Humanitats

Mite: Internet i els videojocs són addictius (Som les nostres connexions 7)

Reflexió inicial

És innegable que les últimes dècades hem estat testimonis d’una revolució en la nostra relació amb les tecnologies de la comunicació, almenys en la majoria dels països industrialitzats. Internet ha comportat l’arribada del correu electrònic i els motors de cerca, amb el que això implica de comunicació instantània i d’informació sense límits amb només prémer una tecla. Més recentment, els smartphones i les tablets han fet encara més fàcil l’accés a la xarxa. La gent està gairebé constantment connectada i al mateix temps les xarxes socials com Facebook o Twitter han creat noves formes d’utilitzar Internet per gestionar les nostres relacions i compartir informació.

Aquest creixement d’Internet i les xarxes socials ha anat paral·lel al plantejament d’un seguit de preguntes sobre el seu impacte en la població i en el jovent en general. Una d’elles és si alguns individus desenvolupen patrons alterats de comportament en línia. Les anècdotes dels anomenats addictes a Internet es remunten a la dècada de 1990, [1]  van aparèixer a la premsa [2] i els metges van començar a informar de clients amb trastorns relacionats amb Internet [3] i aviat van començar a proliferar centres de desintoxicació tecnològica (com el Computer Addiction Service [4] de l’hospital McLean, vinculat a la universitat de Harvard) i grups de suport en línia (com l’Internet Addiction Support Group).

Pot ser interessant conèixer, d’entrada, les dades sobre Internet i les xarxes socials el 2015 segons l’informe de We are social [5]:

  • dels més de 7.210 milions d’habitants del planeta, 3.010 milions tenen accés a internet (42%, + 21% en un any) i 2.078.000.000 regularment utilitzen les xarxes socials (28%, + 12% des del 2014). 3.649.000.000 persones utilitzen un telèfon mòbil (51%, + 5% en un any) i 1.685.000 de persones accedeixen a les xarxes socials a través d’aquests.
  • al gener de 2014, el 35% de les persones tenia accés a internet. El 2015, el percentatge s’eleva al 42%. A Espanya el 77% dels ciutadans tenen accés a internet. Pel que fa a la velocitat de connexió, la mitjana és de 4,5 Mbps. A Espanya és de 7,8 Mbps, lluny d’alguns països d’Àsia: 15 Mbps al Japó, 16,3 Mbps a Hong Kong o els 25,3 Mbps a Corea del Sud.
  • tots els dies, els usuaris passen una mitjana de 4,4 hores a internet des d’un PC o portàtil i 2,7 hores connectats des d’un dispositiu mòbil (smartphone i tablet). Espanya està per sota de la mitjana, amb 4 hores des de l’ordinador i 1,9 hores des dels dispositius mòbils. A les xarxes socials, la conclusió és similar: els espanyols s’hi varen connectar 1,9 hores al dia. No obstant això, la taxa de penetració de les xarxes socials a Espanya és molt superior a la mitjana mundial: el 47% a Espanya enfront del 29% en el món.
  • pel que fa a les xarxes socials més utilitzades, l’informe presenta pocs canvis respecte a l’any anterior: Facebook segueix guanyant per golejada seguida pels gegants asiàtics QQ i Qzone, WhatsApp i Facebook Messenger ocupen la quarta i la cinquena plaça. Crida l’atenció Twitter, que apareix en desena posició, per sota de Google+ o Instagram.
  • les dades d’Espanya assenyalen que dels 46,5 milions d’habitants, 35,7 són usuaris d’internet (77%) i 22 milions compten amb perfils a les xarxes socials (47%). Els internautes espanyols passen una mitjana de 3:58 al dia connectats a internet des d’un ordinador i 01:51 des d’un dispositiu mòbil. Accedeixen a les xarxes socials durant 1:54 hores al dia, mentre que dediquen dues hores i mitja a veure la televisió.

Les recerques sobre l’ús indegut d’Internet i altres problemes relacionats amb la xarxa, estan donant multitud d’estadístiques: d’un 5,9 % a un 13 % dels internautes presenten alteracions de conducta a Internet [6] i el 15 % dels estudiants universitaris dels Estats Units i d’Europa coneixen algú que és addicte a Internet. [7]

Les afirmacions sobre l’addicció a Internet es basen en experiències subjectives d’auto informes dels addictes i amb recerques sobre l’ús indegut d’Internet. Alguns argumenten que la por a les noves tecnologies és subjacent a l’anomenat abús d’Internet; altres consideren que la investigació sobre l’abús d’Internet patologitza la qualitat de les relacions en línia, i altres destaquen els aspectes terapèutics de les interaccions en línia.

Alguns crítics del concepte d’addicció argumenten que Internet no és més addictiva o compulsiva que veure la televisió, parlar per telèfon o practicar la cursa. Als Estats Units, la gent passa més temps veient la televisió que navegant per Internet; però la investigació sobre l’addicció a la televisió [8] no ha provocat tanta expectació com l’addicció a Internet. Històricament, la por als efectes de les noves tecnologies ha acompanyat la introducció de tecnologies de la comunicació. Altres crítics argumenten que molts investigadors suposen, implícitament, que la qualitat de les interaccions en línia és inferior a les de la vida real.

Certament, hi ha persones que desenvolupen problemes en el seu ús d’Internet. Però això no vol dir, necessàriament, que es tracti d’un nou tipus de trastorn. L’associació entre l’addicció a Internet i altres patologies com la depressió, la soledat, l’ansietat social, suggereix que l’addicció a Internet pot ser un símptoma d’altres trastorns. Entre els qui consideren que es tracta d’un trastorn diferent no hi ha consens sobre quin és el tipus de problemàtica: uns el consideren un trastorn de control dels impulsos, [9] altres proposen models basats en l’addicció a substàncies.[10]

El problema no és Internet en sí, sinó les activitats específiques que les persones hi realitzen. Probablement el joc patològic en línia i el comportament sexual compulsiu siguin noves variants de vells comportaments. En el cas de seguir parlant d’addiccions, cal subratllar el fet que les persones són addictes a les activitats, no a Internet.

Gran part del debat es mou entre dos extrems: o bé existeixen addiccions, o bé no n’existeixen. Donat l’estat actual de la investigació cal adoptar una certa cautela i estar atent a les noves recerques.

Davant d’aquesta problemàtica ens podem preguntar: és el paradigma de l’addicció apropiat per a l’ús d’Internet? És l’abús d’Internet un símptoma d’altres problemes com la depressió o la soledat? És una nova manifestació de trastorns com ara parafílies o joc patològic? És realment un trastorn?

Una broma inicial

El terme «addicció a Internet» va ser originalment una broma de correu electrònic d’aquestes que esdevenen virals. En un fòrum de professionals de la salut mental, el psiquiatre Ivan Goldberg, establert a Nova York,  intentava fer una paròdia del llenguatge rígid del DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [11]), la Bíblia de la psiquiatria moderna. Es va inventar una malaltia: afirmava irònicament haver descobert una nova síndrome, la «Síndrome d’addicció a Internet» (Internet Addiction Disorder, IAD), i va descriure els seus símptomes: ansietat, necessitat de connectar-se hores i hores, i moviment involuntari dels dits per teclejar. Fins i tot proposava crear el primer cibergrup de ciberaddictes anònims [12]. Això passava el 1995 (!) i molta gent s’ho va creure i va reenviar el missatge a les seves amistats.

Pocs dies després, va començar a rebre missatges de gent que s’identificava amb el problema. Els seus col·legues de professió van obrir un intens debat. Alguns hi varen veure  les bases d’un nou negoci ben rendible [13]: el mateix 1995, la psicòloga Kimberley Young [14] va fundar el Centre per a la Recuperació de l’Addicció a Internet (netaddiction.com). Els mitjans van començar a fer-se’n ressò.

Quinze anys després, la polèmica continua. Cada vegada més experts es neguen a admetre aquesta patologia. «En 25 anys de professió no he conegut ni un sol pacient que la tingui. És com parlar d’addictes al telèfon, no té sentit» [15].

just_click

Just Click No The New Yorker, January 13, 1997 Pàg. 28.
El psiquiatre Goldberg va intentar aclarir la broma l’any 1997. «Si estenem el concepte d’addicció per incloure tot allò que la gent fa en excés, hauríem de aplicar-lo a llegir llibres, a fer exercici, a parlar amb la gent…», va declarar a la revista The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1997/01/13/just-click-no

Què s’entén per addicció a Internet?

Després de dècades de recerques i debats, quatre són les preguntes bàsiques a formular:

  • Com s’anomena? Addicció, mala adaptació, ús patològic o excessiu? Noms que se li dóna: Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD), Problematic Internet Use (PIU), Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), ciberadicció o iDisorder [16].
  • Existeix realment? És difícil saber quantes persones poden estar afectades: s’han utilitzat, pel cap baix, 18 diferents tests, i la precisió de la mostra depèn de la quantitat de gent que té accés a la web i amb quina freqüència. Fins avui no existeix de manera oficial aquest trastorn, ja que el conjunt de símptomes que es descriuen encara no ha demostrat ni consistència ni fiabilitat [17].
  • Com es mesura aquesta addicció? [18] Entre els instruments per avaluar l’addicció hi ha el Young’s Internet Addiction Test,[19] el Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) [20] o el Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS).[21] Observem que aquests mètodes es basen, sobretot, en enquestes, que han de respondre els presumptament «addictes».
  • Qui decideix que és important? Abans, per ser considerat addicte, calia senzillament tenir una forta inclinació cap a substàncies o comportaments. Amb el temps es va donar més importància a la manca de control. Actualment, el manual psiquiàtric DSM és qui dicta el que és una addicció. Ha passat de tenir 130 pàgines el 1952 a tenir-ne més de 900 el 2013., i s’utilitza com a guia per escollir els tractaments a seguir, i proporciona la base per a les reclamacions d’assegurances.

Segons Enrique Echeburúa [22] l’addicció arriba quan aquesta afició «interfereix en la vida quotidiana d’una persona adulta o menor. No es busca aquesta conducta per passar-ho bé, sinó per satisfer un imperatiu obsessiu. És a dir per no passar-ho malament».
Quan l’ús d’Internet interfereix d’una manera significativa les activitats habituals és quan alguns experts afirmen que podrà ser considerat patològic. No obstant això la interferència sobre els hàbits de vida no és un criteri estable ja que varia tremendament d’uns subjectes als altres, variant en funció de les disponibilitats de temps, diners i de nombroses circumstàncies tant personals com familiars. Alguns psicòlegs nord-americans consideren que les noves tecnologies són, per si mateixes, addictives, ja que els patrons de comportament són similars als del joc patològic o la bulímia. No obstant això la comunitat científica internacional d’experts en psicologia i psiquiatria rebutja aquesta similitud, considerant que aquesta addicció no existeix i es pot parlar en tot cas d’un ús excessiu.

Els qui defensen que Internet és addictiu

Diuen que la xarxa Internet és encara molt nova i per això no ha estat encara acceptada l’existència d’aquesta addicció per les principals associacions professionals.
Els defensors de la consideració d’addicció creuen que es poden establir certes analogies entre l’addicció a Internet i l’addicció al tabac, l’alcoholisme, encara que en aquest cas, no hi ha una substància responsable de la conducta addictiva. Ho comparen amb l’addicció al joc, al sexe, a les compres, anomenant-les «addiccions no químiques». Tanmateix, l’últim esborrany del DSM, elaborat per l’Associació Americana de Psiquiatria, torna a excloure la dependència d’Internet com trastorn de conducta, perquè no hi ha cap evidència científica.

Criteris per al seu diagnòstic

Kimberly Young, de la Universitat de Pittsburg i creadora del Center for On-line Addiction [23] és qui ha establert una sèrie de criteris per diagnosticar la Síndrome de l’Addicció a Internet. «L’addicció a Internet és un deteriorament en el control del seu ús que es manifesta com un conjunt de símptomes cognitius, fisiològics i de conducta. És a dir, la persona ‘netdependent’ realitza un ús excessiu d’Internet el que li genera una distorsió dels seus objectius personals, familiars o professionals». Segons Young, respondre afirmativament a cinc o més de les següents qüestions és un senyal clar d’alarma [24]:

  • Se sent preocupat amb Internet (pensa sobre l’activitat online anterior o anticipa la sessió online següent)?
  • Sent la necessitat d’usar Internet durant més temps cada vegada que es connecta per aconseguir la mateixa satisfacció?
  • Ha fet esforços repetits i infructuosos per controlar, reduir, o aturar l’ús d’Internet?
  • Se sent inquiet, malhumorat, deprimit, o irritable quan ha intentat reduir o aturar l’ús d’Internet?
  • Es queda online/connectat més temps del que originalment havia planejat?
  • Ha patit la pèrdua d’alguna relació significativa, treball, educació o oportunitat social a causa de l’ús d’Internet?
  • Ha mentit als membres familiars, terapeuta o altres per amagar la magnitud del seu ús d’Internet?
  • Usa Internet com una manera d’evadir-se dels problemes o d’ocultar algun tipus de malestar (ex., sentiments d’impotència, culpa, ansietat, depressió)?

John Suler [25] assenyala l’existència de dos models bàsics de la hipotètica addicció a Internet. El primer d’ells fa referència a aquells subjectes molt aficionats i interessats pels seus ordinadors que utilitzen la Xarxa per recollir informació, jugar en solitari, obtenir nous programes, etc. però sense establir cap tipus de contacte interpersonal (més que el necessari per aconseguir els seus propòsits). El segon tipus el constituirien aquells subjectes que freqüenten els fòrums, xats i llistes de correu. Tots ells tenen en comú la recerca d’estimulació social. Les necessitats de filiació, de ser reconeguts, poderosos o estimats són subjacents a aquest tipus d’utilització de la Xarxa.

Com s’argumenta l’addicció

Els arguments més usuals a favor que Internet provoca addicció solen seguir la següent estructura. El punt de partida és que es tracta d’un problema social creixent que es debat arreu, atès que arruïna vides, provoca trastorns neurològics i psicològics, i problemes socials. I es donen dades: les enquestes realitzades als EE.UU. i Europa indiquen taxes de prevalença alarmants, entre l’1.5 i el 8,2 %. [26] Afirmen, llavors que la IAD (Internet Addiction Disorder) compleix els requisits de qualsevol addicció i es demana, per tant, que sigui inclosa en el DSM (el primer que ho va demanar va ser Kimberly Young [27] el 1996!). I ho subratllen posant els exemples de Xina i Corea del Sud que han identificat l’addicció a Internet com una amenaça per a la salut pública.[28] Enumeren, a continuació, els símptomes d’aquesta addicció: canvis en l’humor, incapacitat de controlar el temps de connexió, necessitat d’invertir més temps per a sentir-se bé, símptomes d’abstinència quan no es connecten, vida social cada cop més feble, problemes en la feina o els estudis.[29] Reconeixen que hi ha investigadors i professionals que consideren l’ús excessiu d’Internet com un símptoma d’altres trastorns, com ara l’ansietat o la depressió.[30] Però afirmen que hi ha consens (!) en el fet que aquest conjunt de símptomes és una addicció [31] i recorden que la Societat Americana de Medicina de l’Addicció (ASAM) proposa una nova definició d’addicció com un trastorn cerebral crònic que no es limita a l’ús de substàncies.[32] Els criteris per a diagnosticar aquesta addicció són:

  • estar preocupat per Internet (pensar en l’activitat anterior o anticipar la propera sessió)
  • ampliar el temps d’ús d’Internet per aconseguir la satisfacció
  • esforçar-se per controlar, reduir o frenar l’ús d’Internet
  • estar de mal humor, deprimit o irritable quan s’interromp o atura l’ús d’Internet
  • estar connectat més temps del que es preveia inicialment
  • posar en perill o en risc la pèrdua d’una relació significativa, del treball o dels estudis
  • mentir als membres de la família o al terapeuta per amagar el grau d’implicació amb Internet
  • utilitzar Internet per defugir problemes o alleujar un estat d’ànim disfòric (impotència, culpa, ansietat…)

Pel que fa a la perspectiva neurològica, recorden que les addiccions activen un seguit de centres del cervell associats al plaer [33] («el centre de recompensa») que, quan s’activa, s’incrementa l’alliberament de dopamina, juntament amb opiacis i altres substàncies neuroquímiques. L’ús d’Internet també podria incrementar l’alliberament de dopamina al nucli accumbens, una de les estructures de recompensa del cervell implicades específicament en altres addiccions. I se suposa que el que converteix l’ús d’Internet en una addicció és que els usuaris de tecnologia digital experimenten múltiples inputs de recompensa sigui quina sigui l’aplicació (navegar, pornografia, xats, xarxes socials, videojocs, correu electrònic, aplicacions al núvol, llocs de cites…)

El problema està a saber si l’existència prèvia de trastorns produeixen l’addicció o és l’ús de les tecnologies digitals el que produeix l’addicció i els consegüents trastorns. Se sol citar l’estudi de Dong [34] que conclou que la depressió, l’ansietat, l’hostilitat i el psicotisme són conseqüències de la IAD, tot i reconèixer que es tracta d’un estudi molt limitat i que són necessàries més investigacions.

I a partir d’aquí proposen tot un seguit de tractaments [35], tot i reconèixer que la majoria d’estudis sobre tractaments són de baixa qualitat metodològica i sovint no s’esmenta l’evidència clínica de les diferents estratègies.

Una qüestió a tenir present en aquesta defensa de l’IAD és que molts dels seus autors estan vinculats a clíniques o centres de recuperació d’addiccions, com ara el programa reSTART: Internet Addiction Recovery Program [36] que integra la desintoxicació tecnològica, el tractament de drogues i alcohol, la teràpia cognitivo conductual (CBT), la teràpia d’acceptació i compromís (ACT), la teràpia assistida amb animals, l’entrevista motivacional (MI), el mindfulness basat en la prevenció de recaigudes (MBRP), el mindfulness basat en la reducciò de l’estrés…[37]

Les visions catastrofistes

Alguns comentaristes tenen por que Internet estigui canviant els nostres cervells en un sentit negatiu. Una de les primeres advertències la va llançar el 2008 Nicholas Carr en un article publicat a la revista Atlantic titulat: «¿Ens està tornant estúpids Google?» [38] (aquest article va aparèixer corregit i ampliat l’any 2010 en el seu llibre, preseleccionat per al premi Pulitzer , titulat: The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We think, Read, and Remember [39] [Superficials: com Internet està canviant la nostra manera de pensar, llegir i recordar]) [40].

Carr es va sentir motivat a escriure sobre els efectes d’Internet a partir de la seva pròpia experiència. En un llenguatge evocador i fent-se ressò de la manera de pensar de moltes persones, descrivia com «la Xarxa sembla estar minant la meva capacitat de concentració i reflexió. La meva ment espera ara absorbir la informació de la mateixa forma en què la Xarxa la distribueix: amb un rapidíssim moviment de partícules. Abans jo practicava el submarinisme en un oceà de paraules, i ara llisco per la superfície com un surfista». I això era abans de l’arribada de Twitter!

Una altra prominent catastrofista és la baronessa i professora Susan Greenfield, neurofarmacòloga a la Universitat d’Oxford. Durant diversos anys ha prodigat les seves aparicions en ràdio i televisió i les seves col·laboracions a la premsa advertint dels perills de passar massa temps navegant per Internet i jugant a videojocs, un fenomen al qual es refereix com un «canvi mental» i que considera tan greu com el «canvi climàtic». Els arguments de Greenfield han atret l’atenció dels mitjans de comunicació i de l’opinió pública a causa de les seves credencials acadèmiques, encara que en realitat no ha dirigit cap investigació sobre els efectes psicològics o neurals de la tecnologia.

Greenfield va esbossar les bases de les seves preocupacions en un article de l’any 2011 a la revista The Independent [41]: «El cervell humà s’adaptarà a qualsevol entorn que l’afecti; el cibermón del segle XXI està oferint un entorn sense precedents; en conseqüència, el cervell pot estar adaptant-se d’una manera sense precedents». Escrivint per al Daily Mail[42], Greenfield es mostrava més concreta sobre la naturalesa d’aquests canvis cerebrals: «Els períodes d’atenció són més curts, les habilitats de comunicació personal són menors, i hi ha una marcada reducció en la capacitat de pensar de manera abstracta».

En un altre lloc Greenfield al·ludeix a la idea que els canvis tecnològics també són els responsables dels alts índexs de TDAH i d’autisme. I l’any 2013 va publicar la seva primera novel·la, 2121, un relat distòpic sobre els efectes deshumanitzadors d’Internet situat l’any que indica el títol. Escrivint per a la revista New Statesman, Helen Lewis va suggerir que potser era la pitjor obra de ciència ficció mai escrita. [43] «És desolador, vas passant pàgines i no passa absolutament res. La processó de personatges simplement serveix per dir-li al lector fins a quin punt les seves vides s’han vist afectades per les tecnologies digitals».

La por a la tecnologia va assolir noves cotes el 2012 [44], amb un article a primera plana al Newsweek titulat «iBogeria. Pànic. Depressió. Psicosi. L’addicció a la connexió està reconfigurant els nostres cervells», i il·lustrat amb la imatge d’un jove retorçant-se les mans i cridant. L’autor, Tony Dokoupil, citava unes estadístiques sorprenents: «L’adolescent mig processa la increïble quantitat d’uns 3.700 textos al mes, el doble de l’any 2007», i comentava selectivament les opinions d’un grapat d’experts, com Peter Whybrow, de la UCLA, que descrivia l’ordinador com «cocaïna electrònica» [45]. El missatge de l’article era molt clar: Internet i les xarxes socials ens feien estar més estressats, sols i deprimits.

Estudis i exemples

Desde 1996, desenes d’estudis [46] han intentat demostrar, sense èxit, l’existència de l’addicció a Internet. Un exemple: segons investigadors de la Universitat de Leeds, l’1,2% de la població europea entre 16 i 51 anys viu enganxada. La seva droga: connectar-se massa temps i ignorar altres aspectes de la vida. Asseguren, a més, que molts d’ells pateixen depressió. Però hi ha un problema. «No sabem què passa primer, si la gent deprimida acudeix a Internet o és aquesta la que produeix depressió», es pregunta Catriona Morrison, autora principal de l’informe.

«Les persones que passen molt de temps navegant per la xarxa són més propensos a mostrar símptomes depressius», segons el primer estudi a gran escala d’aquest tipus fet per la Universitat de Leeds. Els investigadors han trobat evidències sorprenents que alguns usuaris han desenvolupat un hàbit compulsiu per Internet, pel qual reemplacen la interacció social a la vida real amb les sales de xat en línia i llocs de xarxes socials. Els resultats suggereixen que aquest tipus de navegació addictiva pot tenir un greu impacte en la salut mental.[47]

L’hospital universitari de Kaohsiung (Taiwan) va revelar els resultats després de dos anys d’analitzar el comportament d’adolescents: un 11% viu obsessionat amb la Xarxa.

La Universitat d’Augusta (EUA) el va xifrar en el 4% als EUA i el 14% a la Xina.

El 2008, la Universitat de Stanford va parlar de l’1%.

Crítiques

Vaughan Bell, professor a l’Institut de psiquiatria del Kings College de Londres, afirma que aquestes investigacions es basen en enquestes mal dissenyades i mostres insuficients. «Defineixen addicció en funció del nombre d’hores que passem en línia, però no de les causes que hi porten. La gent és addicta a substàncies o activitats, no a un mitjà de comunicació. Dir que sóc addicte a Internet és tan absurd com dir que ho sóc a les ones de ràdio»[48].

Scott Caplan [49], professor a la Universitat de Delaware (EUA), porta des de 2002 estudiant la relació entre interacció social i Internet. Els seus resultats són reveladors: persones amb ansietat, depressió i dificultat per socialitzar-se tendeixen a utilitzar més Internet i no a l’inrevés. És a dir, la Xarxa no crea patologies sinó que canalitza una desviació existent. Quant de temps és normal i quant és excessiu davant de la pantalla?

Helena Matute, catedràtica de Psicologia de la Universitat de Deusto, va ser una de les primeres a Espanya a publicar un article sobre el tema (en 2003). «Si algú no pot deixar d’entrar a Internet és com si anés al mateix bar de la cantonada tots els dies. Podria ser un problema, però no una addicció», va escriure. «Molta gent té trastorns de conducta, però en la immensa majoria no es poden atribuir a la Xarxa»[50].

Segons l’Associació per a la Investigació de Mitjans de Comunicació (AIMC), el 37% dels espanyols es connecta entre 10 i 30 hores setmanals. El 9% ho fa més de 60 hores. Els xats i les xarxes socials són les activitats més populars. Això ha alimentat un temor: enganxar-se a Facebook o al Messenger pot perjudicar la socialització en persona. Diverses investigacions desmunten  l’argument. La Universitat de Virgínia (EUA) va publicar al gener del 2010: adolescents entre 13 i 14 anys amb una vida social offline equilibrada són més proclius a utilitzar xarxes socials entre els 20 i 22 anys. Les consideren una extensió normal de la seva vida. «Avui els adolescents tenen una necessitat social de comunicar-se. Abans es feia en persona o per telèfon. Ara es fa per xat. El canal ha canviat»

¿Existeixen les addiccions a les noves tecnologies?
– Actualment, les nostres investigacions assenyalen que, encara que pugui haver-hi adolescents o joves que els facin servir més temps del convenient, l’addicció al mòbil i als videojocs no existeixen. En relació a Internet, es pot ser addicte a les aplicacions que permeten posar en joc la teva identitat, com els jocs de rol en línia (tipus World Warcraft, Final Fantasy o Everquest) o als xats, però no al Messenger.
¿Els Adolescents no són addictes al Messenger?
– No. Potser passen massa temps al Messenger però no és una addicció. Normalment el que passa és que els joves passen una temporada de la seva vida molt connectats i després se’ls passa. S’esdevé el mateix que abans amb el telèfon de casa: estan molta estona i parlen amb persones de les que s’acaben d’acomiadar, sí, però no és una addicció. Estan massa temps connectats i ja està.

Entrevista a Xavier Carbonell, professor de Psicologia de la Universitat Ramon Llull. En línea a http://www.lavanguardia.com/internet/20100215/53886499865/xavier-carbonell-las-adicciones-a-las-nuevas-tecnologias-y-a-las-drogas-son-comparables-psicologic.html

Els qui defensen que Internet no és addictiu

¿Que a alguns els treu molt de temps? És clar, però les addiccions no es defineixen pel temps que ens ocupen. També veure la televisió o llegir el diari treu temps a la gent i no obstant això ningú és addicte al diari o a la televisió. La nicotina, en canvi, és addictiva i no ens treu temps.

L’addicció a Internet no figura en el DSM V (editat el 18 de maig de 2013), el manual més utilitzat per al diagnòstic de desordres mentals, editat per l’Associació Americana de Psiquiatria, i tampoc ha estat acceptada per l’Associació Americana de Psicologia. I a la secció de les condicions que necessiten més recerca hi inclou l’Internet Gaming Disorder com a variant de l’addicció al joc i desestimant així de nou que hi hagi una cosa anomenada “ciberadicció” o “addicció a internet” [51]. Els comportaments compulsius han existit sempre, però pertanyen a una categoria diagnòstica molt diferent.

Però si no hi ha l’addicció a Internet, què hi ha, doncs, d’aquestes persones que passen tantes hores enganxades i tenen tanta dificultat per desconnectar? Es pot parlar de persones que utilitzen Internet de manera excessiva; i també de persones que veuen la televisió en excés, i de persones que fan més esport del que és normal, fins i tot de persones que llegeixen més del normal pel nostre estil de vida. Les anomenarem addictes a totes elles?

Per començar, no sabem encara què és normal, diu el doctor Leonard Holmes, que es pregunta com poden alguns estar parlant d’utilització patològica d’Internet si ni tan sols sabem encara què és un ús “normal” d’Internet. Convindria també preguntar-se, com fa el doctor Grohol, què deu ser normal dins d’uns pocs anys, quan ja tots puguem passar a Internet el mateix temps que ara passem veient la televisió. ¿S’adonen que si seguim així, quan tots passem a Internet el mateix temps que passem ara veient la televisió, tots els desordres mentals que ja existeixen podran acabar sent atribuïts a l’addicció a Internet? « No és la tecnologia (tant si es tracta d’Internet, un llibre, el telèfon o la televisió) el que és important o addictiu –és el comportament»[52].

És cert que dedicar moltes hores a una activitat s’ha de traduir, per força, en una disminució de les hores que dediquem a altres activitats. I això de vegades pot causar problemes. L’estudiant que passa massa hores llegint el que li ve de gust en comptes dels llibres de text acabarà tenint problemes en els seus estudis, igual que el que passi moltes hores amb els amics, o fent esport, o xerrant amb gent a Internet. I pot ser que no només tingui problemes en els estudis, sinó que potser també pot arribar a tenir problemes amb la seva família i amics si la seva activitat preferida acaba convertint-se en un obstacle per estar amb ells. Però el que convé deixar clar és que ni Internet, ni l’esport, ni els llibres, ni els amics són addictius. Internet és només una tecnologia de comunicació humana.

Les pors a les noves tecnologies

Aquests temors als efectes d’Internet i les xarxes socials són part d’una tendència històrica més àmplia, en la que cada generació mostra la seva preocupació pels últims artefactes tecnològics. Escrivint per a la revista Slate l’any 2010 [53], el neuropsicòleg Vaughan Bell posava l’exemple de l’ansiós científic suís Conrad Gessner, que va expressar públicament la seva inquietud pel confús efecte de la sobrecàrrega d’informació en el món modern. Gessner no va donar a conèixer les seves preocupacions en aquest mateix segle, sinó el 1565, i la font dels seus temors era la llavors relativament jove impremta. Retrocedint una mica més en el temps, trobem a Sòcrates advertint-nos dels adversos efectes que té per a la memòria el fet de posar per escrit les nostres idees. Més recentment, l’aparició de la ràdio i després de la televisió va produir ansietat sobre la distracció, el desequilibri mental i la mort de la conversa.

Siguem realistes. Internet, els smartphones i les xarxes socials estan canviant la manera com ens comportem. Només cal que passem una mica de temps en qualsevol espai públic per a veure a molta gent mirant fixament la pantalla del seu mòbil quan es queden sols (o fins i tot quan no ho estan). Els columnistes dels diaris comparteixen confessions familiars sobre els correus electrònics que reben o envien quan són al llit: l’últim que fan a la nit i el primer que fan en aixecar-se. Una altra queixa recent és la de les vibracions fantasma de l’iPhone que tenim a la butxaca sense que ningú truqui. Sigui veritat o mentida, moltes persones tenen la sensació que la ubiqüitat d’Internet està canviant la forma en què funciona la seva ment. Un sondeig entre gairebé mil finlandesos publicat en 2013 [54], per exemple, va trobar que gairebé un de cada cinc d’ells sentia que el fet de navegar per Internet havia tingut un efecte advers en la seva memòria i en la seva concentració.

Però el fet que haguem canviat alguns dels nostres hàbits de vida, i el que pensem que la tecnologia està perjudicant la nostra memòria o a la nostra atenció, no vol dir que els nostres cervells estiguin sent realment recablejats d’una forma perillosa i sense precedents. Per veure com són realment les coses, abordem cada un dels motius de preocupació.

Està Internet recablejant els nostres cervells?

«Les hores i hores que moltes persones passen a Internet, bé treballant, bé navegant per plaer, han de tenir per força un efecte profund d’alguna classe en els nostres cervells». Aquest és el tipus d’afirmació imprecisa que fan molts tecnòfobs. La veritat és que sí, passar molt temps a Internet canviarà els nostres cervells, perquè qualsevol cosa que fem els canvia. Com diu el psicòleg cognitiu Tom Stafford en un article de Future, la pàgina web de la BBC [55]: «Sí, Internet està recablejant el nostre cervell. Però també ho fa el veure la televisió o prendre una tassa de te. O no prendre una tassa de te. O pensar en la bugada dels dimarts. La vida, sigui quina sigui la forma en què la visquem, deixa rastres en el nostre cervell». Quin és l’efecte d’aquest recablejat? Com a mínim, i tenint en compte la naturalesa de la major part de la navegació per la xarxa, Stafford prediu que probablement estem millorant la nostra capacitat de processar informació abstracta i de comunicar-nos electrònicament.

Està Internet destrossant el nostre focus atencional i atrofiant els nostres records?

Aquí cal fer una distinció important. D’una banda, sí, hi ha evidències que Internet ens fa perdre la concentració. Un estudi [56] va trobar que els estudiants trigaven un 25 per cent més de temps a llegir un fragment de text si al mateix temps estaven utilitzant Instant Messenger. Això és així perquè els humans no som molt bons en multitasca. Una altra investigació [57] que es va dur a terme en els despatxos de Microsoft va trobar que el fet de contestar un correu electrònic distreia als treballadors del que estaven fent, no només mentre teclejaven la resposta, sinó durant diversos minuts després. També hi ha evidències que Internet podria estar canviant la forma en què utilitzem la nostra memòria. Un estudi de l’any 2011 [58] dirigit per Betsy Sparrow feia que unes persones miressin de recordar fets trivials que havien teclejat en un ordinador. Quan els deien que l’ordinador estava guardant el que teclejaven van intensificar els seus esforços per recordar els fets.

D’altra banda, el fet que Internet ens estigui fent perdre la concentració, i que estiguem utilitzant els ordinadors com blocs de notes externs no vol dir necessàriament que Internet deixi els nostres cervells permanentment confosos. Una pista que podria tenir aquest efecte negatiu la va donar un estudi publicat el 2009 [59] en informar que els usuaris multitasca habituals (inclosos els que naveguen per Internet mentre intenten fer una altra cosa) tenien més dificultats per ignorar informació que els distreia i canviar de tasca al laboratori. Molts tecnòfobs es van afanyar a treure conclusions, però és important ressaltar que l’estudi era transversal. Pel que sabem, les persones amb poc control atencional tenen més probabilitats de convertir-se en usuaris multitasca.

Cal notar també, respecte a l’ús que fem dels ordinadors per emmagatzemar els nostres records, que això no vol dir que la nostra memòria s’estigui atrofiant. Podríem estar-la utilitzant per a una altra cosa. I de fet, l’estudi de Sparrow de 2011 va trobar que la gent recordava molt bé en quina carpeta havia guardat la informació.

També és important recalcar l’evidència que suggereix que passar temps navegant per Internet pot millorar els nostres cervells. Un estudi de l’any 2009 [60] dirigit per Gary Small, de la UCLA, implicava escanejar els cervells de 24 persones, de mitjana edat i grans, mentre llegien un llibre i, separadament, buscaven informació a la web. Per als 12 que estaven habituats a navegar per la xarxa, fer-ho activava de manera extraordinària certes àrees cerebrals, a diferència del que passava mentre llegien, incloses regions frontals associades amb la presa de decisions i el raonament complex. Només era un estudi preliminar i els investigadors van demanar cautela en la interpretació dels resultats, tot i que, de totes maneres, no era el tipus de resultat que un espera si efectivament Internet estigués embotant les nostres ments.

També hi ha una investigació no publicada de Janelle WohItmann, de la Universitat d’Arizona, que va trobar que els participants amb una mitjana d’edat de 79 anys mostraven una millora d’un 25 per cent en les proves sobre memòria de treball després d’utilitzar Facebook durant vuit setmanes; no es van trobar beneficis similars en un grup de control que simplement va portar un diari en línia (els resultats es van presentar a la reunió anual de l’International Neuropsychological Society celebrada a Hawaii al febrer de 2013). En un estudi de l’any 2012 uns investigadors australians van fer un seguiment de milers de persones grans durant vuit anys i van trobar que els que més havien utilitzat l’ordinador durant aquest temps tenien menys probabilitats de desenvolupar demència (naturalment, hem de tenir en compte la possibilitat que la direcció causal fos en sentit contrari). [61] O tinguem present un estudi publicat l’any 2010 que va examinar les habilitats mentals de milers de persones d’entre 32 i 84 anys. A cada etapa de la vida, les persones que utilitzaven més l’ordinador també tendien a obtenir una puntuació més alta en els exercicis que implicaven canvis de tasca i en altres proves cognitives. [62] Aquests avantatges es poden no deure a l’ús de l’ordinador (potser hi intervinguin altres factors causals, com el nivell econòmic i educatiu de les persones que solen utilitzar l’ordinador), però aquestes troballes certament són un argument contra la idea que Internet estigui embotant les nostres ments.

Ens estan fent més solitaris Facebook i altres xarxes socials?

L’article de primera pàgina iDisorder, de la revista Newsweek, esmentava un influent estudi [63] publicat a finals de la dècada de 1990 per Robert Kraut i els seus col·legues de la Carnegie Mellon University, que es va passar dos anys monitoritzant els efectes de l’ús d’lnternet en 73 famílies de Pittsburgh. Els resultats van semblar confirmar les prediccions dels endevins antitecnològics. Com més temps passaven connectades les famílies (normalment utilitzant el correu electrònic i els xats), menys membres de la família parlaven entre ells cara a cara; més restringit era el seu cercle social, i més solitaris i deprimits s’estaven tornant.

Però el que no diu l’article de Nensweek és que l’equip de Kraut va tornar a visitar a aquestes mateixes famílies el 2001 i va trobar que els efectes aparentment negatius d’Internet havien en gran part desaparegu t[64]. També van estudiar una nova mostra de participants per a aquest article i van trobar que un any després de connectar-se la majoria de persones afirmaven trobar efectes positius en l’ús d’Internet, inclòs un augment en la grandària del seu cercle social. Un detall d’aquest estudi era que les persones extravertides tendien a beneficiar-se més dels contactes socials en línia, una conclusió a la qual també han arribat altres estudis. Per exemple, un treball presentat per Ben Ainley al congrés de l’any 2009 de l’Association for Psychological Science va trobar que els estudiants que eren més solitaris en el món físic tendien a tenir menys amics a Facebook i en altres xarxes socials.

Molts altres estudis qüestionen directament la idea que Facebook ens fa més solitaris. Per a un treball de l’any 2012 [65], Fenne Deters i Matthias Mehl van instruir a alguns dels participants per a incrementar la seva presència a Facebook durant una setmana. Comparats amb un grup de control, aquests estudiants van informar d’una reducció en la seva sensació de solitud, a causa que entrar amb més freqüència a Facebook els feia sentir que estaven més connectats amb els seus amics. De manera semblant, en un estudi de l’any 2007 [66] dirigit per Nicole Ellison, de la Universitat de Michigan, els investigadors van entrevistar a centenars d’universitaris sobre l’ús que feien de Facebook, i van trobar que els que ho feien servir més freqüentment es sentien més implicats en la comunitat universitària.

Finalment, podem considerar un treball de l’any 2010 [67], en què es va sondejar un grup d’universitaris sobre la seva timidesa i el seu ús de Facebook. Un resultat clau va ser que els estudiants tímids, que utilitzaven més sovint les xarxes socials, van informar sentir-se més propers als amics que havien fet allà, més satisfets amb aquestes amistats i més socialment acceptats en general. Era un estudi transversal (una simple instantània temporal), pel que és difícil fer inferències causals. No obstant això, concloïen els observadors, «els nostres descobriments refuten les advertències segons les quals les comunicacions per ordinador poden fer que els individus tímids es tornin encara més marginats i aïllats. […] Les dades revelen clarament que l’ús de Facebook per part de les persones tímides està associat amb unes amistats de millor qualitat».

Està Internet causant un augment de l’autisme o del TDAH?

L’increment en l’ús d’Internet i altres tecnologies que utilitzen pantalles s’ha produït en paral·lel a un augment en el nombre de nens diagnosticats amb autisme i TDAH. Això ha portat a alguns acadèmics a suggerir que pot haver-hi un vincle entre els dos fenòmens. En una entrevista a la revista New Scientist, per exemple, Susan Greenfield [68] citava l’increment de trastorns de l’espectre de l’autisme com a prova que la tecnologia digital està canviant els nostres cervells. També ella ha suggerit la possibilitat d’una relació entre la tecnologia digital i l’augment de casos de TDAH diagnosticats. Naturalment són molts els motius pels quals els diagnòstics d’autisme i de TDAH poden haver augmentat, inclosos els canvis en les pràctiques diagnòstiques i la major atenció prestada a aquests trastorns. No hi ha, però, proves que sigui la tecnologia digital la qual causi aquests trastorns. Tan preocupada es va quedar la professora de Neuropsicologia d’Oxford Dorothy Bishop per les afirmacions sense fonament de Greenfield que li va escriure una carta oberta al seu bloc [69]: «Les teves especulacions han envaït el meu territori i estan començant a resultar molestes», va escriure Bishop abans d’exposar els errors en el raonament de Greenfield. «Una causa ha de ser anterior al seu efecte. Aquesta prova de causalitat [en relació amb l’ús d’Internet] falla en dos sentits. En primer lloc, demogràficament: l’increment en els diagnòstics d’autisme es va produir molt abans que es generalitzés l’accés a Internet. I en segon lloc, individualment: l’autisme es fa normalment evident als dos anys d’edat, molt abans que els nens es tornin àvids usuaris de Twitter o de Facebook».

És addictiu Internet?

Independentment de si Internet està provocant problemes de memòria o autisme, altres comentaristes estan seriosament preocupats per la quantitat de temps sense precedents que passem connectats, el que porta a molts a concloure que navegar per la xarxa i jugar en línia són activitats summament addictives. Hi ha moltes evidències anecdòtiques que ho confirmen. El 2010, per exemple, una parella sud-coreana va ser acusada d’homicidi per negligència després que la seva filla morís mentre ells visitaven diversos cafès d’Internet practicant un joc consistent a tenir cura d’una filla virtual.

Avui en dia, moltes platges i els vestíbuls dels hotels estan plens de treballadors de vacances que es connecten al seu compte de correu electrònic de l’empresa. Un estudi de 2011 sobre els antulls quotidians de les persones va trobar que els mitjans de comunicació digitals obtenien una puntuació més alta que el sexe [70]. De manera potser gens sorprenent estan sorgint a tot el món clíniques dedicades a tractar l’addicció als videojocs i a Internet, especialment en les nacions asiàtiques tecnològicament avançades. Avui, molts psiquiatres opinen que l’addicció a Internet hauria de ser un diagnòstic formal (l’última edició de la Bíblia de la diagnosi dels professionals –el DSM-5– no reconeix l’addicció a Internet com un trastorn formal, tot i que el «trastorn del joc per Internet» consta a l’apèndix com a possible objecte d’investigació).

Per si fos poc, un estudi [71] d’escàners cerebrals de l’any 2012 publicat per un grup d’investigadors de l’Acadèmia Xinesa de les Ciències va informar que els adolescents addictes a Internet havien reduït la connectivitat en les regions cerebrals frontals implicades en les emocions i en la presa de decisions, a diferència dels participants en el grup de control. Parlant a la BBC d’aquestes troballes, la Dra. Henrietta Bowden-Jones, especialista en psiquiatria de l’Imperial College de Londres, va declarar: «Finalment es reconeix el que molts professionals portàvem sospitant des de fa temps: que les anomalies en la matèria blanca del còrtex órbito-frontal i en altres àrees cerebrals importants són presents no només en les addiccions en què estan implicades determinades substàncies, sinó també en addiccions comportamentals com l’addicció a Internet».

Els escèptics destaquen que l’estudi xinès no va poder demostrar que l’addicció a Internet hagués causat aquests canvis cerebrals. De fet, molts psicòlegs i psiquiatres destaquen que el problema amb l’addicció a Internet no resideix en el propi Internet sinó en la persona addicta i en les seves circumstàncies socials, ja que és freqüent que les persones incapaces de controlar l’ús que fan d’Internet tenen altres problemes de salut i dificultats en les seves vides. Keith Bakker, el fundador de la primera clínica europea dedicada a tractar l’addicció al joc (a Holanda), va declarar a la BBC l’any 2008 [72]: «Com més treballem amb aquests nois [que passen massa hores amb els videojocs] menys crec que es pugui qualificar d’addicció. El que molts d’aquests nens necessiten és més atenció per part dels seus pares i dels seus mestres; és un problema social».

Probablement el crític més estrident del concepte d’addicció als videojocs o a Internet és el neuropsicòleg Vaughan Bell, un prolífic blogger a la pàgina web Mind Hacks. Escrivint en aquest bloc [73], Bell assenyala que Internet és un mitjà, no una activitat, i que són moltes les coses que un pot fer quan es connecta. «És important concretar de quines activitats estem parlant», explica, «perquè… el concepte d’una addicció comportamental requereix lògicament una activitat determinada». Tot i que reconeix que moltes persones amb problemes passen molt de temps connectats, Bell diu que hi ha molt poques proves, o cap, que Internet sigui la causa d’aquests problemes, i que «no hi ha ni un sol estudi que mostri que un ús freqüent d’Internet tingui les característiques d’una addicció».

No es pot negar que els nostres hàbits canvien en resposta a les noves tecnologia. Aquest ha anat el cas durant tota la història i és el cas avui pel que fa als ordinadors i Internet. Com qualsevol altra activitat, utilitzar aquestes tecnologies tindrà un efecte en els nostres cervells. No obstant això, com hem vist, en aquest repàs de les evidències que aquests efectes no són necessàriament perjudicials i poden ser fins i tot beneficiosos. És probable que les persones que naveguen més habitualment per Internet esdevinguin més hàbils buscant informació online. L’ús dels ordinadors en general sembla ser mentalment estimulant i contribueix a evitar el deteriorament mental. I hi ha dades que mostren que l’ús social d’Internet aproxima a les persones.

Però els canvis espanten les persones. Sempre ho han fet. El 2013, una història de terror va començar a propagar un nou nom per referir-se al mateix vell temor a Internet: «La demència digital va en augment perquè els joves confien cada vegada més en la tecnologia i menys en el seu cervell», deia un titular del Daily Mail [74]. «Explosió de demència digital» deia el Daily Telegraph [75]. Els dos diaris citaven un informe d’uns investigadors sud-coreans. Un dels seus autors, Byun Gi-won, un doctor del «Centre l’Equilibri Cerebral» de Seül, era fins i tot citat invocant el mite del cervell dret / cervell esquerre. «Les persones que més utilitzen Internet tenen més probabilitats de desenvolupar l’hemisferi esquerre dels seus cervells», deia, «deixant l’hemisferi dret sense explotar o poc desenvolupat».

Els diaris no donaven la referència exacta de l’informe coreà. El terme demència digital [76] sembla provenir del títol d’un llibre de l’any 2012 escrit pel psiquiatre alemany Manfred Spitzer [77]. La idea que Internet està danyant el nostre cervell és un altre neuromite que ven.

Els videojocs poden ser fins i tot beneficiosos

Encara que molts dels articles publicats en mitjans de comunicació populars propaguen la idea que l’ascens de la tecnologia digital ens està convertint en una mena de zombis deprimits, hi ha de fet una literatura cada vegada més àmplia que subratlla el beneficis cognitius i socials dels videojocs. Òbviament, els jocs d’acció i tiroteig, com Call of Duty, estan relacionats amb una tendència a una major agressivitat [78], però també han demostrat que millora l’habilitat de centrar-se en els petits detalls, la de rotar imatges visuals i la multitasca [79]. Així mateix, algun jocs cooperatius com Lemmings s’han relacionat amb un augment de l’altruisme a la vida real [80], jocs com el Tetris amb una millora de l’eficiència neural i un increment en el volum de matèria grisa [81].

Crucialment, molts d’aquests beneficis derivats de la pràctica dels videojocs han estat observats en jugadors ingenus. Dit d’una altra manera, no és només que les persones amb habilitats mentals superiors se senten atretes pels videojocs. Aquests poden fins i tot ser beneficiosos per a determinades professions importants. Més recentment, els autors d’un article de l’any 2013 [82]  van trobar que practicar jocs esportius en la consola Wii millorava el rendiment d’uns cirurgians en un simulador laparoscòpic.

Amb una actitud més escèptica, el psicòleg Daniel Simons, de la Universitat d’Illinois a Urbana-Champaign va co-escriure un article el 2011 [83] assenyalant les limitacions metodològiques de bona part de la investigació que s’ha fet en aquest camp (inclosa la manca d’estudis de doble cec). De fet, molts dels problemes que es donen en la investigació de l’entrenament cerebral també es donen en la investigació sobre els potencials beneficis dels videojocs.

En particular, els estudis sobre els videojocs sovint no compleixen les expectatives del jugador pel que fa al control i a les condicions de «tractament». Per exemple, les persones que juguen un joc d’acció esperen que millori la seva capacitat de multitasca més que les persones que resolen un puzle en condicions de control [84]. Escrivint al seu bloc el 2013, Simons va dir: «No hi ha motiu per pensar que els videojocs puguin ajudar-lo a millorar la seva cognició en el món real, més del que pugui fer-ho sortir a fer una passejada».

Malgrat aquestes consideracions (és curiós que els estudis més rigorosos donin resultats positius), un parell de psicòlegs van escriure un comentari a la revista Nature l’any 2013 [85] demanant més col·laboració entre els investigadors i la indústria dels videojocs per desenvolupar i comercialitzar jocs que produeixin més beneficis cognitius. Daphne Bavelier i Richard Davidson deien que el repte era crear «jocs tan absorbents com aquells als quals juguen molts joves, però que contribueixin a conrear qualitats positives com l’empatia i la cooperació».

Lectures de referència

Chóliz Montañés, Mariano i Marco Puche, Clara (2012). Adicción a Internet y redes sociales : tratamiento psicológico. Madrid. Alianza ed. (Col. Alianza ensayo, 487). 1ª impr. 224 pàgs.

Delvert, Daniel (2001). Internet, adicción y contradicción. Madrid. Ediciones y Estudios. 1ª impr. 100 pàgs.

Echeburúa Odriozola, Enrique Labrador, Francisco  J. i Becoña, Elisardo. (eds.) (2013).Adicción a las nuevas tecnologías en adolescentes y jóvenes. Madrid, Pirámide. 1ª impr. 272 pàgs.

Jarrett, Christian (2015). Grandes mitos del cerebro. Vilassar de Dalt. Ediciones de Intervención Cultural. Pp. 251-261

Labrador Encinas, Francisco; Requesens Moll, Ana i Helguera Fuentes, Mayte (s/f).Guía para padres  y educadores sobre  el uso seguro de Internet, móviles y videojuegos. Madrid. Fundación Gaudium. 72 pàgs.

Notes

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[38] Nicholas Carr: «Is Google Making Us Stupid?» Julio-Agosto del 2008. En línia a http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/is-google-making-us-stupid/306868/

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[80] Greitemeyer, T. i Osswald, S. (2010): «Effects of prosocial videogames on prosocial behavior». Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 211.

[81] Haier, R.J., Karama, S., Leyba, L. i Jung, R.E. (2009). «MRI assessment of cortical thickness and functional activity changes in adolescent girls following three months of pratice on a visual-spatial task». BMC Research Notes, 2(1), 174. En línia a http://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-2-174

[82] Gianotti, D., Patrizi, G., Di Rocco, G., Vestri, A.R., Semproni, C.P. Fiengo, L. i Redler, A. (2013): «Play to become a surgeon: Impat of Nintendo Wii training on laparoscopic skills». PloS One, 8(2), e57372. En línia a http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057372

[83] Boot, W.R., Blakely, D.P. i Simons, D.J. (2011): «Do action video games improve perception and cognition? Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 226. En línia a http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171788/

[84] Boot, W.R., Simons, D.J., Stothart, C. I Stutts, C. (2013): «The pervasive problem with placebos in psychology: Why active control groups are not sufficient to rule out placebo effects». Perspectives on Psychologycal Science, 8(4), 445-454.En línia a https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258179760_The_Pervasive_Problem_With_Placebos_in_Psychology_Why_Active_Control_Groups_Are_Not_Sufficient_to_Rule_Out_Placebo_Effects

[85] Bavelier, D. Y Davidson, R.J. (2013): «Brain training: Games to do you good». Nature, 494(7438), 425-426. En línia a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v494/n7438/full/494425a.html

Dr. Joan Campàs   Aura digital
Estudis d’Arts i Humanitats de la UOC

 

Curs Som les nostres connexions
Material en format pdf 

 

Tema 0. Presentació i justificació
Tema 1. El cervell ens enganya
Tema 2. El cervell també enganya l’autopercepció del cos
Tema 3. Anatomia cerebral bàsica
Tema 4. Mite: Només utilitzem el 10 % del nostre cervell
Tema 5. Mite: L’homosexualitat (l’hetero, la bi, la trans) és una elecció
Tema 6. Mite: Els fills hereten la intel·ligència dels pares
Tema 7. Mite: Internet i els videojocs són addictius
Tema 8. Mite: El cervell és un ordinador
Tema 9. La memòria
Tema 10. Com definir el «jo»? El cervell i la «joïtat»
Tema 11. L’evolució del cervell (1)
Tema 12. L’evolució del cervell (2)
Tema 13. L’evolució del cervell (3)
Tema 14. L’evolució del cervell (4)
Tema 15. Cervell humà i evolució

Conjunt dels posts amb les introduccions fetes al facebook
Som les nostres connexions

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