Ciències Socials

Thomas Luckmann. In memoriam

El dia 10 de maig va morir el sociòleg Thomas Luckmann. Lamentem la pèrdua d’un dels grans sociòlegs contemporanis. En aquest cas concret, la seva mort ens entristeix particularment perquè directament i indirecta, li hem de reconèixer una bona part de la formació de la nostra mirada sociològica. Quan ens vàrem formar en sociologia, sobretot en sociologia de la religió i del coneixement, les seves obres eren contínuament sobre els nostres escriptoris. Per nosaltres, pensar en Luckmann és també recordar la nostra joventut i l’època en la qual descobrírem aquesta disciplina i la nostra vocació de sociòlegs.

Thomas Luckmann (d’origen eslovè però format primer en llengua alemanya a Àustria, i després en anglès als Estats Units) va estudiar filosofia i sociologia. El seu mestre en la sociologia va ser Alfred Schütz (l’obra del qual derivava de la forta influència de Husserl i Weber). De la mà de Schütz es va incorporar en el que es coneix com l’escola fenomenològica de sociologia o sociofenomenologia i en va heretar bona part de les seves eines conceptuals. Va ser un fidel continuador de l’obra de Schütz, reescrivint algun manuscrits que el mestre havia deixat incomplerts (Schutz, A. y Luckmann, Th. (2003) [1973] Las estructuras del mundo de la vida. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu).

Entre els seus llibres més coneguts, destaca La religió invisible (1967), Teoria de l’acció social (1992) i, més recentment, Coneixement i societat (1981-2002). La seva obra més coneguda, La construcció social de la realitat (1966), va ser escrita junt a Peter Berger, a qui el va unir, tota la vida, una gran amistat. La construcció, com la coneixem molts dels que hem estudiat sociologia, és una de les obres fundadores de la sociologia del coneixement.

La sociologia del coneixement es caracteritza per la voluntat de conèixer i d’estudiar els contextos socials en els que té lloc el coneixent humà, particularment el coneixement que els individus tenen del món (de la vida quotidiana) en el qual estan immersos. Aquesta mirada sobre la nostra experiència del món, sobre la manera com el coneixem i l’interpretem quotidianament, és una de les grans aportacions de la sociofenomenologia. El món de la vida és el món de les experiències subjectives, de l’acció social que duem a terme els individus. Alhora, es tracta d’una experiència que està socialitzada, que depèn de les relacions que establim amb els nostres contemporanis i també amb les generacions que ens precediren. El món social en què vivim, i la manera com el dotem de significat, és el resultat objectivat de la nostra acció conjunta en el món. El món institucional és un producte humà, construït socialment, que a la vegada ens coacciona, ens imposa límits. Ens fem humans en tant que fem nostre el món institucional com a realitat inqüestionable i “donada per descomptat”.

La construccióLa construcció va deure el seu èxit a l’elegant manera com abordaba la “dialèctica social”, el procés paradoxal on el teixit institucional i normatiu configura el context del món de la vida (una mena d’apriori socio-històric), però a la vegada esdevé i es transforma mercès a la nostra participació quotidiana en ell.

Un any després de la publicació de La construcció, va veure la llum la seva obra en solitari The invisible religion(1967), on proposa una apoximació àmplia a la religió. Allà hi defensa que, quan conformem un “jo” gràcies a la socialització, estem transcendint la nostra existència merament biològica i per això considera els processos socials que duen a la formació del jo com a fonamentalment religiosos. Fa referència a la socialització en una visió del món, un univers moral transcendent que organitza el temps, l’espai, la causalitat i la direcció, a més d’oferir una lògica i una taxonomia que donem per descomptada. La seva tesi és que, davant la creixent incongruència entre els models “oficials” de religió i els sistemes individuals de significació última, podríemm estar davant d’un canvi revolucionari: la substitutció de les religions institucionalment especializades per una nova forma de religió. Luckmann destacaba que en el món modern els individus no només construïen de manera privada la seva identitat, sinó els mateixos sistemes individuals de significació última. Per molt que per a aquesta construcció tinguessin al seu abast una varietat de models, cap d’ells era “l’oficial” en sentit estricte. Això feia que aquesta significació privada fos molt més precària i inestable que les religions insitucionalitzades. Analitzà, com a temes religiosos moderns, l’autonomia individual, l’ethos de la mobilitat, l’expressió personal i l’autorealització, la sexualitat, el familisme.

Thomas Luckmann va morir als 88 anys,[1] després d’una llarga malaltia que, no obstant, no el va apartar de la seva passió pel coneixement i la sociologia. Testimoni d’aquest compromís amb la nostra disciplina fins al darrer moment és l’entrevista que fa tot just una setmana publicava la revista Digithum. Una perspectiva relacional sobre la cultura en la modernitat tardana en la seva secció d’història intel·lectual i que havia tingut lloc l’estiu del 2015. Es tracta d’una conversa a tres bandes entre Thomas Luckmann, Hans-Georg Söffner i l’entrevistador, també catedràtic emèrit de sociologia, Georg Vobruba. Aquesta darrera entrevista és la darrera aportació del pensament d’un sociòleg que no va deixar mai d’actualitzar-se i de plantejar-se reptes de la més absoluta contemporaneïtat.

Natàlia Cantó, Isaac Gonzàlez, Roger Martínez i Francesc Núñez

 

[1] http://www.soziologie.de/de/nc/aktuell/meldungen-archiv/einzelansicht/archive/2016/05/11/article/prof-dr-em-thomas-luckmann-verstorben.html

24 comments

  1. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  2. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  3. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  4. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  5. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  6. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  7. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  8. The Zune concentrates on being a Portable Media Player. Not a web browser. Not a game machine. Maybe in the future it’ll do even better in those areas, but for now it’s a fantastic way to organize and listen to your music and videos, and is without peer in that regard. The iPod’s strengths are its web browsing and apps. If those sound more compelling, perhaps it is your best choice.

  9. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  10. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

  11. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  12. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  13. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  14. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  15. Zune and iPod: Most people compare the Zune to the Touch, but after seeing how slim and surprisingly small and light it is, I consider it to be a rather unique hybrid that combines qualities of both the Touch and the Nano. It’s very colorful and lovely OLED screen is slightly smaller than the touch screen, but the player itself feels quite a bit smaller and lighter. It weighs about 2/3 as much, and is noticeably smaller in width and height, while being just a hair thicker.

  16. The new Zune browser is surprisingly good, but not as good as the iPod’s. It works well, but isn’t as fast as Safari, and has a clunkier interface. If you occasionally plan on using the web browser that’s not an issue, but if you’re planning to browse the web alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger screen and better browser may be important.

  17. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  18. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

  19. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  20. Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass’ favor.

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