico romano. Concretamente, cómo se refleja en la vivienda propiamente dicha, en la decoración, el mobiliario y el ajuar doméstico.


El resultado final de una investigación en torno a este asunto nos lleva a la siguiente conclusión: los romanos poseían ya antes de sus contactos con la cultura griega del siglo ii a.C. una importante cultura propia, mezcla de influencias etruscas, latinas, griegas y quizá otras. En una etapa posterior aprenderían de la Grecia helenística todo un sinfín de placeres y excesos que afectarían más a la estética que a la función de los objetos y espacios de su vivienda. Y aunque no siempre es posible averiguar el origen de estos objetos y espacios con precisión, parece evidente que tuvo lugar simultáneamente en un constante proceso de adaptación de lo extranjero para hacerlo encajar en el modelo de vida los romanos.


Podéis acceder a la memoria de este trabajo final de grado y a muchos otros desde el O2  (Repositorio Institucional y en abierto de la UOC).



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