General

‘Yo no soy mi cerebro’ de Markus Gabriel (per Francesc Núñez)

(Versión en castellano)

Yo no soy mi cerebro. Filosofía de la mente para el s. XXI és el segon llibre de Markus Gabriel que publica l’editorial Pasado & Presente. La tesi que es vol defensar és que no és la neuroquímica del cervell la que governa les nostres vides. Contràriament al que el neurocentrisme dóna per descomptat, que només som éssers materials absolutament determinats, s’argumenta que tot i formar part del regne animal, som éssers espirituals absolutament lliures.

cerebro_ordenador1La proposta de Gabriel segueix fidel a les idees presentades en El mundo no existe, on s’argumentava, com també farà en aquest nou llibre, que cal superar el materialisme que ens vol fer creure que només existeix el que es troba en l’univers, el món de la matèria-energia i les causes anònimes. Aquesta concepció estreta de la realitat –afirma Gabriel- es desespera cercant una concepció de l’esperit que pugui reduir-se a la consciència, i aquesta a les tempestes neuronals (pàg. 292). S’ignora que som ciutadans de molts mons, que poblem diferents universos de significat, que ens movem en el regne dels propòsits i que això fa possible el regne de la llibertat.

El “regne dels propòsits” no és pas cap mena d’entelèquia, sinó que és, senzillament, “l’ordre dels conceptes que utilitzem per fer-nos comprensibles les accions humanes; conceptes com amistat, engany, regal, president federal, drets d’autor, explotació, alienació, ideologia, revolució, reforma i història” (pàg. 272) (la traducció és meva). Conceptes que, per altra banda, són diferents dels que fem servir per parlar dels processos i lleis de la natura, clar està, però que són tan reals els uns com els altres.

yo-no-soy-mi-cerebroLa perspectiva en la qual ens situa el llibre de Gabriel no només és intel·ligent i audaç, i que demostra conèixer bé la literatura científica i filosòfica sobre les moltes qüestions que aborda, sinó que també és valenta perquè està oposant-se a la concepció dominant sobre la ciència i a algunes de les seves aspiracions més genuïnes com, per exemple, el pretès reduccionisme a un sol món i a un sol ordre causal. Gabriel considera que el que s’amaga darrere són fantasies d’omnipotència que tenen molt poc de científic i són poc demostrables. Certament, no trobem l’esperit a l’univers, és a dir, a l’àrea objectual de la realitat física, però, vol dir això que no existeix? De fet, reduir tot el que existeix a l’univers és un article de fe, es pot defensar filosòficament, però no demostrar (com crec que sí mostra-demostra molt bé Markus Gabriel).

Em permeto incidir en aquesta qüestió per argumentar que el que s’amaga darrere d’aquesta concepció de la realitat pateix dels problemes de l’epistemologia moderna representacionista: la ment i les seves representacions. Es tracta de la mateixa idea que hi ha darrere del neurocentrisme quan vol reduir i explicar la consciència (i la identitat) com si es tractessin de processos neuroquímics que tenen lloc al cervell i que poc podem saber d’allò que hi ha més enllà del que li passa al cervell. La vella imatge del cervell en una proveta, imatge que la pel·lícula Matrix ha versionat de forma molt més entretinguda.

Manllevant una idea de Ch. Taylor i Dreyfus (Recuperar el realisme), afirmo que no som éssers desvinculats del món, el qual contemplem i pretenem conèixer com “des d’enlloc”, el que diu fer la ciència moderna.  Alguna cosa així com si ens limitéssim a enregistrar fets. Tanmateix, no hi ha el món, per una banda, i el “cervell” (la ment) que enregistra els “fets” per una altra,  sinó que hi ha aquests éssers en contacte amb el món, aquests “éssers en el món” que som nosaltres i que “coproduïm” amb el món la imatge que tenim d’ell i de nosaltres mateixos. Com defensaria també Gabriel, hi pot haver diferents maneres de descriure el món i totes elles poden ser veritat. Això també ens permet sortir de la dicotomia “cientifisme” o “relativisme” (si la natura és una, com pot haver-hi diferents visions “verdaderes” de la ciència?).

El llibre de Gabriel se situa, com he dit, fora del mainstream del pensament contemporani. El seu plantejament és irònic: la ironia que potser no hi ha res més egoista que la fantasia d’una descripció completament objectiva (el que hem anomenat “des d’enlloc”) de la realitat, en la qual no intervé cap vivència subjectiva. D’aquesta manera el que es vol és escombrar també de la visió del món qualsevol aspiració ètica, derivada del fet que hi ha vides conscients que acullen actituds proposicionals (pàg. 103). La por, l’esperança són actituds proposicionals que mantenim els humans i que, com s’argumenta bé, impliquen ser conscient que hi ha altres vides conscients i que això és el fonament de les actituds ètiques. En definitiva, es vol sostenir que encara que pensem –i sigui cert- que hi ha lleis de la natura, no vol dir que tot el que té lloc en el món (i encara menys en l’univers) respongui a les conegudes lleis de la natura. Si fem cas a aquests reduccionismes, mai no entendríem per què algú fa un esforç per anar a prendre un cafè a un bar o per portar determinada pancarta en una manifestació.

Un últim apunt que em sembla rellevant per entendre la postura que vol adoptar Markus Gabriel en aquest llibre. Què podem dir de la consciència? Fa molt de temps que li donem voltes al tema. Els filòsofs potser li han dedicat moltes hores sense arribar a cap port, i els científics molts diners per seguir encara navegant per mars incerts. Els dualistes volen distingir el cervell de la consciència, i els neuromonistes reduir la consciència al cervell (o alguna de les seves parts). Quin és l’error crucial que cometen tots dos? Donar per suposat que la consciència és un objecte. L’argumentació és complexa, però la idea central és mostrar que “consciència” és un concepte que pertany al nostre autoretrat, a la manera com ens anem comprenent en tant que humans. La consciència –diu Gabriel- no és una realitat que existeixi de forma independent de la manera en com ens fem una idea d’ella. Té història i està estretament lligada a la nostra condició com a ésser parlants. I com a éssers naturals que som, és clar, també està lligada a unes condicions biològiques, però que per si soles no la fan comprensible, perquè per entendre la consciència hem de tenir present la seva incrustació en relacions socials, molt diferents dels processos cerebrals. L’epigenètica ens ha de fer “conscients” que el cervell és l’òrgan clau de l’evolució humana i no el podem comprendre descontextualitzat. No podem ignorar com els contextos socials en formen part de la seva dinàmica i evolució.

L’argument que he apuntat, es fa extensiu a la comprensió del jo. Tampoc el podem descriure com una cosa entre les coses, com pretén el naturalisme modern, com si l’univers fos una sola pel·lícula. De fet, el descobriment del jo també té lloc en el marc de processos històrics d’autocomprensió. Té molt a veure amb l’autoretrat que ens fem de nosaltres mateixos en mig de processos històrics i socials. Tot això posa de manifest unes condicions de llibertat que són irreductibles, creu Gabriel, en la nostra condició.

Per resumir-ho en un sol paràgraf:

“El neurocentrismo supone que somos una cosa entre las cosas y que solo hay cosas. Yo soy una cosa-cerebro, usted es otra, y a nuestro alrededor hay partículas elementales que también son cosas (aunque a veces muy extrañas y que funcionan de un modo muy distinto, como por ejemplo gatos). En este modelo resulta bastante comprensible creer que podemos pensar en las cosas, ya que solo hay cosas. Pero es un error que solo haya cosas, porque hay, además, valores, esperanzas y números, que no pasan fácilmente por coses (…) Este universo cosificado es una fantasía disparatada (…) Somos ciudadanos de muchos mundos, nos movemos en el reino de los propósitos, que pone a nuestra disposición toda una serie de condiciones de libertad.” (pàg. 270ss)

Yo no soy mi cerebro és una reflexió filosòfica que vol dialogar amb la ciència. Com a pensament crític, no vol donar per suposada la visió dominant que alguns científics volen donar de la consciència i de la nostra suposada condició d’éssers governats per un cervell material. Es tracta de mostrar els límits (les limitacions) d’aquesta comprensió del jo i permetre eixamplar les realitats en les quals té lloc la vida humana. Cal imposar el realisme a les fantasies de la neurociència.

260 comments

  1. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  2. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  3. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  4. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  5. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  6. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  7. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  8. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  9. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  10. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  11. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  12. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  13. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  14. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  15. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

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  17. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  18. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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  20. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  21. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  22. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  23. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  24. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  25. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  26. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

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