Ciencias Sociales

Thomas Luckmann. In memoriam

El día 10 de mayo falleció el sociólogo Thomas Luckmann. Lamentamos la pérdida de uno de los grandes sociólogos contemporáneos. En este caso concreto, su muerte nos entristece en especial porque, directa o indirectamente, debemos reconocerle una buena parte de la formación de nuestra mirada sociológica. Cuando nos formábamos en sociología, sobre todo en sociología de la religión y del conocimiento, sus obras siempre reposaban sobre nuestros escritorios. Para nosotros, pensar en Luckmann es también recordar nuestra juventud y la época en la que descubrimos esta disciplina y nuestra vocación de sociólogos.

Thomas Luckmann (de origen esloveno pero formado primero en lengua alemana en Austria, y después en inglés en Estados Unidos) estudió filosofía y sociología. Su maestro en esta ciencia fue Alfred Schütz (cuya obra derivaba de la fuerte influencia de Husserl y Weber). De la mano de este sociólogo y filósofo austriaco se incorporó en lo que se conoce como la escuela fenomenológica de sociología o sociofenomenología, y heredó de él buena parte de sus herramientas conceptuales. Fue un fiel continuador de la obra de Schütz, y reescribió algunos manuscritos que el maestro había dejado incompletos (Schutz, A. y Luckmann, Th. (2003) [1973] Las estructuras del mundo de la vida. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu).

Entre sus libros más conocidos, destaca La religión invisible (1967), Teoría de la acción social (1992) y, más recientemente, Conocimiento y sociedad (1981-2002)Su obra más conocida, La construcción social de la realidad (1966), fue escrita junto a Peter Berger, con quien mantuvo a lo largo de toda la vida una gran amistad. La construcción, como la conocemos muchos de los que hemos estudiado sociología, es una de las obras fundadoras de la sociología del conocimiento.

Esta se caracteriza por la voluntad de conocer y estudiar los contextos sociales en los que tiene lugar el conociendo humano, particularmente el conocimiento que los individuos tienen del mundo (de la vida cotidiana) donde están inmersos. Esta mirada sobre nuestra experiencia del mundo, sobre la forma en que lo conocemos y lo interpretamos cotidianamente, es una de las grandes aportaciones de la sociofenomenología. El mundo de la vida es el mundo de las experiencias subjetivas, de la acción social que llevamos a cabo los individuos. Asimismo, se trata de una experiencia que está socializada, que depende de las relaciones que establecemos con nuestros contemporáneos y también con las generaciones precedentes. El mundo social en el que vivimos, y cómo lo dotamos de significado, es el resultado objetivado de nuestra acción conjunta en el mundo. El mundo institucional es un producto humano, construido socialmente, que a la vez nos coacciona, nos impone límites. Nos hacemos humanos como hacemos nuestro el mundo institucional como realidad incuestionable y dada por supuesto.

La construccióEl éxito de La construcción radica en la elegante forma de abordar la dialéctica social, el proceso paradójico donde el tejido institucional y normativo configura el contexto del mundo de la vida (una especie de a priori sociohistórico), pero a la vez se convierte y se transforma gracias a nuestra participación cotidiana en él.

Un año después de la publicación de La construcción, vio la luz su obra en solitario La religión invisible (1967), donde propone una aproximación amplia a la religión. En ella defiende que, cuando conformamos un yo gracias a la socialización, estamos trascendiendo nuestra existencia meramente biológica, por lo que considera los procesos sociales que conducen a la formación del yo como fundamentalmente religiosos. Hace referencia a la socialización en una visión del mundo, un universo moral trascendente que organiza el tiempo, el espacio, la causalidad y la dirección, además de ofrecer una lógica y una taxonomía que damos por descontada. Su tesis consiste en que, ante la creciente incongruencia entre los modelos oficiales de religión y los sistemas individuales de significación última, podríamos estar ante un cambio revolucionario: la sustitución de las religiones institucionalmente especializadas por una nueva forma de religión. Luckmann destacaba que en el mundo moderno los individuos no solo construían de manera privada su identidad, sino los mismos sistemas individuales de significación última. Por mucho que para esta construcción tuvieran a su alcance una variedad de modelos, ninguno de ellos era el oficial en sentido estricto, por lo que esta significación privada era mucho más precaria e inestable que las religiones institucionalizadas. Analizó, como temas religiosos modernos, la autonomía individual, el ethos de la movilidad, la expresión personal y la autorrealización, la sexualidad, el familismo.

Thomas Luckmann murió a los ochenta y ocho años,[1] después de una larga enfermedad que, sin embargo, no le apartó de su pasión por el conocimiento y la sociología. Testigo de este compromiso con nuestra disciplina hasta el último momento es la entrevista que hace apenas una semana publicaba la revista Digithum en su sección de «Historia intelectual», «Una perspectiva relacional sobre la cultura en la modernidad tardía», que fue realizada en verano de 2015. Se trata de una conversación a tres bandas entre Thomas Luckmann, Hans-Georg Söffner y el entrevistador, también catedrático emérito de Sociología, Georg Vobruba. Dicha entrevista puede considerarse la última aportación del pensamiento de un sociólogo nunca dejó de actualizarse y de plantearse retos de la más absoluta contemporaneidad.

 

Natàlia Cantó, Isaac Gonzàlez, Roger Martínez i Francesc Núñez

[1] http://www.soziologie.de/de/nc/aktuell/meldungen-archiv/einzelansicht/archive/2016/05/11/article/prof-dr-em-thomas-luckmann-verstorben.html

47 comments

  1. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  2. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  3. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  4. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  5. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  6. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  7. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  8. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  9. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  10. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  11. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  12. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  13. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  14. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  15. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  16. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  17. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  18. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  19. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  20. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  21. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  22. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  23. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  24. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  25. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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