Ciencias Sociales

Max Weber, una voz imprescindible en nuestra forma de concebir la sociología

HOMENAJE A MAX WEBER

– Por Natàlia Cantó, profesora del Grado de Ciencias Sociales

El 14 de junio de 1920 fallecía en Múnich Max Weber, jurista, economista, historiador y padre fundador de la sociología. Relativamente poco conocido durante su vida por sus constantes enfermedades y ausencias en la universidad, se convirtió a lo largo del siglo xx en un sociólogo fundamental, un gran clásico y un padre fundador de nuestra disciplina, comparable solo con Émile Durkheim y Karl Marx.

La obra de Weber es prolífica, erudita, plagada de finísimas observaciones y de una militancia sin concesiones contra los que buscaban en la ciencia en general y en la sociología en particular respuestas a preguntas existenciales sobre cómo se debe vivir y qué es bueno y qué malo.

max weber sociologia ciencias sociales

Max Weber fue un gran pensador de la modernidad. Para él, la característica principal de esta —que él vio desarrollarse vertiginosamente a lo largo de su vida— es un proceso creciente de racionalización que abarca cada vez más esferas de nuestra vida y cada vez más de modo más implacable. Coherente con su posición, Weber intentó no evaluar ni valorar este proceso: se limitó solo a comprenderlo y analizarlo a través del aparato conceptual y metodológico que fue desarrollando a lo largo de su vida.

Como modesto homenaje a este padre fundador de la sociología, a este gigante sobre cuyos hombros hemos aprendido a mirar el mundo que nos rodea, quisiéramos hoy reunir una serie de citas de su obra que han sido claves para nosotros como sociólogos, tanto en nuestra formación como más adelante, y que han convertido a Max Weber en una voz imprescindible en nuestra manera de concebir y practicar esta disciplina.

Comenzaremos con la cita que más se centra en su comprensión de la acción social, objeto de estudio central de la sociología para este autor;

  1. La acción social (incluyendo tolerancia u omisión) se orienta por las acciones de otros, las cuales pueden ser pasadas, presentes o esperadas como futuras (venganza por previos ataques, réplica a ataques presentes, medidas de defensa frente a ataques futuros). Los otros pueden ser individualizados y conocidos o una pluralidad de individuos indeterminados y completamente desconocidos (el dinero, por ejemplo, significa un buen – de cambio – que el agente admite en el tráfico porque su acción está orientada por la expectativa de que otros muchos, ahora indeterminados y desconocidos, estarán dispuestos a aceptarlo también, por su parte, en un cambio futuro).
  2. No toda clase de acción – incluso de acción externa – es socialen el sentido aquí admitido. Por lo pronto no lo es la acción exterior cuando sólo se orienta por la expectativa de determinadas reacciones de objetos materiales. La conducta íntima es acción social sólo cuando está orientada por las acciones de otros. No lo es, por ejemplo, la conducta religiosa cuando no es más que contemplación, oración solitaria, etc. La actividad económica (de un individuo) únicamente lo es en la medida en que tiene en cuenta la actividad de terceros. (…)
  3. No toda clase de contacto entre los hombres tiene carácter social; sino sólo una acción con sentido propio dirigida a la acción de otros. Un choque de dos ciclistas, por ejemplo, es un simple suceso de igual carácter que un fenómeno natural. En cambio, aparecería ya una acción social en el intento de evitar el encuentro o bien en la riña o consideraciones amistosas subsiguientes al encontronazo.
  4. La acción social no es idéntica a) ni a una acciónhomogénea de muchos, b) ni a la acción de alguien influido por conductas de otros. «(…) El límite, empero, es tan fluido que apenas es posible una distinción. El simple hecho, sin embargo, de que alguien acepte para sí una actitud determinada, aprendida en otros y que parece conveniente para sus fines, no es una acción social en nuestro sentido. Pues en este caso no orientó su acción por la acción de otros, sino que por la observación se dio cuenta de ciertas probabilidades objetivas, dirigiendo por ellas su conducta. (… ) El fundamento de la fluidez de estos casos, como el de otros varios, estriba en que la orientación por la conducta ajena y el sentido de la propia acción en modo alguno se puede precisar siempre con toda claridad, ni es siempre consciente, ni mucho menos consciente con toda plenitud. Por esta razón no siempre pueden separase con toda seguridad en mero influjo y la orientación con sentido. (…) La sociología en modo alguno tiene que ver solamente con la acción social; sin embargo, ésta constituye (para la clase de sociología aquí desarrollada) el dato central, aquel que para ella, por decirlo así, es constitutivo. (…)» (Weber 2001:18-20; énfasis en el original).

 

La obra más conocida de Max Weber es, sin duda, La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo y también su única obra traducida al catalán. En ella, Weber intentó analizar cómo el capitalismo llegó a ser posible, como un sistema de producción y de acumulación caracterizado por una racionalización de sus procesos en todo momento, un control sobre los deseos hedonistas y la venta «libre» de trabajo a los poseedores de medios de producción. Weber encontró en el ascetismo protestante, especialmente en el calvinismo, una fuente de sentido tras todas las acciones que, encadenadas, desembocaron como consecuencias no buscadas en el capitalismo moderno. Veamos algunas de las últimas líneas de su famoso trabajo La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo:

«Queríamos demostrar que uno de los elementos constitutivos del espíritu del capitalismo moderno (y no solo del capitalismo, sino de todo lo que es la civilización moderna), a saber, la racionalización de la conducta a partir de la idea de Beruf, había sido engendrado por el espíritu del ascetismo cristiano». Si releemos ahora el texto de Franklin al que hacíamos mención al principio, comprobaremos que los elementos esenciales de la actitud que allí designábamos como espíritu del capitalismo son justamente los que, según acabamos de ver, integran el contenido del ascetismo profesional (Berufsaskese) puritano, si bien despojados de la cimentación religiosa que con Franklin ya había dejado de existir.

Por otra parte, no somos los primeros en afirmar que la idea del trabajo profesional (Berufsarbeit) moderno es de cuño ascético. La necesidad de ceñirse a un trabajo especializado, con la consiguiente renuncia a la universalidad fáustica del humano que ello implica, es en el mundo actual condición sine qua non de toda acción social; es decir, hoy por hoy acción y renuncia se condicionan inevitablemente de manera recíproca. Pues bien: este carácter fundamentalmente ascético del estilo de vida burgués —si es que puede hablarse aún de estilo y no es más bien la falta absoluta de estilo— es precisamente lo que ya Goethe quiso mostrarnos, desde el sumun de su sabiduría, tanto en Los años de viaje de Wilhelm Meister (Wanderjahre) como en la conclusión de su Fausto. Tal constatación tenía para él el sentido de una despedida, de un adiós sentido a un tiempo de humanidad plena y hermosa que ya no volverá a repetirse en nuestra civilización, del mismo modo que en la antigüedad no se repitió el tiempo del apogeo ateniense. El puritano quería ser un profesional; nosotros no tenemos más remedio que serlo. En efecto, a partir del momento en que el ascetismo «colgó la sotana», en que salió de los monasterios para introducirse en la vida profesional y empezó a dominar y a presidir la moralidad secular (intramundana), de repente participó en la construcción de la grandiosa configuración del orden económico moderno, un orden ligado a las condiciones técnicas y económicas de la producción mecánica y maquinista que con una fuerza irresistible determina hoy el estilo de vida de todos los individuos nacidos en este sistema (y no solo el de aquellos más directamente afectados por la actividad económica profesional), y que tal vez lo continuará determinando hasta el día en que se haya acabado de quemar la última tonelada de combustible. En opinión de Baxter, la preocupación por los bienes materiales no debía pesar sobre los hombros de sus «santos» más que lo que pesa «un abrigo ligero del que uno se puede desprender en cualquier momento». Pero del abrigo el destino ha hecho una jaula de acero. A partir del momento en que el ascetismo emprendió la tarea de transformar el mundo y de ejercer todo su influjo, los bienes materiales de este mundo adquirieron sobre los hombres un poder creciente e ineluctable, más que en cualquier otro período de la historia. Hoy por hoy, el espíritu del ascetismo religioso se ha escapado de la jaula, quién sabe si definitivamente… […] A estas alturas nadie sabe todavía quién habitará la jaula en el futuro, ni si al término de este extraordinario proceso evolutivo surgirán profetas radicalmente nuevos o se producirá un gran renacimiento de ideales y de pensamiento tradicionales; o si, por el contrario, lo que se producirá será una petrificación mecanizada adornada con una especie de autobombo crispado. Entonces, a los últimos representantes de esta civilización tal vez podría aplicárseles aquella frase: «Especialistas sin espíritu, hedonistas sin corazón; son un cero a la izquierda y se imaginan haber llegado a una cima que la humanidad todavía no había alcanzado nunca». (Weber: 262-265)

Como vemos, Max Weber emite un diagnóstico duro y a la vez finísimo de la modernidad, de su sistema económico, de todos los que nos hemos encontrado en estos siglos y buscamos un lugar, unos vínculos, un sentido. Un sentido, a poder ser, más allá de la racionalidad instrumental que rige tantas esferas de nuestra vida… y que Weber, tras comprobar cómo el espíritu había abandonado la jaula justo cuando nos atrapaba, como destaca la cita, buscó al final de su vida en las relaciones eróticas, amorosas, irracionales… Concluimos, pues, este breve homenaje con un fragmento de un texto que es exactamente como una seta rara en medio de la obra de Weber y que dedicó al erotismo:

«The last accentuation of the erotical sphere occurred in terms of intellectualist cultures. It occurred where this sphere collided with the unavoidably ascetic trait of the vocational specialist type of man. Under this tension between the erotic sphere and rational everyday life, specifically extramarital sexual life, which had been removed from everyday affairs, could appear as the only tie which still linked man with the natural fountain of all life. For man had now been completely emancipated from the cycle of the old, simple, and organic existence of the peasant.

A tremendous value emphasis on the specific sensation of an innerworldly salvation from rationalization thus resulted. A joyous triumph over rationality corresponded in its radicalism with the unavoidable and equal radical rejection by an ethics of any kind of other- or suprawordly salvation. For such ethics, the triumph of the spirit over the body should find its climax precisely here, and sexual life could even gain the character of the only and the ineradicable connection with animality. But this tension between an inner-worldly and an other-worldly salvation from rationality must be sharpest and most unavoidable precisely where the sexual sphere is systematically prepared for a highly valued erotic sensation. This sensation reinterprets and glorifies all the pure animality of the relation, whereas the religion of salvation assumes the character of a religion of love, brotherhood, and neighborly love.

Under these conditions, the erotic relation seems to offer the unsurpassable peak of the fulfilment of the request for love in the direct fusion of the souls of one to the other. This boundless giving of oneself is as radical as possible in its opposition to all functionality, rationality, and generality. It is displayed here as the unique meaning which one creature in his irrationality has for another, and only for this specific other. However, from the point of view of eroticism, this meaning, and with it the value-content of the relation itself, rests upon the possibility of a communion which is felt as a complete unification, as a fading of the ‘thou.’ It is so overpowering that it is interpreted ‘symbolically’: as a sacrament. The lover realizes himself to be rooted in the kernel of the truly living, which is eternally inaccessible to any rational endeavor. He knows himself to be freed from the cold skeleton hands of rational orders, just as completely as from the banality of everyday routine. This consciousness of the lover rests upon the ineffaceability and inexhaustibleness of his own experience. The experience is by no means communicable and in this respect it is equivalent to the ‘having’ of the mystic. This is not only due to the intensity of the lover’s experience, but to the immediacy of the possessed reality. Knowing ‘life itself’ joined to him, the lover stands opposite what is for him the objectless experiences of the mystic, as if he were facing the fading light of an unreal sphere.» (Weber 1946: 345-347)

Bibliografía citada:

Weber, Max (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (Traducido, editado y con una introducción de H.H. Gerth I C.Wright Mills). Oxford University Press. New York.
Weber, Max (1994). L’ètica protestant i l’esperit del capitalisme. Edicions 62. Barcelona.
Weber, Max (2001). Economía y sociedad. Fondo de Cultura Económica. México DF.

 

 

154 comments

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  2. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  3. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  4. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  5. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  6. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  7. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  8. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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  11. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  12. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  13. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  16. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  47. Some tips i have observed in terms of personal computer memory is the fact that there are specific features such as SDRAM, DDR and so forth, that must fit in with the specific features of the mother board. If the computer’s motherboard is rather current and there are no main system issues, replacing the storage space literally normally requires under 1 hour. It’s one of several easiest laptop or computer upgrade processes one can visualize. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

  48. Things i have seen in terms of pc memory is that often there are technical specs such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must go with the features of the mother board. If the computer’s motherboard is rather current and there are no main system issues, replacing the ram literally normally takes under one hour. It’s one of the easiest computer upgrade treatments one can consider. Thanks for revealing your ideas.

  49. Thanks for revealing your ideas here. The other issue is that when a problem takes place with a personal computer motherboard, people today should not consider the risk regarding repairing the item themselves for if it is not done correctly it can lead to permanent damage to an entire laptop. It is usually safe just to approach any dealer of your laptop for the repair of its motherboard. They’ve technicians with an skills in dealing with notebook motherboard challenges and can make the right diagnosis and perform repairs.

  50. Thanks for the recommendations you have shared here. Yet another thing I would like to express is that laptop memory requirements generally increase along with other innovations in the technologies. For instance, when new generations of cpus are brought to the market, there is certainly usually a related increase in the size and style calls for of both the computer memory along with hard drive space. This is because the software program operated by way of these processor chips will inevitably boost in power to make new technological know-how.

  51. I have seen a lot of useful things on your site about computer systems. However, I’ve the opinion that laptop computers are still more or less not powerful more than enough to be a good selection if you typically do tasks that require loads of power, just like video croping and editing. But for world-wide-web surfing, statement processing, and majority of other prevalent computer work they are just fine, provided you can’t mind your little friend screen size. Thank you sharing your ideas.

  52. Thanks for the suggestions you have provided here. Something else I would like to say is that personal computer memory requirements generally increase along with other improvements in the engineering. For instance, as soon as new generations of cpus are made in the market, there is usually a similar increase in the size preferences of both computer memory as well as hard drive space. This is because the software program operated by simply these processor chips will inevitably boost in power to benefit from the new technological innovation.

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  54. The things i have observed in terms of computer system memory is that often there are specifications such as SDRAM, DDR or anything else, that must fit the specs of the motherboard. If the pc’s motherboard is kind of current and there are no computer OS issues, replacing the memory literally requires under one hour. It’s among the easiest computer system upgrade procedures one can visualize. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

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  57. Some tips i have observed in terms of pc memory is the fact there are requirements such as SDRAM, DDR and so forth, that must go with the technical specs of the motherboard. If the personal computer’s motherboard is rather current and there are no operating system issues, upgrading the ram literally normally requires under 1 hour. It’s one of several easiest computer system upgrade processes one can picture. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

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